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E. A. WALLIS BUDGE, M.A., Litt.D. 




And by Longmans and Co., 39 Patkrnoster Row 
Bernard Quaritch, 11 Grafton Street, New Bond Street, "W. 


AND Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, Amen Corner, London 



The present volume contains the Coptic texts, 
with translations, of an interesting and important 
series of ten Martyrdoms, Lives of great Ascetics, 
Discourses on Asceticism, and the History of Abba- 
ton, the Angel of Death, &c. ; all of them are dated 
and are written in the dialect of Upper Egypt, and 
are published herein for the first time. The editing 
of the texts has been carried out by an arrange- 
ment with my colleague Dr. L. D. Barnett, Keeper 
of the Department of Oriental Printed Books and 
Manuscripts in the British Museum. 

The longest and perhaps the most interesting 
text from an historical point of view is the Martyr- 
dom of Victor, who is said to have held the 
rank of General in the Imperial Eoman Army in 
the reign of Diocletian. The narrative opens 
with a description of the Emperor's devotion to 
the seventy gods and goddesses who formed his 
Pantheon, and of the incidents that caused Victor 
to reject the Emperor's service, and to hurl the 
badge of his rank in his face. The Four Acts of 
the Martyrdom describe the tortures that were 
inflicted upon Victor by the Emperor at Antioch, 


and by the Dukes of Alexandria, of Antinoe, and of 
the Thebaid, in Egypt, and shew how anxious each 
official was to avoid responsibility for the Saint's 
death. The attempt to kill Victor by means of a 
philtre made of the juices from the bodies of dead 
men, and the conversion of the magician, who 
promptly burnt his books of magic when he found 
they had failed him, throw some interesting light on 
the beliefs of the period. A most valuable supple- 
ment to this Martyrdom is the Encomium of Celes- 
tinus, who describes a series of miracles which took 
place in the shrines of Victor in Antioch and Rome. 
The history of Placidus, afterwards called Eusta- 
thius, who in it is described as one of Trajan's 
greatest generals, and of his wife and sons, is of con- 
siderable value, because it illustrates a section of 
Coptic literature which was written as much to 
interest and amuse the reader as to edify and 
instruct. The story of the conversion of Placidus 
through the appearance of the Cross of Christ 
between the horns of a stag in a dense forest 
is told dramatically, and the narrative of the 
loss of his slaves, and goods and possessions, and 
wife and sons, is concise and effective. The de- 
scription of the way in which all the members of 
the family were reunited contains all the elements 
of a story written merely to amuse, and enhances 
the tragical effect of the final section of it in which 
we find that Placidus and his wife and sons were 
burnt to death in a brazen bull by the order of 


Two of the texts in this volume describe journeys 
that were undertaken by the famous ascetics Pambo 
and Paphnutius, for the purpose of visiting the 
anchorites and sohtaries who Hved far away in 
the desert. Guided first by Hierax and Pamoun, 
and then carried by supernatural means, Pambo 
found himself at the cell of Apa Cyrus, who said he 
was the brother of the Emperor Theodosius, and 
who allowed no man to see his face except Pambo. 
Cyrus was visited in his cell by our Lord, Who 
kissed him like a friend, and Who removed his dead 
body from his cell, and buried it. The narrative of 
Paphnutius is longer, and describes the anchorites 
of the desert, who went naked and ate grass and 
herbs, and herded with the wild animals and 
'buffaloes'. The second portion shews that he 
must have visited the solitaries who lived near the 
' Great Oasis ', or Khargah, in the Western Desert, 
and this Coptic version of the Life of Onnophrios 
is important. 

The incidents in the life of Demetrius, Patriarch 
of Alexandria, described by Flavianus, Bishop of 
Ephesus, appear to be extracted from a work that 
dealt with the lives of the Patriarchs of Alexandria. 
Demetrius was a good and holy man, but after he 
was raised to the Patriarchal Throne he continued 
to live with the wife whom he had married when 
he was a very young man. An angel appeared to 
him, and told him that he must explain this 
'mystery' to his congregation, and the story of how 
he did so is not the least interesting portion of the 


narrative of Flavianus. In the latter part of his 
Encomium Flavianus describes the martyrdom of 
Marturia and her two sons, at the instance of her 
husband Zokrator, the apostate, and the events 
that led up to it. This story is told in con- 
nection with Peter, the Patriarch of Alexandria, 
the successor of Demetrius, who was hated by 

The life of John the Monk is a form of a story 
that was very popular among Oriental Christians, 
and has much in common with the well-known life 
of the Ethiopian saint Maba'a Seyon. John was the 
son of Eutropius, a nobleman of Rome, and his 
mother Theodora was probably a Christian. He 
left his home secretly with an aged monk, who took 
him to a monastery in the desert, and induced the 
Archimandrite to admit him among the brethren. 
After six years spent in the performance of the 
most rigorous ascetic exercises his health failed, 
and home sickness, which he regarded as a tempta- 
tion of the Devil, drove him to ask permission from 
the Archimandrite to leave the monastery and 
return to his native city. He left with the prayers of 
all the brethren, and, having exchanged his monastic 
garb for the rags of a beggar, he in due course 
arrived at his father's house. At first he lived by 
the gateway, and the porter shewed him great kind- 
ness. His parents saw him from time to time as 
they passed from and to the house, but did not 
recognize him. He lived for some years in a 
small hut which the porter had built for him in 


the garden, and received daily from his father's table 
food that he gave to those who were poorer than him- 
self. Knowing his end was near, he persuaded the 
porter to take a message to his mother in which he 
asked her to come and see him. When, after earnest 
persuasion to do so from her husband, she went 
with Eutropius to the hut, John revealed himself 
to her, and proved his identity by producing a 
golden Evangeliarium, set with precious stones, 
which his father had given to him before he be- 
came a monk. At length the parents recognized 
their son, but as they were about to embrace him 
he died. 

Two texts in this volume deal with asceticism, 
and are of considerable interest ; both are by 
Apa Ephraim, who is probably the famous ascetic 
and writer commonly called ' Ephraim Syrus ', 
who died about 373. The first is a discourse 
addressed to some brethren unknown, in which 
he laments the decay of learning and piety among 
the monks, and bids them remember the exalted 
character of their vocation, and to emulate the 
example of the saints of old. The object of every 
monk must be purity of mind and thought ; in- 
difference and carelessness lead a man to perdition. 
The second work of Ephraim is an Epistle to a 
beloved disciple. It inculcates humility of mind 
and soul, courtesy to fellow monks, and lays down 
for the monk a set of rules of a practical character, 
including directions for everyday behaviour in the 

refectory and dormitory. The Epistle concludes 



with a statement of the Faith of the CathoHc 

The last document in the volume is a discourse 
on the Angel of Death, who is here called Abbaton, 
i. e. Abaddon, the Hebrew name of Apolljon 
(Rev. ix. 11), the Angel or King of the Abyss. 
The author of the discourse is Timothy, Patriarch 
of Alexandria (died 385), who transcribes a legend 
which he found in an ancient volume in the library 
of Jerusalem, which was founded by the Holy 
Apostles, and supplied with histories of their lives 
and acts for the edification of believers. The 
disciples were unable to understand why Abbaton 
had been made by God the king of all mankind, 
and they asked our Lord to explain this to them 
before He finally ascended into heaven. The legend 
states that God sent seven angels one after the 
other to the earth, to bring back to Him therefrom 
some virgin earth, out of which He might fashion 
Adam. When the first angel came to the earth, 
and reached out his hand to take some of it, the 
earth cried out and adjured him by God's Name 
not to do so, because it knew what sorrow would 
await it if it were made into a man. Terrified by 
the Great Name, the angel returned without the 
earth, as did all the other angels except one. The 
exception was Mouriel, to whom God Himself after- 
wards gave the name of 'Abbaton', who paid no heed 
to the protests of the earth, but obeyed God's com- 
mand to him, and in return God made him the master 
of all mankind. At that time Abbaton was a seven- 


headed monster, with projecting teeth and tusks 
nearly a foot long, with eyes and face like revolv- 
ing wheels of fire, whose snortings were like the 
crackling of flames in a lake of boiling sulphur 
and bitumen, and whose breathings were like unto 
seven thunders. Whenever he appeared to men 
they died immediately of fright, for his hideousness, 
and cruelty, and mercilessness terrified every one. 

When the angels saw what an awful monster 
Abbaton was they told God that not only all men 
would die when they saw him, but that they, the 
angels, would ' perish through terror ' at the sight 
of him. Then, in answer to an appeal from 
Abbaton, God gave him the power to change his 
form, and to appear to those whose names were 
written in the Book of Life as a kind and gentle 
friend, who removed their souls from their body 
painlessly. To all those who remained in their 
natural state of sin, and who did not make offer- 
ings to Abbaton on the day of his festival, God 
permitted him to appear on their death-beds in 
the form of a seven-headed monster, with a fiery 
face and blazing eyes, and furious snortings and 
a voice loud as sevenfold thunder. The sin of 
Adam and Eve caused Abbaton to be set over 
all mankind. The Lord, having related to the 
Apostles the whole history of the rebellion of 
Satan, and of the expulsion of Adam and Eve 
from Paradise, and the part which He would 
take in the Great Judgement, went up into 


The texts printed in this volume are of great 
importance for the history of Christianity in Egypt, 
for the information supphed by them either is new, 
or is given in a fuller form than that found in the 
Ethiopic Synaxarium and in the ' Paradise ' of 
Palladius. The dates in the colophons prove that 
the manuscripts from which they are edited were 
copied during the second half of the tenth century. 
As three of the volumes formed part of the library 
of the famous Monastery of Saint Mercurius in 
Edfu, and as the fourth was in the library of the 
church of Saint Victor in the same town, we may 
assume that their contents represent the views and 
beliefs of the great monastic communities of Upper 
Egypt at the most flourishing period of their 

I am indebted to the Director, Sir Frederic G. 
Kenyon, for his help in deciphering the Greek 
portions of the colophons, and for some friendly 
suggestions. To the readers of the Oxford Univer- 
sity Press my thanks are also due. 


Depaetmekt of Egyptian am> Assyeian ^Antiquities, 
Bkitish Muskum. 
J/ay 27th, 1914. 



Preface ........ . v 

Introduction : 

Description of the Manuscripts .... xvii 
Summaries ....... xxiii 

List of Passages of Sckiptuee quoted or referred to Ixxiii 

I. The Martyrdom of Saint Victor the General. 

Summary xxiii 

Coptic Text 1 

Translation . . . . .253 

II. The Encomium of Celestinus, Archbishop of Kome. 
on Victor the General. 

Summary ..... xxxvi 

Coptic Text 46 

Translation 299 

III. The Life of Saints Eustathius and Theopiste and 

their two children. 

Summary ..... xlv 

Coptic Text 102 

Translation . . . . .356 

IV. The Life of Apa Cyrus. 

Summary ..... li 
Coptic Text . . . .128 

Translation . . . . .381 

V. The Encomium of Flavianus, Bishop of Ephesus, 
on Demetrius, Archbishop of Alexandria. 

Summary ..... liii 

Coptic Text 137 

Translation 390 



VI. The Asketikon of Apa Ephraim. 

Summary Ivi 

Coptic Text 157 

Translation 409 

VII. Another Epistle of Apa Ephraim to a beloved 


Summary . . . . . lix 

Coptic Text 179 

Translation . . . . .431 

VIII. The Life of John the Monk. 

Summary ..... Ixi 

Coptic Text 184 

Translation ..... 436 

IX. The Life of Apa Onnophrios the Anchorite. 

Summary ..... Ixiv 

Coptic Text 205 

Translation . . . . .455 

X. Discourse on Abbaton by Timothy, Archbishop 
of Alexandria. 

Summary ..... Ixviii 
Coptic Text . 
Translation . 

Coptic Fokms of Gkeek Words 

Coptic Fobms of Proper Names, etc, . 

Foreign Words 




I. Oriental 7022, Fol. 1 h. Illustrating title ornament 
and introductory marginal decorations. 

II. Oriental 7022, Fol. 26 &. Illustrating a main title with 
borders of plaited ornament. 

III. Oriental 7022, Fol. 38 b. Illustrating the large orna- 

mented initials. 

IV. Oriental 7022, Fol. 2 a. Illustrating enlarged letters in 

top line and marginal numbers. 

V. Oriental 7022, Fol. 39 b. Illustrating typical page with 

VI. Oriental 7022, Fol. 60 a. Outline drawing. 

VII. Oriental 7022, Fol. 59 b. Colophon. Coptic text and 
Greek date. 

VIII. Oriental G783, Fol, 1 a. Illustrating the first page of 
the MS., with heading, ornaments, &c. 

IX. Oriental 6783, Fol. 23 a. Illustrating head-pieces of 

X. Oriental 6783, Fol. 67 &. Illustrating plain head-piece. 

XI. Oriental 6783, Fol. 30b. Illustrating variation in 
head-piece decoration and large initial containing 

XII, XIII. Oriental 6783, Foil. 45 b and 63 a. Illustrating 


XIV, XV, XVI. Oriental6783, Foil. 1?*,8?>, 9&. Illustrating 
typical pages of text with decorated 
XVII, XVIII, XIX. Oriental 6783, Foil. 83 a, 83 h, 84 a. 
Colophon with date. 
XX, XXI. Oriental7027, Foil. 7^, 15a. Illustrating 
typical pages of text. 
XXII, XXIII. Oriental 7027, Foil, la, 21 &. Illustrating 
XXIV. Oriental 7027, Fol. 39 a. Illustrating 
initials and marginal numbers. 
XXV, XXVI. Oriental 7027, Foil. 73 a, 73 &. Colophon 
with date. 
XXVII. Oriental 7025, Fol. la- Illustrating 

XXVIII-XXX. Oriental 7025, Foil. 14 6, 27 a, 32 a. 
Illustrating typical pages of text. 

XXXI, XXXII. Oriental 7025, Foil. 32 ?>, 33 a. Colophon 
with date. 



1. Oriental No. 7022. 

This manuscript contains 59 vellum leaves measuring' from 
12 to 13^ in. in length by about 9| in. in width. The 
pagination runs from S-q , then we have qd[ Us, qfe, q[ic», cpk 
q^, q^, qe-pi'x. The quires are eight in number, and are 
signed by letters, but in the wrong order. The second and 
third quires contain seven leaves each, five contain eight 
leaves^ and the last quire contains four leaves. Many of the 
leaves are very irregular in shape, and the scribe used every 
fragment of the skins with which he was supplied. Each 
page is filled with one column of writing containing from 
24 to 32 lines. The writing is bold and good, but the letters 
vary considerably in size. The texts are decorated with head- 
pieces, the most interesting being shewn on Plates I and II ; 
the main sections are marked by a line composed of short 
lines and dots (see Plate III). On several pages the letters 
«^., p, q, T, and T are enlarged and decorated when they 
occur in the top line (see Plate IV), and in many places 
numbers which are written out in full in the text are 
repeated as numerical letters on the margin (see Plates I 
and IV). A good specimen of the average page is given 
on Plate V. On Fol. 60 a a peculiar animal is drawn in out- 
line (see Plate VI). The Colophon (see Plate VII) supplies 
the history of the making of the manuscript and gives its 
date. The vellum, ink, &c., necessary for writing the manu- 
script were provided by a certain ' God -loving deacon ', whose 
name appears to have been Pourot(?), and it was given by 



him to the church of Saint Victor of Tebo, or Apollinopolis, 
i. e. Edfu. The Colophon mentions Apa Abraham_, the 
Archimandrite of the Monastery of Saint Mercurius of 
Tebo, and Joseph and Zokrator, the son and grandson 
respectively of the Archdeacon of the church of St. John 
the Baptist, in the town of Esna, or Asna, in Upper Egypt. 
The copying of the manuscript was finished on the eighteenth 
day ol" Pharmuthi (April 13) in the six hundred and sixty- 
seventh year [of the Era] of Diocletian, i. e. a.d. 951. 
The contents of the manuscript are as follows : 

1. The Martyrdom of Saint Victor the General, who suffered 
martyrdom under the Emperor Diocletian, on the twenty- 
seventh day of the month Pharmuthi (April 22). TiA&.p'nrpiJsv 
55 n£jviTioc feiHTcap necTpjs.TH'Xd.THc .... UTis.q'xcoK 
'2s,€. e fioA 55 neqev^ton eT tsvIHT* ncoT -jsott cjvujqe 
55 ne6oT cl^dkpjjioTTe • Fol. la. 

2. The Second Martyrdom of Saint Victor. TJJieg^ ciiTe 
SSjLiJs.pT'ypijv 55 ngiy^^^ioc is.nev fciKTtop necTpa^TH- 
Ajs-THC • Fol. 11a. 

3. The Third Martyrdom of Saint Victor. TUieg^ igoJUiTe* 
?« • 55jui2vpTTpi2>i 55 ngNN'doc «.n». fuRTwp • Fol. 15 a. 

4. The Fourth Martyrdom of Saint Victor. TJliepqTO* 
^ • 55Ai.i.pTTpii). n b.nd. £jik • Fol. 19 ^. At the foot of 
Fol. 26 a the deacon Joseph, the son of Sisinnios, Arch- 
deacon of the church of Saint John the Forerunner and 
Baptist in the town of Latopolis (Esn§,), entreats the readers 
of the manuscript to pray for him, the most miserable and 
wretched sinner. 

5. The Encomium which the Patriarch Celestinus, Arch- 
bishop of Rome, pronounced on Saint Victor in the Mar- 
tyrium in Rome which had been built in honour of the saint 
by the ' God-loving Emperor '. OTectROiJiiiow £ JvqTd^Toq 
nan nnawTpii^pX***^ ^'t tjvihtt jvTto n-^i'i^.jvcRi^Aioc 


g^ptoJUH • Fol. 26 b. 

6. Colophon and date. Fol. ^9b. 

7 Outline drawing of a fierce-eyed animal. Fol. 60 «. 

2. ORIENTAL No. 6783. 

This manuscript contains 84 stout vellum leaves measuring 
from i2 to 12f in. in length and from 9^ to 10 in. in width. 
The pagination runs from ST to p^, and the last page is 
blank. The quires, which are signed by letters^ are eleven in 
number ; the first and second quires contain seven leaves 
each, the eighth contains six leaves, and all the other quires 
contain eight leaves each. The leaves vary greatly in thick- 
ness and in size. One column of writing, which contains 
from 24 to 26 lines, occupies each page. The texts are 
decorated with head-pieces which are sometimes composed of 
two bands of basket work, with angle-pieces, volutes, and 
copper crosses; above these are K and oS and ic ^c (see 
Plates VIII, IX, and X). On Fol. 30 h the decoration of the 
head-piece is peculiar to itself, and the initial, with the 
words ' light ' and ' life ' written inside it, is interesting 
(see Plate XI). Characteristic tail-pieces are illustrated by 
Plates XII and XIII. Ornamental initials, the arrangement 
of paragraphs, and peculiarities of writing and punctuation 
are exhibited by Plates XIV-XVI. Pieces of leather have 
been fastened on the edges of the leaves that contain the 
openings of the various compositions in the manuscript to 
enable the reader to find each section easily. According to 
the Colophon (see Plates XVII and XVIII) the manuscript 
was copied by the most wretched and sinful Victor, the 
deacon, the son of Mercurius, the deacon, the son of Epo- 
nuehos, the Archdeacon of the church of Saint Mercurius 
the General, in the town of Latopolis, or Esna, in Upper 
Egypt. The copying was finished on the twenty-third day 


of the month Mesore (August 16), in the First Indiction, in 
the seven hundred and nineteenth year of the Era of the 
Martyrs, which date the manuscript equates with the three 
hundred and sixty-third year of the ' Era of the Saracens ', 
i. e. the Era of the Fhght (Hijrah). Now Anno Mart. 719 
= A. D. 1003 and Anno Hijrah 363 = A. D. 973 ; there is, 
therefore, a difference of 30 years between the two dates. 
But T^y may be a scribe's mistake for r<^ , and if this be 
so the difference between the dates disappears. The expense 
of copying" and binding the manuscript was borne by 
Zacharias, a deacon and monk in the church of Saint 
Mercurius the General in Atbo, i. e. Apollinopolis, or Edfu, 
in Upper Egypt, and he gave it to the shrine of the saint 
for the salvation of his soul, and in order that he might 
enjoy an inheritance in heaven with Palamon, Pachomeus, 
Hor-si-esios, Apa Petronius, Theodore, Apa Shenute, and other 
great anchorites and coenobites. 

The contents of the manuscript are as follows : 

1. The Life of Eustathius, a General who suffered mar- 
tyrdom under Trajan, together with his wife Theopiste and 
his two sons Agapius and Theopistus. tlCiioc i>.Trco titoAtt- 

K TpiviA^itoc nppo juiii eeonicTH Teqc§ijji€ aak 
d».c««k.nioc juH eeonicTOc itqigHpe* Fol. 1 a. 

2. The Life of Cyrus, the perfect monk, as told by Apa 
Pambo, the presbyter of the Church at Scete. nfiiioc 2k.iru) 
TnoX'T'^ev- Mji ne« nex OTPz^b^Si H eicoT A.n2», R-rpoc • 
nTeXioc n*.jue KT^^qgicTopi'^eilAioq* n&i 2vnjs.n2uu- 
£ia> ne npccfiTTepoc nTCKKTVHcia^ H igJHT • Fol. 23 a. 

3. The Encomium of Flavianus, Bishop of Ephesus, on 
Demetrius, Archbishop of Alexandria. oirei^KCOAAion e Js.q- 
T^s,'^rooq k<5^i new ncT OT».d^ n eioiT t^\2vi5[ie^noc 
nenicKonoc H et^ecoc troXic e ^.qTa^irooq e ng^.- 

C«IOC ^TTAlHTpiOC nA.p^H€nfCKOnOC it pd.KOT€ ^S 

nejooTT 55 neqp njuteeire • Fol. 30 b. 


4. The Asketikon of Apa Ephraim. na^cKH^J-KOn n 
A.n2». et^pivijut • Fol. 45 (5*, 

5. An Epistle of Apa Ephraim. MToq on ivn*. e?:^pjs\*A)l 
eqcgjs-i e p&>Tq n oirju.epiT nr^^q eq'si cfew UTOOTq* 

Fol. 63 6. 

6. The Life of John tlie Monk, whose parents made a 
'golden Gosper for him. n^ioc H nJUJvKJvpiOG ito- 
giMiitHc njuiono;)(^oc H Te^ion nb.\ WTiv neqeiooTe 
cxiitie niK^ IS. ncTS-i^v^x^eXion HnoTrfe • Fol. 67 b. 

7. Colophon. Fol. 83 a and /;. 

8. A prayer for God's blessing' on Abba Abraham, the 
Archimandrite, and on all the fathers and brethren in his 
monastery, Fol, 84<?. (See Plate XIX.) 

3. Oriental No. 7027. 

This manuscript contains 73 paper leaves measuring from 
11| to 12 in. in length and about 7^ in. in width. The 
pagination runs from S to oK, and then omitting ©fit and 015 
goes on to pjutH. The quires are signed with letters. ^ 
contains seven leaves and n to H eight leaves each, and there 
are ten leaves in quire e (Foil. 72 and 73). One column of 
writing contains from 24 to 26 lines, and the letters are bold 
and well formed (see Plates XX and XXI). The style of the 
head-pieces, capital letters, marginal decorations, &c., are 
illustrated by Plates XXII-XXIV. According to the Colophon 
(see Plates XXV and XXVI) the manuscript was copied by 
Victor the deacon, the son of Mercurius the deacon. The 
copying was finished on the third day of the month Tybi 
(December 29), in the Third Indiction, in the seven hundred 
and twenty-first year of the Era of the Martyrs, which date 
the manuscript equates with the three hundred and sixty-fifth 
year of the ' Era of the Saracens ', i. e. the Era of the 
Flight (Hijrah). Now Anno Mart. 721 = a. d. 1005 and 
Anno Hijrah 365 = a. d. 975 ; there is, therefore, as in MS. 
Or. 6783, a difference of 30 years between the two dates. But 


r^e may be a scribe's mistake for rCf^, and if this be so the 
difference between the two dates disappears. The expense of 
copying the manuscript and the materials was shared by Abba 
Abraham^ the Archimandrite, and Abba Chael, the warden 
of the Monastery, and Zaeharias the deacon, who presented 
it to the Library of the Monastery of Saint Mercurius. 
The contents of the manuscript are : 

1. The Life of Abba Onnophrios, the Anchorite, by Apa 
Panoute. nfeioc ^l,.Tu> TnoAT-^js. Ti. ne« ncT oTrA.&.fc 
n eicoT • tT Tis.iKTr k*.t*. caiot nixji i^n&. oiiiiot^pioc 
nd.wev;)(^iopiTHc • Fob 1 a. 

2. The Discourse which Apa Demetrius, Archbishop of 
Antioch, preached on the birth according to the flesh of God 
the Word. olrXocfoc € ^s.qT^^^^oq «(3'i s^na^ •xttjuih- 
Tpioc n&.p^HenicKonoc i\ Tno\ic jvii^o^i^. £ 
dwqTJs.Toq e ne-xno Kd^T«^ ^^^''P^ *^ nnoTrre n\oc»oc • 
Fob 21 b. 

4. Oriental No. 7025. 

This manuscript contains 32 vellum leaves, many of which 
are very irregular in shape, measuring about 10^ in. in length 
and 8| in. in width. The quires are five in number, and are 
signed by letters ; when the manuscript was complete each 
quire contained eight leaves. Of the first quire three leaves 
are missing, and there is therefore a break in the pagination 
C^-i^). Each page contains two columns of text, and the 
number of lines in the column varies from 18 to 22. The 
title of the work in the manuscript is ornamented with a 
simple, two-colour, twisted design (see Plate XXVII), and on 
the upper margin of the first and last leaves of the quires is 
the usual fourfold, plaited ornament (see Plate XXVIII). 
The character of the writing, and the style and arrangement 
of the large initial letters, are well shewn by Plates XXIX 
and XXX. The manuscript was copied by Theophistus who, 
according to the Colophon (see Plate XXXI), finished the 
copying on the eleventh day of the month of Thoth 


(August 8), in the Third Indiction, in the six hundred and 
ninety-eighth year of the Era of the Martyrs, i. e. a. d. 982. 
The expense of copying and making the manuscript was 
borne by Chael, the son of Stephen, the lion-hunter, and 
when complete he gave the volume to the Monastery of 
Saint Mercurius in the city of Tebo, the modern Edfu, in 
order that the saint might beseech Christ to preserve him from 
all the wiles of the Devil in this world, and to give him favour 
in the sight of the Angel of Death and before God (see Plate 
XXXII). The manuscript contains one work only, namely, 
an Encomium by Timothy, Archbishop of Alexandria, on the 
history of the stablishing of Abbaton, the Angel of Death. 
OTei«Ro>JUioit e Js.qTd.Tooq n^i nen neT oins^bA 

VL eiuJT • €T TA^IHTT K2s.T«i CAIOT IlIJU * dwRev ^XlOOeOC 

njs.p^H€nicKonoc n p^.ROTe • HTas-qTis.Trooq -xe e 
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1. The Mautyepom of Saint Victor. 

Of the early years and education of Victor, the martyr, 
the Coptic martyrdom tells us very little, but a little informa- 
tion concerning- them is found in an Ethiopic manuscript 
preserved in the British Museum (Oriental 729). According 
to this authority Victor^s mother, who was called Marta 
"^C^h i.e. Martha, had lived with her husband Herm&nos 
\}C"T?l\\, i.e. Romanus, for thirty years, and had borne 
Kim no son (Fol. 4 a, col. 1). She made many offerings in 
the local church, and prayed very earnestly for a son, and 
one day when she had also paid adoration to the figure of the 
Virgin Mary that was in the church, the figure nodded its 
head towards Martha as a sign that her prayer had been heard 
(Fol. 4 h). As a result Martha gave birth to a son at Antioch 



on the thirteenth day of the month Yakatit (February 7), 
and she sent her servant to tell her husband what had 
happened, and he told the Emperor. The child was called 
Bakter, and God sent down a cloth of gold for him from 
heaven (Fol. 5 a). At the wish of Martha Victor was bap- 
tized by the Archbishop Theodore (Fol. 6 a), and Diocletian, 
who at that time was favourable to the Christians, sent 
soldiers and horses and chariots to accompany the baptismal 
party (Fol. 6 b). The Archbishop blessed the child (Fol. 7 a), 
and when the Empress Pelterabya heard the blessings she 
was seized with jealousy, and she snatched the child out of 
his nurse^s arms and dashed him on the g'round, meaning* to 
kill him (Fol. 7 b). His mother picked him up, and having" 
laid him before the statue of the Virg-in Mary in the church, 
all evil effects of his injuries were removed. The Empress 
tried to steal the cloth of gold from the child, and made 
further attempts to kill him, but she failed to do him any 
harm (Fol. 8 a). Martha took steps to hide the cloth of gold 
of her son, and complained to Diocletian of his wife's enmity 
to her (Fol. 9 a). When Victor was taken to a great feast 
made by his father, Diocletian attempted to steal the cloth 
of gold from him, but, just as he was about to do so, an 
angel snatched it away, and flew up into the air with it 
(Fol. 10 a). When Victor was ten years of age he was 
betrothed to the daughter of Basileides (Fol. 10 6). He was 
sent to school where he learned all the Books of the Prophets 
and their interpretation, and the Angel of God preserved 
him from every sin (Fol. 11 a), and Christ appeared to him 
and gave him commands (Fol. 12 a). On Fol. 12 b begins 
the account of Diocletian's change of attitude towards the 
Christians, and of his setting up graven images, V^^V^:, and 
of his conspiracy to slay Gagyos P7^lli (Caius), Archbishop 
of Antioch (Fol. 13 a). The sight of the Emperor's idolatry 
horrified the people of Antioch, and they approved greatly 
when Victor took up in his hands the mud of the street 


and rubbed it over the face of the statue of Apollo (Dk^h\ 
attio-t: 2iy°}: y°^C: <dJ"H;>: At: nOrt: 7X.: AAA'ft»'i: (Pol. 13 i, 
col. 2), and cursed it as an unclean thing. From this point 
onwards the Ethiopic Life of Victor agrees in many places 
with the statements made in the Coptic version of his 
martyrdom. The facts g-iven in this Life and in the Ethiopic 
Si/naxarmm^ appear to have been derived from a common 

Returning now to the Coptic text we find that Diocletian 
began to worship idols publicly in the third year of his reign, 
i. e. about 286, He made seventy images in gold, viz. of 
thirty-five gods and of thirty -five goddesses, the names of 
some of which are preserved on a papyrus fragment recently 
published by Mr, Crum.^ Besides these he worshipped 140 
other gods, and he promulgated a decree, a copy of which 
was affixed to the door of his Palace, ordering every subject 
of his, no matter of what grade, from ' Romania ' to Philae, to 
worship them. Every Christian was to be put to death by 
the sword. He called upon his officers to make this decree 
effective, and appointed a day whereon at dawn they were to 
appear in the temple to offer up sacrifices to the gods with 
him. On the 27th of March Diocletian and his nobles set 
out for the temple very early in the morning, and two 
hundred white horses drew his gods thither. Two hundred 
lamps on golden stands, and four hundred lamps on silver 
stands, were lighted, the silver altar was made ready, and 
incense was burnt in the golden censer, and libations of oil 
and wine were poured out, and fine wheaten cakes were 
offered up on the altar. Opposite the altar stood a statue 
of Apollo upon a pedestal of gold, and the Emperor took his 
crown from his head, and placed it on the head of Apollo, 

1 See Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No, 661, Month of Miyazyii, day 27 
(Fol. 45 6j, col. 2-Fol. 46 a, col. 2). 

^ e. g. Artemis, Persephone, Selene, Calliope, Eriuuys, Nemesis, Hera , 
&c. See Crum, Anecdota Oxoniensia, Semitic Series, Part XII, Oxford, 
1918, pp. 83-5. 



and he worshipped the god three times, as the giver of 
victory in war. After Diocletian, the three Caesars — here 
called Romanus, Basileides, and Euaius — advanced and wor- 
shipped Apollo, and made offerings of thirty, twenty, and 
ten centenarii of gold to the temple ; Diocletian's contribution 
was sixty centenarii of gold and three very precious jewels 
for the crown of Apollo. When the three Caesars had 
offered up sacrifice to Apollo and the gods, 600,000 soldiers 
and 2,000,000 of people followed their example. A certain 
official called Basileides refused to worship the gods, and he 
and all his house were promptly put to death by Diocletian. 
The throng in the temple was so great, and the fumes of the 
incense so suffocating, that 5,000 people died therein, and 
5,000 more were crushed to death by the mob outside. 

When Romanus had superintended the carrying out of the 
Emperor's orders, he called upon his son Victor to come and 
offer up sacrifice. Now Victor was a Christian, and all his 
sympathies were with the Christians. He prayed day and 
night, ate once a week only, and then only of uncooked food, 
drank no wine, was continent, took no pleasure in rich 
apparel, and was uninterested in military expeditions and 
sports. He associated wholly with his inferiors, but used no 
foul language, and swore no oaths. He succoured every 
Christian in distress, and often gave the clothes he was 
wearing to the poor. He built an apartment for himself, 
so that he could escape from the society of his parents at 
pleasure, and in it he lived upon a diet of bread, and salt, 
and water, and slept on the ground, and prayed 1,065 prayers 
each day, and 730 each night ; and our Lord used to appear 
to him at intervals and encourage him to further ascetic 
endeavours. Romanus had betrothed Victor to the daughter 
of Basileides, his fellow Caesar, but Victor's mind was not 
set upon marriage, or upon the honours of this world, which 
he despised. 

When Romanus ordered Victor to offer up sacrifice, the 


young man rebuked him for allowing the foolishness of 
idolatry to get a hold upon him, and having quoted passages 
of Scripture to him, and expressed his sorrow that his father 
had becon^e 'a man without God', he refused to do so. 
This conversation was heard by all the soldiers, and Romanus, 
wishing to avoid a public scandal, begged Victor to do what 
he asked him, and told him that he would make arrange- 
ments for him to be married in the following month. Victor 
rejected this suggestion, and addressed such a severe rebuke 
to his father that Romanus lost his temper, and swore that 
he would deliver his rebellious son into the hands of the 
Emperor to be put to death. Romamis first attributes his 
behaviour to magic worked in the Name of Jesus, and goes on 
to warn his son that it will avail him nothing in the end, but 
subsequently thinks that this rebellion may have been caused 
by his delay in bringing about Victor's marriage. In the 
further conversation that took place between Romanus and 
Victor, the latter refuses to admit his relationship to an 
idolater, and the former attempts to persuade Victor to offer 
up sacrifice by promising him the rank of general, and a 
position of great honour in the Palace. Finally, Romanus 
appeals to Victor's affection for his mother, and pictures to 
him the grief which she will feel when she hears of his 
behaviour, and promises to add thirty centenarii of gold to 
the gifts which he will bestow upon Victor on his marriage. 

The arguments of Romanus proving ineffectual, his fellow 
Caesars Basileides and Euaius went to Victor, and begged 
him to obey his father, but their entreaties only provoked 
to wrath Victor, who appealed to God in burning words, and 
referred to the sufferings that he had endured for His sake, 
and to the fact that for the last twelve years he had only 
eaten food once a week, and had never had a bath. At 
length, urged by the Devil, Romanus handed Victor over to 
Diocletian, who asked him why he had not obeyed his 
father's commands. Thereupon Victor tore off the gold 


chain and the insignia of his rank which lie was wearing, 
and threw them in the Emperor's face, saying that he would 
no longer wear the badge of a mortal emperor, but would wear 
that of the Celestial Emperor Christ. Diocletian, amazed at 
Victor's boldness, reminded him of the tortures and punish- 
ments which he had the power to inflict upon him, and of 
his command to suppress all mention of the Name of Christ. 
Only for the sake of Romanus did he permit Victor to 
speak a word, and he further reminded Victor that it was one 
of his predecessors, an Emperor, who gave orders to Pilate, 
who put Christ to death. At length he said to Victor: 
'Either obey thy father, or I will banish thee, and thou 
shalt be put to death.' Once again Romanus appealed to 
Victor to offer up sacrifice, but he refused, saying that 
Christ and not Diocletian was his God. Thereupon Romanus 
ordered his men to tie Victor's arms behind his back, and to 
take him outside the city and spear him to death there ; and 
having put a gag in his mouth the soldiers led him away. 

At this moment the Devil seized the opportunity of 
tempting Victor, and, taking the form of a soldier, he 
exhorted him to obey his father, even as did Isaac, and 
not to run the risk of incurring the curse of Ham, and 
he promised to use his own influence with Romanus to 
have Victor made a general. When the Emperor heard 
that Romanus had condemned his son to be beheaded in 
his devotion to his commands and his gods, he sent two 
soldiers to fetch Victor, and told Romanus that he would 
banish him to Alexandria where he would die in prison. 
When Victor heard that Diocletian would not allow him 
to be beheaded he was furious, and reviled the Emperor, who, 
though very angry with Victor, did not cause him to be put 
to death, but simply deprived him of his rank, and ordered 
him to be supplied with food just sufficient to keep him alive. 
Subsequently Diocletian had Victor's hands tied behind 
him, and the crown of his head shaved ; and having hung 


a bell from his neck, and fastened him to the tail of a horse, 
four soldiers marched him about the city, beating" him with 
palm branches as he went. The cause of this treatment of 
a son of one of the Caesars was made known to the populace 
by a herald who went before Victor. 

On the day of the new moon in the month of Pharmuthe 
(March 27), or New Year's Day, according to the Byzantine 
Greeks, Diocletian wrote a dispatch to Armenius^ the Count 
of Rakote (Alexandria), stating- that he had banished Victor, 
and directing him on the arrival of the young man to torture 
him three times, and then to drive him to the public baths of 
the city, and burn him in the furnace. Thereupon four 
soldiers were told off to take Victor to Rakote. They stripped 
him naked and gagged him, they loaded his legs and feet 
with iron fetters, they put a collar of iron round his neck, 
and they drove him before them on the road. Before he 
departed the soldiers removed his gag and allowed him to 
have speech with his mother, to whom he explained the 
events which had brought him to the condition in which 
she then saw him. He told her that he owed his life at 
that moment to Diocletian, but his gratitude to the Emperor 
was not deep, for he prophesied blindness for him, and 
declared that he would one day beg for alms at the gate 
of Antioch, and he proclaimed woe unto all those who 
listened to the counsels of the Emperor. When his mother 
spoke of the girl who was betrothed to him, he asked her, 
' What use is a bride to me ? ' Then taking off the ring 
which was on his finger and giving it to his mother, he 
bade her farewell and left her. He then sealed the door 
of his bedroom in the Palace in the Name of Christ, and 
having said good-bye to his slaves, and kissed them, for he 
had always been a kind and considerate master, he left the 
Palace, and delivered himself up to his military escort. 
Having replaced the gag in his mouth, they marched bin). 
down to the sea-coast, and put him on board a ship which was 



about to sail for Alexandria. The passage seems to have 
occupied nearly three weeks, for it was not until the twentieth 
of Pharmuthe that the soldiers who accompanied Victor were 
able to deliver Diocletian^s dispatcli to Armenius, tlie Count 
of Alexandria. 

When the dispatch was put into the hands of Armenius, 
he was in the Praetorium of Alexandria, busily engaged in 
sentencing to death the soldiers who had become Christians, 
and having no time to deal with Victor^s case at the moment, 
he ordered the soldiers to remand him to prison until the 
following morning. As soon as Armenius had seated him- 
self on his throne of judgement next day he sent for Victor, 
and told him that although he had been ordered to burn 
him in the furnace of the public baths, he was willing to 
spare him for his father's sake. When, in answer to this 
remark, Victor reminded the Count that he owed his 
Governorship of Alexandria to Romanns, his father, and 
to himself, Armenius made his servants to torture him 
horribly, i. e. they slit his face, and bound him with fetters so 
tightly that the fetters cut into his flesh, and drove iron pegs 
through his hands and feet, and when they had loaded 
him with irons they cast him, hungry and thirsty, into 
prison. When on the following morning Armenius again 
sent for him, Victor had to be carried by twelve men 
into his presence, for he was crushed beneath the weight 
of his iron fetters, and could not walk. Armenius then 
called upon Victor to sacrifice to Apollo and Artemis, and 
when he refused to do so he was put on the rack, and the 
executioners worked the rollers until they were exhausted. 
Whilst Victor was being racked, his heart, i.e. soul, was 
carried up into heaven, and the saints welcomed him and 
conversed with him. Abel and Zacharias came to him, and 
Michael exhorted him to endure his sufferings patiently, and 
described to him the power and glory which he should 
possess ultimately in heaven. The Archangel then sent 


Victor's soul back to his body, which was still suspended 
on the rack. These tortures having- failed to make Victor 
offer up sacrifice, Armenius had lighted torches fastened to 
his sides, and red-hot skewers driven through his body 
from front to back, and his head thrust into an iron helmet, 
that was filled with hot coals, presumably whilst he was still 
on the rack. Victor was then lifted from the rack on to the 
bed of iron, beneath which a fire had been lighted, and then 
a mixture of tar, bitumen, and sulphur was poured down his 

When Armenius discovered that these tortures also failed 
to make Victor sacrifice to the gods, he ordered his men to 
cast him gagged and bound into the furnace of the public 
baths. When this had been done Victor stood up and prayed 
in the furnace, and immediately the Archangel Michael came 
down into the furnace, and spread out his apparel over Victor, 
and lifted him up on his wing of light, which straightway 
turned into a green meadow. Michael knocked off Victor's 
fetters, and conversed with him about heaven. When Ar- 
menius went to the baths to bathe Michael set Victor on the 
sUme slab before him, so that he might see that the fire 
had not harmed him. Armenius, believing that Victor's 
appearance was due to magic, determined to have him 
beheaded, but as soon as the people of the city heard of 
his intention they entreated him to banish Victor to the 
South, for they feared that Victor's father Romanus would 
destroy their city if his son were put to death therein. 
Armenius had no wish to make Romanus his enemy, and 
he therefore sent Victor to the South under military escort, 
with a letter informing Eutychianus, the Count of the 
ThebaVd, concerning the orders of Diocletian in respect 
of him. 

A sail of ten days brought Victor and the four soldiers 
whose prisoner he was to Antinoij, where they found that 
Eutychianus had departed for the South. Returning to 


their boat the soldiers hoisted their sail again and set out 
for the Souths but before they had gone very far they 
overtook the state barge of the Count of the Thebaid, 
which was lying becalmed. They informed Eutychianus 
of their business^ and handed Victor over to him, and left 
with him a supply of food sufficient for his immediate needs. 
Eutychianus ordered his sailors to put him ashore where he 
was, and to set up his pavilion wherein, when travelling, he 
transacted public business. The next morning he ordered his 
servants to fetch Victor from the bottom of the state barge 
where he had passed the night in prayer, and when he came 
into his presence the Count, addressing him by the name of 
' magician \ ordered him to offer up sacrifice with the people 
present. This Victor refused to do, and the Count having 
scoffed at his words, which he called a ' homily \ ordered his 
men to tear out his tongue, and cut off his lips, to thrust 
red-hot irons through his body, and to pour boiling oil over his 
members. When Eutychianus saw that he endured all these 
tortures with fortitude, and still refused to sacrifice to the 
gods, he banished him to the fort of Hierakion, which seems 
to have been situated in the desert country to the south of 
Thebes. Thither Victor was taken by four soldiers, to whom 
he related the story of his life as they journeyed along. 

One day the Devil took the form of a soldier, and went 
to Victor, and tried to drive him back into the world by 
describing to him how Romanus had made the son of one 
of his servants his heir, and produced a letter which pur- 
ported to have been sent to him by Romanus. Victor soon 
recognized the devilish phantom, which disappeared as soon 
as the saint mentioned the Name of Jesus. Eor a time 
Victor seems to have lived quietly in the camp of Hierakion, 
and he supported himself by making seats and lamp-stands. 
Whilst he was living there he was visited by a travel-worn, 
grey-headed old man, whom he believed to be an aged 
anchorite, and who, at Victor^s invitation, entered his tower. 


and stood up with him to pray. Whilst they were praying 
the ten fingers of the old man became hke ten fiery lamps, 
and when the prayer was ended Victor, not suspecting the 
identity of his visitor, asked him to sit down, so that he 
might enjoy the sight of his face and conversation with 
him. During their talk the visitor shewed that he was well 
acquainted with Victor's history ; and at length asked him to 
give him a bread-cake, for he had eaten nothing for seven 
days. Having fasted for forty days Victor had no bread to 
give him, but he told him to take the stools that were there, 
and the lamp-stand, and go with them into the town, and 
sell them at the usual market rate and buy bread for them 
both. After further conversation, during which Victor 
described to his visitor how greatly he longed for death, 
he begged him to bury his body when he died. At these 
words the visitor wept, and then He revealed Himself to 
Victor as Jesus, Who had delivered him from his tribulations, 
and He told Victor that he would be beheaded during the 
following year in the Camp where he was; and having 
described the great fame which should attach itself to the 
name of Victor, He kissed him and went up into heaven. 
Victor continued to live in the Camp, and earned sufficient 
money to buy a coffin for himself and to provide materials 
for his burial. 

Some months later Sebastianus, Duke of the Thebaid, 
came to inspect the Camp, and Asterius, the praetor, placed 
in his hands a written statement about Victor, which had 
been drawn up by Soterichus, the military secretary. When 
the Duke had read it he had his paviHon set up inside 
the gate of the Camp, and ordered Victor to be brought 
before him. Victor, who was eating lentils in his cell, was 
summoned, and when he appeared the Emperor's letter was 
read to him, and the Duke commanded him to offer up sacrifice 
to the gods. Victor's answer stirred up the wrath of 
Sebastianus, who promptly had him stripped naked, and 


then caused tortures to be applied to him. Victor's sinews 
were cut^ and his hands tied behind him, skewers were 
thrust through his body, portions of his body were cut out, 
and he was cast into a fiery furnace. From the interior of 
the furnace Victor prayed to the Lord, Who came down and 
extinguished the fire, and when he was set before the 
Duke again his body was seen to be untouched by the fire. 
Thereupon Victor was handed over to a magician, and was 
made to drink a poison concocted with the venom and juice ol 
serpents, over which many potent magical names had been 
uttered by the magician, with the object of making certain 
the effect of the poison. Victor swallowed the draught, after 
making over himself the Sign of the Cross in the Names of 
the Three Persons of the Trinity, and instead of feeling the 
agonies of death within him he felt as happy as a man who 
had been drinking wine. The magician then mixed another 
draught, into which he poured some of the gall and liquid 
emanations from the body of a dead man. To make the 
deadly effect of these substances more sure he pronounced over 
them a number of magical names of such tremendous power 
that lightnings shot out of the ground when they were 
uttered. Victor drank the poison, and when the magician 
saw that it had no effect upon him he burnt all his books of 
magic, and denuded himself of all his magical apparatus, and 
became a Christian. It is interesting to note that the 
humours derived from dead bodies were used in working magic 
in the reign of Diocletian, as they are at the present day by 
the witch-doctors and medicine-men of many tribes in Central 

After this Sebastianus ordered his servants to eviscerate 
Victor, and he had him tortured with boiling oil, and racked 
for two hours, and had fires lighted close to his body. He 
had his mouth filled with vinegar and ashes, and his eyes 
dug out with red-hot irons, and he left him hanging, head 
downwards, from a pillar for three days and three nights. 


When the soldiers were sent to take him down they were 
smitten with blindness, but when Victor prayed for them 
they recovered their sight. Sebastianus then ordered him 
to be flayed, and whilst this work was being carried out a 
certain woman, called Stephanou, who was the wife of 
a soldier, looked out from her window, and with a loud 
voice blessed Victor, and compared him to Abel, Enoch, 
Noah, and several other Patriarchs, and proclaimed her 
readiness to suffer martyrdom. When Sebastianus heard 
her words he sent soldiers to bring her to him, and when 
she arrived he ordered her to offer up sacrifice. This she 
refused to do, and she declared her willingness to receive 
the martyr's crown. Thereupon the Duke had her tied 
between two palm-trees which had been forced together by 
means of a rope. At a given signal the rope was cut, and 
the two palm-trunks resumed their normal position, tearing 
Stephanou's body asunder down the middle as they did so. 
After this Sebastianus ordered his soldiers to cut off Victor^s 
head, but before they did this Victor prophesied that eleven 
years after his death three things should happen : (1) That 
Sebastianus should hurt his foot whilst landing from his 
boat, and the foot should mortify and cause his death. 
(2) That the roof o£ a house in which a company of 
sages and orators were eating should suddenly collapse 
and fall upon them, and that all who were under it should 
perish. (3) That Asterius, the praetor, should beat his ass, 
and that she should bite him, and that he should die through 
the bite. Having told those about him that he had made 
proper provision for his funeral, and beseeching them to 
deliver up his body to those who came to see it, he delivered 
himself over to the executioner, who gagged him and made 
seady to cut off his head. The executioner is said to have 
been a native of the town of Asyiit, and to have been an 
enemy of Victor, and he shewed his enmity, as Victor thought, 
by his unskilful use of the sword. The blow which he struck 


at Victor's neck failed to cut off his head, and left it hanging 
by the skin, and Victor was able to cry out to an old fellow- 
soldier called Horion/ and to beg him to dispatch him 
quickly. After some hesitation Horion drew his sword, and 
finished the work which the executioner had begun, and was 
pardoned by the Lord for slaying His servant Victor. And 
Horion saw the soul of Victor being taken up into heaven by 
the angel Asouel, in a napkin made of byssus. Victor was 
twenty years of age when he died. 

The Ethiopic version states that Horion took Victoria body 
and embalmed it, and laid it in a coffin, which he hid in 
a chamber in the fort. ^ He then went to Antioch, and gave 
to Martha, Victor's mother, the sword wherewith he had cut 
off the head of the saint (Fol. 66 b, col. 1). Three years later 
Martha, guided by Horion, went to Egypt, and was taken to 
the place where Victor's body was buried (Fol. 70 a); and 
she took the body in her arms and kissed it, and she 
had it placed in a ship with the view of taking it back to 
Antioch with her. When the natives of the town discovered 
her purpose they became very angry, for Victor's body had 
already become in their sight a protection for their town. 
When and by whom Victor's body was removed to Asyut is 
not known. 

2. The Encomium of Celestinus, Archbishop of Rome, 
ON Victor the General. 

This Encomium is said to have been pronounced in the 
Martyrium of Saint Victor in Rome, which the Emperor 

1 In the Ethiopic Martyrdom his name is given as d^CS^\ or \fCS^'\\ 
The passage in Oriental No. 729, fol. 65 h runs (DHfl/n; ftrtj&^! ^S:'hLX^\ 

cD'^m: 7a: Iftlh:: &c. 

" According to Abii Salih (ed. Evetts, p. 251) Victor's body was pre- 
served in the Monastery of Saint "Victor at Al-Khusus, to the east 
of Suyut. 


Valentinianus III (?) had built in honour of the saint, by 
Celestinus, on the day of the commemoration of Saint Victor. 
Celestinus opens his discourse by reminding his hearers of the 
(Treat benefits which every creature on earth owes to God, and 
to the joy with which we all receive material comforts and food, 
and tells them that they should receive with far greater 
joy the spiritual food which God has sent down in great 
abundance. This day, he says, we celebrate the festival 
of one of the greatest of the martyrs, and the Angels, and 
the Martyrs, and the Prophets are here with us assisting at 
the feast, I wish to pronounce a suitable Encomium, but 
I have neither the ability nor power to do so. How can 
a tongue of flesh and a human mind describe the glory and 
honour which God has bestowed upon Victor? Celestinus 
compares Victor with Abraham, Elijah, Noah, and Isaac, 
and several of the Patriarchs, and finds that Victor's virtues 
were superior to the virtues of them all. There is no saint 
mentioned in the Scriptures of whom Victor is not the equal. 
He was a skilled physician of the body as well as of the soul, 
and by God's power he raised the dead merely by making use 
of the oil that is in the sanctuary of this martyrium. I do 
not ask you to accept second-hand evidence, for I saw the 
miracle performed with my own eyes, and I will now describe 
to you how it happened. 

A certain wealthy man called Alexander, who lived in this 
very city, had a wife who was barren, and the lack of a son to 
inherit his property was a sore grief to him and to his wife. 
Having heard of the might of Saint Victor, they visited his 
shrine one day, and made an offering to his martyrium, and 
prayed for a son, whom, if given to them, they promised to 
dedicate to the service of the martyrium. The saint granted 
their petition, and a son was born to them, and they called 
him Victor. When the child was five years of age his parents 
repented of their promise to devote him to the service of 
Saint Victor, and, instead of sending him to the martyrium. 


they sold a slave child, and sent the price that they re- 
ceived for him to the martyr's shrine. Some few days later, 
whilst their son was playing with his friends near the house, 
a stone from the corner of the house fell upon him and killed 
him. Distraught Avith grief the unhappy parents bewailed 
the loss of their child, and they remembered with keen con- 
trition how they had defrauded the saint of his services. 
Alexander in his distress bethought himself of Saint Victor, 
and taking up the dead body of his child in his arms he 
carried it into the sanctuary, and prayed to the saint for help. 
This done, he took a little oil from the lamp in the sanctuary, 
and having touched the lips, breast, and belly of the child 
therewith, the soul of the boy returned to his body, and he 
opened his eyes. Alexander took him home amid the acclama- 
tions of the crowd, and he gave many slaves and other posses- 
sions to the sanctuary, and he himself ministered in the shrine 
until the day of his death. The child also became a servant 
of the martyrium, and at length became a presbyter, and 
Saint Victor used to appear unto him from time to time. 

And again, let me describe to you another miracle wrought 
by Saint Victor. A niece of the Emperor Honorius, called 
Kallieutropia, was lying down during the great heat of the 
day, when suddenly a devil leaped into her breasts, which 
immediately began to swell and to throb and to cause her 
great agony ; after this the}' shrivelled up and became very 
hard, and they hung down before her like stones, causing her 
much pain both by day and by night. Her appeal to physicians 
brought her no relief, and Celestinus cynically sums up his 
remarks about the professors of medicine with a quotation 
meaning that if they really do possess wisdom they keep it 
inside themselves. At length Kallieutropia, hearing of the 
miracles wrought by Victor, went to the shrine of the saint, 
accompanied by her husband and brother, and on the night 
after her arrival Victor appeared to her, and told her to 
anoint her breasts with the oil from the lamp in the sane- 



taary. The next morning she asked the presbyter who had 
charge of the lamp to give her some oil, and when he had 
done so and she rubbed her breasts therewith, the devil in the 
form of a gryphon leaped out of them, like a flash of fire. 
Her breasts immediately resumed their natural shape, and she 
was healed, and as a mark of her gratitude she made many 
splendid gifts to the martyrium. 

When the Emperor Honorius heard of his sister's cure, he 
paid great honour to Victor, and he began to rebuild the 
apse of his church, and to decorate the woodwork with gold. 
Whilst one of the men was working on a scaffold at a consider- 
able height from the ground, the Devil, who hated to see 
Victor's shrine made beautiful, smote the workman with some 
object which he had in his hand, and he began to fall to the 
ground. But before he reached it, and whilst he was still 
about five feet from the pavement, Victor suddenly appeared, 
and, seizing the workman's hand, held him suspended in the 
air, and then he took him up and set him by the side of his 
fellow workmen.^ Afterwards the workman declared that the 
devil was in the form of a huge creature, with outspread 
wings and eyes of fire. 

Again, a certain patrician was stricken with a disease, 
which made his body to swell and to become as large as 
a pillar, and sometimes the skin of his feet would burst and 
discharge pus freely. Physicians of all kinds attempted to 
cure him, but they failed to do so, and even the Archiators of 
Rome, who were sent to him with special instructions from the 
Emperors, were powerless to afford him relief. At length 
the patrician was carried into the martyrium of Victor, where 
he prayed to be made whole. On the night after his arrival 
the saint appeared to him in a dream, and laying upon the 
body of the sick man the rod which was in his hand, he 
promised to cure him that very day. On hearing these words 

^ This story is well known, and is usually told of the Virgin Mary 
and a certain painter. See my Miracles oflhe Virgin, London, 1900, p. 86. 


the patient suddenly felt great relief, for his swollen body 
discharged such a mass of pus that his bed was filled there- 
with. He recovered from his sickness, and ascribed glory to 
God, and gave rich gifts to the martyrium. 

Now if I were to spend all my time in relating the miracles 
of Victor, I should never reach the end of them, and I should 
never be able to describe adequately the honour, and glory, 
and power of the saint. Wherever there is a martyrium 
built in his name there do wonders of healing abound. You 
must not imagine that Victor's power of working miracles is 
confined to his shrine in Antioch, for his power to heal 
pervadeth every part of the world. In order to make 
this quite clear I will relate to you the case of the sick 
general who lived in Rome, This man was sixty years of 
age, and he suffered greatly from some kind of internal 
growth; as in all the other cases which I have quoted the 
physicians received their fees, but gave him no relief. At 
length he made a voyage to Antioch, and entering into the 
martyrium of Victor, he remained there for two days, but 
experienced no relaxation of his pain. On the night of the 
third day he felt a little relief, and Victor appeared to him, 
and told him to go back to Rome, and to drink some of the 
water which he would find in the vessel in the chamber of 
the altar of sacrifice. Victor then asked him why he had 
taken the trouble to come to Antioch, and why he did 
not go to his martyrium in Rome. He went on to tell the 
sick man that his power was as effective in Rome as in 
Antioch, and that if he did not go back and seek it in his 
martyrium in Rome he would never be healed. In the 
morning the sick man, having given rich gifts to the shrine, 
re-embarked and sailed back to Rome, and went at once to the 
martyrium of Victor, which had only been recently built in 
that city, and drank water from the sanctuary as he had been 
ordered. His pain was at once relieved, and he lay down on 
his bed and slept the whole night. At dawn Victor appeared 


to the sick man^ and explained to him that it was he who had 
appeared to him in Antioch, and repeating what he had told 
him there as to the all-pervading character of his power of 
healing, he promised to cure him of his disease. When the 
morning came the sick man found that the growth inside 
him had burst, and he therefore recovered immediately. 

Ye see, beloved, how great are the miracles which are 
wrought by Victor in all his shrines, and we must believe in 
them, for if we do not they will be useless to us, and our 
unbelief will cause our own condemnation. But I will not 
waste time, and I will now tell you of another miracle of 
Victor's. A very rich nobleman of this city, called Anastasius, 
was smitten with elephantiasis when he was one hundred years 
old, and his body, which was as white as snow, became 
covered with spots, like a leopard's. He went into the 
shrine of Victor, and remained there for two days praying to 
be healed. Whilst he was there a man was brought in who 
was suffering from granulation of the eyes and was blind, and 
he was laid upon a bed near that of Anastasius. That night 
Saint Victor appeared to Anastasius, and told him that if he 
took the blind man by the hand, and the two of them went 
and dipped themselves three times in water drawn from the 
pool by the door of the martyrium, in the Name of the 
Trinity, they should be healed. In the morning Anastasius 
wished to take the blind man to the pool, but he objected, 
saying that the physicians had told him not to let water 
touch his head. Anastasius persisted, and at length the 
blind man agreed to go with him; and when he had filled 
a large bath with water from the pool, and they had dipped 
themselves in it three times, once in the Name of each 
Person of the Trinity, Anastasius was cured of his disease, 
and the blind man received his sight. Of this miracle 
Celestinus says he was an eyewitness. 

Saint Victor also displayed his power in other very remark- 
able ways, and Celestinus quotes the following example. On 



one occasion, when Constantine and his nobles were gathered 
together in the church of Saint Victor to celebrate the 
Eucharist, a messenger called Rouraentros arrived from the 
Eparch of the Frontier, asking the Emperor to dispatch 
troops at once to resist an invasion of the Barbarians. The 
Emperor sent back a message to the Eparch telling him that 
he would come with troops on the morrow, and then he and 
his nobles prayed to Victor for deliverance until the tenth 
hour of the day. When the Archbishop had pronounced the 
benediction, and the congregation was about to disperse, 
another messenger arrived saying that the enemy had slain 
each other, and that the Eparch had collected much spoil, 
which was then on its way to the Emperor. Constantine 
began to pray at the second hour of the day, and in that very 
hour Victor destroyed the Barbarians ! 

Celestinus next exhorts his hearers to make themselves 
acceptable to Saint Victor by leading good and holy lives, 
and to remember that we are pilgrims and strangers upon the 
earth, and that death may come upon us at any moment. 
This being so, how foolish it is of men to heap up riches, and 
to put their confidence in hoards of gold and silver ! Your 
wealth is given you so that you may enjoy this world and 
the next, but if the possessors of wealth allow Satan to 
prevent them from giving to the poor, their reward in the 
next world will be never-ending punishment, instead of bliss. 
You can take nothing away with you when you leave this 
world : why then lay up treasure uselessly ? Take my 
advice : Redeem your sins by charity, and let alms to the poor 
wipe out your offences. Thus ye will enjoy the imperishable 
riches of heaven for ever. If you were going to meet a king 
of this world you would send on gifts before you ; how much 
more then ought you to send on gifts to the King of the 
Universe, that Awful and Terrible God ! Remember your 
last hours, when you lie dying on your beds, and your 
feverish eyes look out of sunken sockets and see the Powers, 


with their terrifying- faces, which have come to carry away 
your souls ! And think what an awful thing it is to fall into 
the hands of the Living- God ! What good will your riches 
be to you then ? 

Man^s life is a thing of naught, and especially if the life 
be that of the sinner. If he be rich, how do his riches help 
him ? Tell me, O rich man, what rest dost thou find in thy 
riches ? All thy time is occupied with business, i. e. in lending 
money or in buying and selling, and thou hast just as much 
anxiety as the man who lacketh bread. Thy life is one long 
grief. Whilst thou art building houses, and sailing merchant 
ships, and oppressing the poor, and robbing the widows, thy 
life is slipping away, and at last thou must depart and leave 
thy houses, cattle-sheds, barns, vineyards, and ships behind 
thee ! For the sinner there is only suffering and sorrow in 
this world (even if he live one hundred years therein), and 
in the next. [This argument is elaborated by Celestinus, 
who quotes an interesting passage from a Discourse by 
St. Athanasius on the Soul and Body.] When the Execu- 
tioners (i. e. an order of Angels), with their eyes shooting out 
fire, seize thy soul, O sinner, and carry it off to Amente, 
where wilt thou find rest ? There thou wilt see all the poor 
vv^hom thou hast robbed, and all thy false oaths, and murders, 
and sins shall stand up before thee, in visible forms, and the 
Judge shall cry out, ' Cast him into the outer darkness.'' Thou 
canst only escape this doom by repenting and giving alms. 

I have addressed you at great length, beloved, but it is for 
the good of your souls, and the tears which ye are shedding 
shall become unto you as fountains of salvation. I should 
never have attempted to sadden you in this wise, only my 
mind was carried away, and I saw Saint Victor standing 
before me, and he told me to speak to you for the welfare of 
your souls. ' Save their souls,^ said he, ' on the day of my 
commemoration, and their repentance will please me more 
than ten thousand encomiums.' So I have spoken unto you. 


my sons and my daughters, and I ask you to give gifts to 
the saint this day, so that they may go on in advance of you, 
and cause him to make supplication to the True Shepherd on 
our behalf. But I am so carried away by my interest in you 
that I am almost forgetting the miracles of Saint Victor 
about which I wish to speak, and indeed I am like unto 
a man who hath tried to swim across an arm of the sea 
or a large river, but who, owing to his insufficient strength, 
hath been overwhelmed by the weaves and sucked under them 
by the current. I will, however, change the subject of my 
discourse, and will relate to you a few out of the many 
miracles which have taken place in this martyrium, and which 
I have seen with my own eyes. There was a certain rich man 
in this city who presented a very large quantity of wine an- 
nually to the shrine of Saint Victor ; one part of the wine was 
used sacramentally, and the other was given to the sick. 
God blessed the possessions of this man, and the man took care 
to devote to Saint Victor a due proportion of his increasing 
wealth. At length the man fell ill of a mortal disease, and 
before he died he called his son to him, and told him to 
continue, and even to increase, the family contribution to 
Saint Victor's shrine. This the son promised to do, but as 
soon as he became owner of the whole of his father's property 
he failed to carry out his promise. The grape harvest was 
abundant, but he cut off the annual wine-offering to the 
sanctuary, and ordered all the wine that was made to be 
stored until the arrival of the merchants from Palestine. 
In due course the merchants came with money in their 
hands to make purchases freely, but when they sampled 
the wine put before them they found it worthless, and 
declined to buy any. They w^ere surprised at its poor 
quality, and could not understand what had happened to 
it. So they took their money back and departed to their 
own country, leaving the man sad and dejected. 

Then the man began to realize that it was the displeasure 


of Saint Victor^ which was provoked by his avarice, that had 
made the wine go bad, and one night the saint appeared to 
him and told him that he had destroyed the wine because liis 
customary offering had been withdrawn. And he went on to 
tell him that he would have destroyed him and his vineyard 
utterly, had he not held in remembrance the righteousness of 
his father. When the man heard the rebuke of Saint Victor he 
entreated him to forgive him, and promised to give one-half 
of his goods to his shrine that very year. Saint Victor 
pardoned the man, and promised to restore his wine to its 
normal excellence, and on the following morning, when the 
man went to his wine-cellar, he found that his wine was 
sound and good. The man paid the vows which he had 
vowed, and became a truly religious and generous man. 
After further exhortations to his hearers to lead a pure and 
holy life, Celestinus says that he must bring his discourse to 
an end, for it is now time to begin the service of the Holy 
Offering. He admits that his remarks have been perhaps 
unduly long, and excuses himself on the ground that his 
audience was thirsting for the waters of the Word of God, 
and for information about the mighty deeds of Saint Victor. 

3. The Life and Mahtyudom oy Eustathitjs a:nd 
OF Theopiste. 

According to the Coptic text herein published, Eustathius 
was one of the Generals of the Emperor Trajan, and he 
suffered martyrdom, together with his wife and their two 
sons, in Home, on the twentieth day of the month Thoth 
(September 17). He is undoubtedly the Eustachius who was 
called ' Placidus ' before his conversion to Christianity, and 
who, according to some authorities,^ suffered martyrdom 
under Hadrian a. d. 118. He is commemorated by the 
Greek Church on September 20 and by the Latin Church 
on November 2. Plaketas, or Placidus, was a member of 

^ See Tillomont, Memoires, ii. 22fi. 


a rich and powerful family, and was a kinsman of the 
Emperor ; he was of Greek descent. He was kind to all men, 
and g-enerous to the poor, and although he spent much money 
in ransoming those who had been condemned to death, he was 
not a Christian. His wife was adorned with every virtue in 
the same degree as her husband, but she was an idolater, and 
their two sons were brought up to emulate the good works of 
their parents. Placidus was a great hunter and a bold and 
fearless warrior, and the Barbarians trembled at the mere 
mention of his name. One day he went out to hunt, 
accompanied by his soldiers and slaves, and he saw a herd 
of deer feeding, and ordered his followers to give chase. 
Suddenly a magnificent stag separated itself from the herd, 
and fled for safety to a dense thicket on the mountain. 
Placidus and some of his followers gave chase, but the soldiers 
were exhausted long before the thicket was reached, and 
Placidus rode into it alone, and after several hours brought 
the animal to bay on a high hill. Whilst he stood looking 
at the stag, and wondering how he could net him, there 
suddenly appeared a cross of brilliant light between the 
horns of the animal,^ and a figure of the body of Christ. 
And a voice of a man cried out to Placidus, saying, ' Why 
dost thou hunt Me ? ' The voice went on to say that the 
Speaker was Jesus, Who wished Placidus to become His 
servant, and to receive baptism at the hands of the high priest 
of the Christians. When Placidus had been baptized he was 
to return to the thicket in the mountain, where Christ would 
appear to him and declare to him the mystery of salvation. 

Placidus went down the moimtain, and returned to his 
wife, and told her of his vision, and as she had also received 
a miraculous communication from our Lord, she was ready to 

1 A similar story is told by the writers of the legendary history of 
St. Hubert, the first bishop of Liege, who died abovit 727, and was 
regarded for several centuries as the patron saint of huntsmen. See 
Ads SS., Nov. 3; Butler, Lives of the Saints, Nov. 3 ; and de Smedt, Vie de 
St. Hubert, Brussels, 1878, No. 3. 


take her sons and to go witk her husband to be baptized. 
They left their house secretly at midnight, with a few slaves, 
and went to the high priest, and told him all that had hap- 
pened unto them. Then the high priest catechized them, 
and baptized them in the Name oi the Holy Trinity, and 
administered to them the Eucharist, and gave them new 
names : to Placidus he gave the name of Eustathius, to his wife 
the name of Theopiste, and their two sons he called Agapiiis 
and Theopistus respectively. Next morning Eustathius 
returned to the mountain, and when he had dismissed his 
escort he went to the place in the thicket where he had seen 
the cross of light and heard the voice, and when he had prayed 
for direction and guidance the Lord answered and told him 
that he would have to endure much tribulation, and that 
he would eventually suffer martyrdom. In reply to his 
prayer for strength to endure, the Lord commanded him to 
fight, and promised that His Grace should protect him. 
Eustathius then returned to his house, and told his wife all 
that had happened to him. 

Very soon after this the tribulations which Christ had 
foretold began to attack Eustathius, First of all, the plague 
broke out in his house, and all his slaves died; and next his 
sheep, cattle, and horses all died. Eustathius and his family 
then removed to another house temporarily, and whilst they 
were there thieves entered their old home and stripped it 
bare, and thus Eustathius was reduced to absolute want. 
When the Emperor and his nobles heard what had happened 
they were very sorry, but no one held out a band to assist 
Eustathius in his need. When Theopiste saw that their case 
was desperate, she urged her husband to leave the neighbour- 
hood in which they had become a laughing-stock. That same 
night they took their sons, and departed, and set out for the 
sea-coast, where they found a ship about to sail for Egypt. 
On this they embarked, and when it arrived at its destination 
Eustathius had no money to pay their fare before landing. 


On the voyage the captain of the ship had east his eyes upon 
TheopistO;, and seeing that she was beautiful, fell in love with 
her, and told Eustathius that he and his two sons might 
leave the ship, and that he would keep Theopiste in lieu 
of the fare for the whole family which Eustathius owed him. 
Eustathius protested violently at this arrangement, and made 
himself so troublesome that the captain told the sailors to 
heave him overboard. When Eustathius discovered this he 
was obliged to submit, and taking his two sons he left the 
ship. After marching with them for some time he came 
to a river that had been flooded by the recent rains, and he 
wished to swim across it. Leaving one son on the bank, 
he placed the other on his neck, and started to swim across 
with him ; when he reached the opposite bank, he deposited 
his son there, and swam back to fetch the other son. Whilst 
he was swimming back he lifted up his eyes, and saw that 
a lion had seized the one son, and was dragging him off to 
his lair; but he consoled himself, thinking that he still had 
one son left. When, however, he lifted up his eyes again, 
he saw that the other son was being carried away by a wolf. 
In his despair Eustathius was about to drown himself, but 
this God did not permit. Meanwhile Providence took care 
of the boys, for some shej^herds pursued the lion that was 
carrying off the one child, and made the beast drop him, 
and some ploughmen followed the wolf, and took away the 
other, neither child being in the least degree injured. As the 
shepherds and the ploughmen Jived in the same vilJag'e, they 
took the children there, and they grew up in the same place. 

In deep dejection Eustathius moved about the country from 
place to place, and at length he obtained work in a village 
called Bassos, where he earned his daily bread. After a time 
the chiefs of the village made him watchman of the village 
orchards, and he held this post for ten years, and received 
his wages. Meanwhile his two sons were being brought up 
in the village, neither knowing the identity of the other. 


And their father did not know that they were his sons. 
During this long- period Eiistathius had no news of his wife, 
whom the captain of the ship had carried off to his own 
country, and there, under God's protection, she preserved her 
chastity. When the captain died Theopiste decided to remain 
where she was. Some time after this the people of the 
country rebelled, and invaded the territory of the Romans, 
and Trajan was in sore need of the assistance of Eustathius 
his old general. One day, when he felt his absence deeply, 
he promised to promote to great honour the man who should 
give him such information as would lead to the discovery 
of Eustathius, and to appoint him a yearly salary. Hearing 
these words two soldiers, called Antiochus and Acacius, who 
had been servants of Eustathius, made up their minds to earn 
these rewards, and they searched all the country carefully 
to find him. Their travels brought them to the village where 
Eustathius was, and he at once recognized them by their 
peculiar carriage and gait; but they did not know him. 
In due course they came up to him and asked him if he knew 
where Eustathius and his wife and sons were, and promised 
to pay him for any information about them which he could 
give them. In reply Eustathius invited them to his house, 
and then went and brought some food and wine to give them. 
"Whilst they were eating and drinking they looked at their 
host carefully, and at length they came to the conclusion 
that he resembled Eustathius closely. They remembered that 
their master had on his neck the scar of an old wound received 
in battle, and determined to take an opportunity of looking 
for it. Presently they saw the scar, and rushing at Eustathius 
they kissed him, and rejoiced in the discovery of their former 

Antiochus and Acacius reported their success to the Emperor, 
and set out with Eustathius to journey to the place where 
Trajan was. Fifteen days later they marched into the presence 
of Trajan, who kissed Eustathius, and listened to his history, 


and then restored him to his military rank. Trajan entrusted 
the formation of an array to fight the Barbarians to Eustathius, 
who sent out an edict ordering his officers in every town to 
enlist recruits. Among- the recruits drafted to him Eustathius 
found his own two sons, and finding them well-mannered and 
well-conducted he took them into his personal service, and 
he liked them very much, and they ate at his own table. 
When the array was ready Eustathius set out to do battle 
with the Barbarians beyond a river called Hydaspes, and 
when he had conquered them, and had laid waste the whole 
country, Providence led him back through the district wherein 
his wife Theopiste had taken up her abode in a small house 
situated in a garden. There he rested for three days, and his 
two lieutenants, who were in reality his sons, were quartered 
on Theopiste. One day Theopiste heard them talking 
together in her garden, and she heard one of them telling 
the other how he had been carried off by a lion into the 
desert when he was a child. When the other heard this 
story he leaped up and claimed him as his brother, saying 
that the shepherds who had saved him from the claws of 
a wolf had told him the story. As Theopiste heard the story 
being told she felt that the two young men were her sons, 
and she was greatly moved. On the following day she 
obtained an audience of the General, and as a Roman 
matron asked him to assist her to return to her native land. 
Whilst she was talking to him she recognized him as her 
]ono--lost husband, and threw herself down before him 
and begged him to declare himself. Eustathius rose up, 
and embraced her, and they thanked God for their reunion. 
Theopiste then told Eustathius about the two young men 
in her garden, and when he questioned them he found that 
they were indeed his sons, and thus the whole family were 
once more united. And when the conquest of the Barbarians 
was ended they collected much spoil and returned to their 
native land with very many prisoners and captives. 


Whilst Eustathius and liis family were returning Trajan 
clied_, and was succeeded by Hadrian. On returning- to RomCj 
Hadrian, who had gone out to meet Eustathius^ invited him 
to go into the temple of Apollo and offer up sacrifice. This 
Eustathius refused to do^ and when the Emperor heard him 
proclaim the sovereignty of Christy and his devotion to His 
service^ he was filled with wrath^ and cast him out of his 
presence. When Hadrian saw that Eustathius and his family 
were unmoved by his wrath and threats^ he ordered them to 
be taken to the stadium and given to the lions. When this 
had been done, the mighty lion that had been brought to 
devour them advanced to Eustathius^ and knelt down and 
placed his head on the ground and worshipped him ; having 
done this, the beast rose up and walked out of the stadium. 
Hadrian then ordered Eustathius and Theoj^iste and their 
sons to be burned alive in a brazen bull, and they were 
thrown into one, and their bodies were left there for three 
days. By the Emperor^s orders they were then brought out 
from the bull, and they were found to be in a perfect state 
of preservation. In the evening the Christians came and 
carried away the bodies and buried them secretly in Rome, 
and when the persecution was ended they built" a martyrium 
over them, and they commemorated these martyrs on the 
twentieth day of the month of Thoth, which is here identified 
with the Roman month of December. 

4. The Life op Apa Cyrus. 

The Life of Apa Cyrus is attributed to Pambo, the 

presbyter of the famous church at Scete. Soon after Pambo 

had provided for the preservation of the body of Princess 

Hilaria,^ a daughter of the Emperor Zeno, he saw a vision, 

and in it heard a voice telling him to go to the desert on the 

sea-coast, and seek out thie anchorite, the latchets of whose 

^ Her wonderful healing powers are described in the Ethiopic Synax- 
arium; see Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 6C0, Month Ter, day 21 
(Fol. 133 b, coh 2£f.) 


shoes no man was worthy to unloose. Thereupon Pambo 
rose up and went into the desert, and after marching for some 
time he arrived at a monk's cell, and having cried out 
' Bless me ' three times, according to the custom of the 
monks, was told to enter. There he found Apa Ilierax, who 
had been living there for eighteen years on dates. Having 
found from him that there were monks living still further in 
the desert, Pambo departed, and in due course came to the 
habitation of Pamoun, who was wearing a tattered garment, 
the original colour of which had faded in patches. Seeing 
this garment Pambo made some kind of jocular remark, the 
exact sense of which is not clear to me, and Pamoun replied 
that the garment liad served him for clothing during both 
winter and summer for twenty years, and that it would be 
large enough to serve as his shroud. Pambo, learning from 
Pamoun that a very holy brother lived yet further in the 
desert, set out to visit him, and when he had journeyed about 
a mile the same angel who carried the prophet Habakkuk to 
Babylon lifted him up and carried him to that brother's 
cell. In answer to Pambo's knock a voice bade him enter, 
and as he went in he saw that brother roll to the door of his 
cell without difficulty a stone which twelve men were trying 
to move. When Pambo asked the brother his name he said 
that it was Cyrus, and that he was the brother of the Emperor 
Theodosius, and that, seeing all society had become utterly 
corrupt, he had forsaken the world and retired into the desert. 
Pambo asked him if there was any brother living beyond him 
in the desert, and he replied that there was nothing in the 
desert beyond him except darkness and lasting punishments. 
Pambo seems to have wished to leave him, but Cyrus told 
him to sit down and that he should see wonders. At dawn 
on the following Sunday morning Pambo heard voices, and 
felt the mountain crumbling under him, but Cyrus bade him 
not to be afraid. Whilst they were talking the door of the 
cell opened of its own accord, and Christ, in the form of a 


man, went up to Cyrus and kissed him, mouth to mouth. 
Cyrus then told Pambo that Apa Shenoute had died that day, 
though how he obtained his information is not clear^ and he 
asked Pambo to pray for him, for he felt that he was going 
to die. On the following day Cyrus died, and whilst Pambo 
was weeping over him Christ opened the door of the cell, and 
came in and stood by the body and wept over it. When 
Christ left the cell multitudes of angels came and stood there, 
and one of them, Peter Bar-iona, informed Pambo that Christ 
had taken the souls of Cyrus and Shenoute to heaven. A 
little later, whilst Pambo was wondering how he should 
dispose of Cyrus^'s body, Christ returned to the cell and took 
it away with Him. When the Saviour had gone up into 
heaven, Pambo returned to the monks Pamoun and Hierax^ 
and told them all that he had seen, and then he returned to 
Scete, and wrote down the narrative described above, and 
placed it in the church there for the use of the monks, 

5. The Encomium or Flavianus on Demetuius, 
Patriauch of Alexandria. 

If material foods which are produced by God^s rain make 
gladness in men, how much more should the fruits of the 
Spirit give us pleasure and joy. Hearken unto me, and I will 
describe the fruits of the Spirit, and I will at the same time 
attempt to declare unto yon a little of the historj of the 
glorious saint, who was filled with the fruits of the Spirit, 
and whose festival we are commemorating this day. Be it 
known to you that he was arrayed in virginity and also in 
holy matrimony, which are the foundations of true virtue. 
Some one among my hearers may say that a man cannot 
become a virgin after he hath married a wife, but Scripture 
saith that some men are born eunuchs, and others make 
themselves to be so, and, in my opinion, the latter class 
deserveth the greater praise. It is absurd to compare David^s 
fight with Goliath, or with the lion, or with the bear, with 


the fight of the man who tricth to subdue his own lusts. 
When Goliath was once killed he gave David no further 
trouble, and it was the same in the case of the lion and the 
bear. But with the man who is fighting against his lusts, 
he must struggle every day and all day. Coming now to the 
subject of our Encomium, I mean Demetrius, Patriarch of 
Alexandria, we may note that he was descended from an old 
and famous Alexandrian family. During the troubled times 
that followed the death of his predecessor, the patriarchal 
throne remained empty for some years, but at length the 
Christians of Alexandria determined to elect a Patriarch, and 
their choice fell upon Demetrius, who was a second Joseph, 
and whom they elected unanimously. Inasmuch as Demetrius 
had a wife you may object to my comparing him with Joseph, 
and thoiigh I can give good reason for doing so, I admit that, 
as he was elected a bishop, he ought not to have had a wife 
living with him. According to the Canons of the Apostles 
there was no need for him to put away his wife, but things 
which are lawful are not always expedient. In spite of his 
numerous virtues, and the excellent example of his life on the 
Alexandrian Church, many captious folk objected to his wife 
being with him, and they wished him to put her away. One 
night the Angel of the Lord appeared to him, and told him 
that the relations which existed between himself and his wife 
must be explained to the congregation, and he told him to 
make the explanation to the people after celebrating the 
Eucharist on the following day, which was Pentecost. 

When it was day, and the Eucharist was ended, he told 
the archdeacon not to allow any member of the congregation 
to leave the church, and to ask each of them to meet him in 
the Chapter House. When the people had assembled there, 
and taken their seats, Demetrius prayed, and then, having 
obtained their permission for his wife to join them, he sent 
one of his men to bring her. When she had come into the 
chamber, Demetrius lighted a fire, and took up several pieces 


of blazing- wood and dropped them into the hollow in his 
garments between his leg's, and the onlookers marvelled that 
his apparel did not catch fire. Then he transferred the blazing 
fire to his wife's garments, which did not catch fire^ and she 
herself remained unharmed. Both Demetrius and his wife 
had successfully fought ag-ainst the lust of the body^ and they 
were therefore not burnt. When the congregation asked 
Demetrius what these acts symbolized, he narrated his history 
to them. His wife lost her father when she was a little ffirl, 
and his father brought her to his own house, where she 
w'as brought up. When Demetrius was fifteen years of age 
his father betrothed the girl to him, and shortly after they 
were married, but the marriage was never consummated, and 
up to the time when Demetrius w^as speaking both husband 
and wife were virgins. When the men in the Chapter House 
heard these things they threw themselves at the Patriarch's 
feet, and declared him to be the ^most noble of all created 
beings '. 

I will now relate to you a few facts about another Patriarch 
of Alexandria, who was called Peter, and who was at one 
time an officer of Diocletian. In his time there lived in 
Antioch a man called Zokrator, who had a wife called 
Marturia, and two sons, whose names were Philopator and 
Eutropius. Zokrator was a baptized Christian, but he had 
apostatized, and objected to his sons being- baptized. When 
Marturia found her arguments useless, she rose up, and took 
her two boys, and embarked on a ship about to sail for 
Alexandria. Soon after they sailed a violent storm arose, 
and Marturia, fearing- that her boys would be drowned 
unbaptized, made a cut in one of her breasts, and drew out 
three drops of blood, and made the Sign of the Cross with 
them upon their foreheads and breasts, in the Name of the 
Holy Trinity. When God saw her faith. He stilled the storm 
and brought the ship in safety to Alexandria. When Marturia 
arrived there she found the city decorated and draped in 


white, and when she asked the reason they told her that all 
the Christian children were going to be baptized on the 
following day. Then she went to a certain deacon^ and asked 
him to arrange an interview for her with the Patriarchy so 
that her boys might be baptized. The deacon told her that 
a special interview was unnecessary, and that if she took them 
to the church on the morrow the Patriarch would baptize them 
in the ordinary way. On the following day she presented her 
children_, but when the Patriarch began to baptize them the 
water in the font turned to stone; three attempts he made 
to baptize them, and three times the water turned to stone. 
Peter then sent for Marturia, and she told him her story, and 
when he had heard it he decided that it was the Lord Himself 
Who had baptized her children in the sea. 

When she returned to Antioch, Zokrator, her husband, 
accused her of having committed adultery in Alexandria, 
and appealed to the Emperor to avenge his cause. When 
Diocletian heard that she had been with Peter he was furious, 
because he had never forgotten the homily which the Patriarch 
had preached him on the folly of worshipping idols. And he 
sent a tribune and soldiers straightway to behead him, and 
they did so. Then turning to Marturia, the Emperor asked 
her if she had committed fornication with the Christians, and 
when she denied that the Christians sinned in this way, 
and refused to descri!:)e what took place in the church at 
Alexandria, he ordered his soldiers to bind her hands and 
feet, and to lift her two boys on to her body, and then to 
burn all three. And with this incident I must bring my 
Encomium to an end. 

6. The Asketikon of Apa Epiihaim. 

There is nothing in the text of this work that enables us to 
fix the identity of the writer. It is clear from several of his 
remarks that he was not a young man when he wrote his 
Asketikon, and that he belonged to the earlier school of 


solitaries, or anchorites, who hved the strictest possible lives 
of ascetic excellence. He says : My sufferings and grief 
urge me to speak, and my un worthiness and sins urge me 
to keep silence; but I must have relief, so I will speak. 
When I consider our state of sinful ignorance I could weep 
day and night, and we are so puffed up with pride that we do 
not understand our peril. Abundant light and guidance are 
to be obtained from the lives and teachings of the saints of 
old, and what man is there who is not improved by the 
contemplation of their meekness, self-denial, and holiness? 
But we have abandoned the old straight paths for ways of 
pain, and no man is willing to suffer for God's sake. We 
have no right feeling, we are wrathful, lazy, slothful, envious, 
proud, arrogant, and we are lovers of dress, and vainglory, 
and personal comfort. Our disciples want to teach the law 
before they have learned it, and to pose as deeply learned 
before they have learned the alphabet ! They want to rule 
others before they have learned to rule themselves. A 
disciple of means expecteth to be treated with special con- 
sideration, and the poor man in entering the monastic life is 
seeking a life of laziness. We are careless and self-satisfied, 
and we should continue to be so even if earthquakes were to 
rend the earth, or the Persians were to invade our country and 
lay it waste. Let us repent, and fast, and keep vigil, and 
walk in truth, but do not let us rush into frantic extremes of 
feeling. It is useless to wear coarse sackcloth to-day if we 
seek for a shirt made of byssus to-morrow, and to sleep on the 
ground to-day, but to-morrow on some bed which is piled high 
upon cushions. Let moderation be your guide, and set bounds 
to your ascetic practices, and persevere to maintain uniformity 
in the excellence of your conduct. Let us emulate the saints 
of old, and copy their perseverance and moderation, and their 
fixity of purpose in good works and in ascetic labours. More- 
over, we must be prepared for the coming of the great and 
awful day of the Lord, for it is drawing nigh, and when the 


wickedness of Antichrist is completed, and the Roman Empire 
at an end, what is written shall be fulfilled. If you 
wish to escape from the fire of Gehenna, fight, keep vigil, 
be sober, watch, and keep your lamps burning- and oil in 
your flasks. 

Above all repent, and hearken to the words of the Lord. 
We are spiritual merchants, therefore let us buy the Precious 
Stone, the Pearl, that is, Christ Jesus. Know ye not that we 
are branches of the Vine, Christ ? Take heed that ye bear 
fruit, for the branches which have no fruit on them will be 
lopped oil and burnt. Our harvest is nearly ripe, and the 
reapers are getting ready ; let us take heed that there are no 
tares among our corn. We are all bound to sail over the sea 
of terror, whereon are the wnnds which blow us into the 
Valley of Judgement, and the Judgement of God is an awful 
thing. All kinds of vices and sins flourish among us because 
the love of God is not in us, and we have no concern for His 
Glory. Our mouth is always open, we never cease to chatter, 
and words, good or bad, we pour out incessantly ; if we go on 
in this way the garb of the monk will not benefit us in any 
way. Trust not, O monk, in thy garb, for it shall not save 
thee. Do not attempt to excuse yourselves by saying that the 
passions of the body are merely the operations of the finictions 
of nature, and that the man who gratifies them is blameless. 
And be careful that you do not become your own accusers. 
I tell you that it is the unnatural and excessive use of the 
functions of the body wliich tendeth to sin. The man who 
eateth to satisfy his hunger, or drinketh to quench his thirst, 
is blameless, but the glutton and the swiller are abominable. 
Associated with the sight of the eye is the thought of lust or 
evil, but if by the act of deliberate choice we stablish the evil 
habit of lusting with the eyes, great will be our condemnation 
before the Husbandman of the True Vine, that is to say, the 
Christ. Evil thoughts result in evil habits, which will become 
stablished in the man who forsakes the Law-giver. Repent, 


I say, and weep, and then the Law-giver shall eradicate these 
hahits from thy mind and body. 

AVe must, moreover, ascribe glory to God for Ilis love to 
lis, and for the compassion which He hath shewn us, for He 
hath redeemed us. Think of all He hath done for us, and 
yet a hand made of mud, and dust, and ashes dared to thrust 
itself in the Face of Christ, Who made the heavens and the 
earth ! We are invited to an inheritance in heaven, and yet 
wc think wholly about the things of earth ! What shall we 
say to the Judge at the last d .y when He remindeth us of what 
He did for us ? We shall stand before Him with millions of 
angels about us, and we shall not be able to lie then. Wake 
up ! Prepare for the Judgement ! Cease to care for things 
material, and devote thyself to the consideration of the gifts 
of vigil, and prayer, and fasting, which thou shouldst send 
on before thee to the Judge. What is the good of saying 
'I have died to the world', when thy mind is continually 
running on the things of the world ? Death shall come upon 
thee suddenly, and dost thou think to cajole him to let thee 
remain on the earth ? But hearken to me, and be wise ; of 
the lightest word account must be rendered in the Day of 
Judgement. Woe be to the careless monk ! I tremble and 
weep when I see with my mind's eye the Paradise of Joy, 
and the fiery furnace of Gehenna, and the examination before 
the throne of Christ. I entreat you, brethren, to w^eep before 
Him day and night, with prayers and psalms, so that we 
may avoid the place of weeping and gnashing of teeth, and 
the sleepless worm, and may attain to the fullness of the 
sweetness of righteousness, and to the Paradise of God 
for ever. 

7. Epistle or Epiihaim to a Beloved Disciple. 

When thou wouldst answer, O my beloved, set humility on 
thy mouth, for it is the greatest of all the ascetic virtues, and 
no passion can harm the man that is humble. Hold thy peace 


until thou art questioned, and then speak humbly and simply ; 
be not troubled^ but if the question be too hard for thee to 
answer sit down. Join not in belittling a man^ but listen 
well to every word that hath profit in it. Learn the rules of 
the monastic life, and settle down in one place, and do not 
change thy abode in the desert frequently. Make not friends 
with a restless man, and avoid being talked about. Let thy 
chief aim be to learn, and obedience will give thee rest. As 
for the rules of life for the monk, these are they : (1) Eat 
with the brethren. (2) Lift not thy face whilst eating. 
Eat in thine ordinary attire. (3) Be patient; expect not to 
be served first. (4) When thou drinkest make not a gurgling 
in thy throat like a layman. (5) Spit not in the presence of 
the brethren. (6) In sleeping let thy body be a distance of 
one cubit from thy neighbour. Thou art young, therefore 
sleep not on a mat. (7) Sleep not lying on thy back. 
(8) Walk apart from the brethren. (9) Walk barefoot with 
the man who hath no sandals. (10) Preach and toil dili- 
gently in thy cell. (11) Eat not before sunset. (12) Kindle 
not a fire for thine own use only. (13) Visit thy sick brother 
twice daily. (14) When a brother dieth go and weep over 
his body until it is buried. 

Besides these things remember always death and the 
punishments that are to follow it. If a brother visit thee 
entreat him kindly. Set water for his feet, give him oppor- 
tunity to pray, and salute his hands and feet. Do not impor- 
tune him with questions, and seek not to pry into his business. 
If he offereth thee food, eat it, even though thou art fasting. 
Strive to make him give thee a threefold blessing. The 
Epistle concludes with a statement of the 'Faith of the 
Cathohc Church", which the writer urges the disciple to 


8. The Life oe John of the Golden Evangeliarium.^ 

John was the son of a very rich Roman nobleman called 
l^hitropius^ by his wife Theodora/ and was one of three 
brothers. Two of these obtained appointments in the Imperial 
PalacCj but John was sent by his father to study the Christian 
Doctrine and the Holy Scriptures under the guidance of 
devout men. One day a monk from a monastery ^ in the 
south, who was on his way to worship at Jerusalem, met John 
in his house, and talked with him, and his words impressed 
John so deeply that he begged the monk, on his return from 
Jerusalem, to take him to the monastery to which he belonged. 
This the monk agreed to do, and he made a solemn compact 
with John to return to him. When the monk had departed 
John went to his mother and told her that of all the youths 
who were studying the Scriptures in his school, or college, he 
was the only one who did not possess a golden Evangeliarium ; 
and throwing himself on his face before her he begged 
her to give him one. Later in the day his mother Theodora 
told her husband about John's request, and Eutropius at once 
ordered a Gospel to be beautifully written, and, when it was 
finished, he gave it, together witli valuable gems and money, 
to a cunning worker in metals and precious stones, who pro- 
duced a splendid book. Eutropius gave John the Gospel, 
and he studied it with great zeal. 

In due course the monk returned from Jerusalem, and John 
rejoiced greatly. And they went secretly to the harbour, and 
having found a ship which was about to sail to the country 
near the ' Monastery of the Sleepless Ones ', John bargained 
with the captain to take them as passengers for one hundred 

^ A brief account of the saint is given in the Ethiopic Synaxarium 
Jiamle 16); see Brit. Mus. MS, Oriental, No. (557, fol. 162 a S. And see 
also the Ethiopic version of the Life of John of the Golden Gospel in 
Brit. Mus, MS. Oriental, No. 774, fol. 148 a. 

' Eth. hfin^^ft: ' Eth. X*}^CT: 

* Eth. from Dabra Wark ^-(IZ: WC^i 


oboll. Jolm tlien returned to liis house, and asked liis mother 
to g-ive him one hundred oboh, saying- that he had partaken 
of tlie bounty of his comrades so often tliat he felt he could 
not return to the school, or college, unless he had money 
enough to make a feast for them in return. When Eutropius 
returned at noon, and heard of liis son^s demand for money, 
he was willing to give it to him, but stipulated that a 
servant should accompany him when he had the money to 
prevent him from squandering it. When John had taken the 
money he went with the servant to the monk, and asked him 
to allow the servant to remain with him while he went to 
keep an appointment with a certain person, i. e. the captain 
of the ship. The monk agreed, and John went to the cap- 
tain's abode, and finding that the ship was wellnigh ready to 
sail, he paid the passage money for himself and the monk, 
and impressed upon the captain the urgent need for secrecy 
and dispatch. Two days later, John and the monk went 
down to the ship, and John, having succeeded in getting 
rid of his father's servant by lying, embarked with the 
monk and the ship sailed immediately. When the servant 
returned from the lying errand on which John had sent him, 
he found that the ship had gone_, taking his master's son and 
his friend with it ; and he returned to luitropius and Theodora 
and told them his story. For seven days John's parents wept 
and mourned, and all the people shared in their grief, and 
when the Emperor heard of it he sent out soldiers to seek for 
John and to bring him back, but they were unsuccessful. 

Meanwhile John and the monk had arrived at the monastery 
in the far coimtry^ and the Archimandrite^, having learned 
the history of John from the monk^ admitted him, and told 
him to wait forty days for the tonsure. Before the insistence 
of John the Archimandrite gave way, and on that very 
day John received the tonsure and the garb of the monk. 
For six years John led a most strenuous, ascetic life, and 
prayed, fasted, and kept vigil to an extent hitherto unknown 


in that monastery. When the Archimandrite saw that his 
strength was beginning- to fail, he warned him of the necessity 
of moderation ; but his warning was unheeded. As John 
gradually became weaker in body, the Devil thrust into his 
mind at all times thoughts of home and parents, and the 
more these took possession of his mind, the more apathetic he 
became in respect of his ascetic exercises. At length home- 
sickness compelled him to leave the monastery, and he went 
forth followed by the earnest prayers of the Archimandrite 
and all the monks. On his way home John met a ragged 
beggar, and he exchanged his monkish garb with him for his 
rags, and in these rags John marched along until at length 
he arrived in the city wherein his father lived, and he sat 
down by the porter^s lodge. For a whole year he sat there, 
with the porter's permission, watching his father and mother 
come out and go in, and Eutropius sent food from his own 
table to John each day, not knowing that the beggar was his 
own son. One day when Theodora was coming out through 
the gateway she caught sight of John, whose body was covered 
with sores, and she vomited, and ordered him to be driven 
away by the servants. For a short time he departed, but he 
came back to the lodge, and persuaded the porter, who was 
evidently a kindly man, to prepare a little hut for him near 
the lodge. Here he lived for some years, and he fed those 
who were poorer than himself with the food which his father 
sent to him dailj'. 

When ten years had passed Christ appeared to John in 
a vision, and told him that he would be taken from this world 
in three days' time. On the following day he made the porter 
go to Theodora, and tell her that the beggar wished to see 
her and to talk with her. Greatly against her will she did so, 
and after telling her of his gratitude for all the goodness 
wdiich she and her husband had shewn him, he told her that 
he was going to die in three days, and made her swear to 
bury him in the rags in which he was then clothed. When 


she had sworn an oath to this effect^ John produced the 
golden Evang-eliarium and gave it to her. This she took 
to Eutropius^ who at once recognized it as the book which 
lia-d been made by his order for his son John. Then Eutropius 
and his wife went together and questioned the dying beggar, 
who revealed to them the fact that he was their son. They 
w^pt bitter tears when they heard his words, and as they 
threw themselves down by him John breathed his last breath. 
Forgetting the oath which she had sworn to him, when John 
was being made ready for burial, his mother stripped off his 
rags, and arrayed him in apparel befitting his station. At 
this an angel came and smote her feet, and caused her great 
pain, and it was only when his rags had been restored to 
John that her pains ceased. John was buried in the hut 
in which he had lived, and a martyrium was built over him. 

9. The Life of Apa Onnopheios/ the Anchorite. 

The story of Onnophrios is supposed to be related by Apa 
Pa[p]noute, i. e, Paphnutius, a famous anchorite who lived in 
the desert of Scete in the second half of the fourth century, 
and was surnamed 'Bubulus' and 'Cephala''.^ Paphnutius 
frequently travelled in the more remote deserts, and visited 
the monks whom he found in them, and it is to him chiefly 
that we owe our knowledge of the anchorites who lived like 
beasts among beasts. On one of his desert journeys after 
travelling for several days he came to the abode of a monk, 
and when he entered it he saw its owner, but he had been 
dead for a long time, and when Paphnutius touched the body 
it fell into dust. Having buried the bones Paphnutius 

1 A form of one of the most ancient and important titles of the god 
Osiris, Un-Nefer ^^ T j] . For the life of Onnophrios sec 

also Migne, Viiae Patrum, Patr. Lat., torn. Ixxiii, p. 211 fif . ; Rosweyde, 
Vitae Patrum, p. 99 ; Acta SS., June 12 ; on the monks who went naked 
see Palladius, Paradise of the Fathers (ed. Budge), i. 234 if. 
' See Palladius (ed. Budge), i. 358. 


travelled on, and finding another habitation of a monk he sat 
down there to await its owner's arrival. At sunset he saw 
a herd of buffaloes in the distance^ and when the beasts came 
nearer^ behold, there was the anchorite who was called Timothy 
in their midst. At first the anchorite thoug-ht that Paphnutius 
was a spirit, but having fortified himself by prayer, he at 
length led him into his abode, and related to him his history, 
thus : I was a monk in Thebais. I wanted to lead a solitary 
life, to work with my hands, and to spend the fruits of my 
labour in entertaining strangers. I left Thebais, and went 
into the desert, built myself a cell, and worked with my hands, 
and made some money. Among my employers was a certain 
young woman who came to buy my baskets, mats, and sandals, 
and a friendship sprang up between us, and we fell into sin. 
I lived with her for six months, and then, when I realized 
my iniquity, and the danger of everlasting punishment which 
I ran, I rose up and left her, and came here, and I have never 
seen her since. I live on the dates of this palm-tree, which 
produces twelve bunches each year, and I drink of the water 
of this spring. I have no clothes, and I want none, for ray 
hair sufficeth. I never eat bread ; there is none to eat. It is 
thirty years ago since I came here. When I first came here 
I suffered greatly from ray liver, but one day a splendid being, 
in the form of a man^ came and asked me where my pain was. 
When I told him, he cut open my side, took out my liver, and 
shewed it to me, pointing out the various parts of it that were 
diseased. Then he bound up the woimds in the liver, and 
replaced it in my body, closed the opening in my side, and 
said, ' Behold, thou art healed.' Prom that day to this 
1 have had no pain in my liver. Paphnutius wished to dwell 
for some days with Timothy, but this the anchorite would not 
permit, and he blessed him and sent him on his way. 

Continuing his journey into the desert Paphnutius, after 
travelling four days, saw a terrifying being in the form of 
a man, with his hair all over his body, like that of a panther, 


and he was wearin<r' a g-irdlc of leaves. As this beinj^ ad- 
vanced towards liim, Paphnutius took refuge on a pinnacle of 
the mountain, fearing- that the being was mad. When he 
reached the rock he threw himself on the ground in a state of 
great distress caused by hunger and thirst. When he saw 
Paphnutius in the mountain he called him to come down, and 
when he had done so the being turned out to be no other than 
the famous anchorite Onnophi'ios, who proceeded to relate his 
history. He lived at one time in a monastery in Shmiln 
(i. e. EshniCmen) in Upper Egypt, but he had left it sixty years 
earlier, and had been living in the desert ever since. When 
he left the monastery he saw a shining being, and was about 
to retreat to the monastery, but the ' shining being '' told him 
that he was the angel whom the Lord had appointed to guard 
him from his youth up, and that he would travel with him. 
After a journey of six or seven miles Onnophrios came to 
a cave, and the saint who dwelt in it invited him to enter, 
and taught him the rules of the ascetic life during the few 
days in which he stayed there. After this the saint took 
Onnophrios a journey of four days into the desert, and they 
came to a hut, and they took up their abode there; and 
when the saint had lived with Onnophrios for a month he 
departed, and Onnophrios never saw him again until the day 
he buried him. 

In answ^er to further questions Onnophrios told Paphnutius 
that when he first went there he suffered greatly from cold 
by night, heat by day, and hunger and thirst at all times. 
When God saw that his body was wasting away. He sent an 
angel to feed him each evening, and he ate also dates and the 
herbs that grew in the desert. Once a week also an angel 
came and administered the Sacrament to him and to the 
other dwellers in the desert. After further talk Onnophrios 
invited Paphnutius to accompany him to another hut, or cell, 
two or three miles further on in the desert, and when they 
arrived there they prayed and talked; and each of them, 


having eaten hal£ a bread-cake and drunk a little water, 
passed the night in prayer. On the following morning 
Paphnutius saw that the face of Onnophrios was changed, 
and was greatly alarmed ; but he understood the matter when 
Onnophrios told him that he was going to die shortly, and 
til at God had sent him to bury his body, Onnophrios then 
went on to proclaim the blessings which Christ would bestow 
upon those who made offerings in his name, and having 
blessed Paphnutius with a most comprehensive blessing, he 
died on the sixteenth day o£ Paone (June 12). Paphnutius 
tore his cloak into two pieces, and in one of these he wrapped 
the body of Onnophrios for burial; and as he buried it in 
a cleft in the rock the voices of a multitude of angels were 
heard singing ' iVlleluia '. As Paphnutius was praying a 
second time, the palm-tree which had supplied Onnophrios 
with dates fell down, and he marvelled greatly, and he 
drank what remained of the water, and ate the rest of 
the bread. 

Being uncertain about his future proceedings Paphnutius 
prayed, and there appeared unto him straightway the man who 
had directed him on a former occasion, and who now invited him 
to eat bread. This man was one of a company of four 
ascetics who had been living in that remote desert for six 
years, and each day four bread-cakes had been supplied to 
them by miraculous means ; on the day of the arrival of 
Paphnutius a fifth bread-cake appeared. Paphnutius stayed 
a night with them, and wanted to remain there for the rest 
of his life, but to this they would not agree ; and they gave 
him their blessing and sent him on his way. After another 
journey of four days Paphnutius arrived at one of the Oases 
in the Western Desert, probably Khargah, and he marvelled 
at the beautiful gardens and fruit-trees that he found there. 
Whilst he was wondering who planted the trees, four young 
men clad in skins appeared, and they welcomed him in stately 
dignity, and shewed him the greatest kindness during the 


seven days which he remained with them. In answer to bis 
questions they told him that they were natives o£ Oxyrhynehns, 
and the sons of mag-istrates of the town. They were all 
educated in the same school and college^ and one day^ when 
their studies were completed, they all set out for the desert, 
with the idea of finding out what fate the Lord had ordained 
for them. When they arrived there they were met by a man 
of Godj who lived with them and taught them for a year ; at 
the end of the year he died, but the party decided to continue 
to live there, and they had done so for sixty (or, six ?) years. 
On the following Sunday the Angel of the Lord came down 
from heaven, and administered the Eucharist to Paphnutius 
and to his four hosts, and a day or so later Paphnutius left 
the Oasis, and they went with him for a distance of six miles 
to set him on his way. Before they bade him farewell they 
revealed to him their names — John, Andrew, Heraklamon, 
and Theophilus. A journey of three days brought Paphnutius 
to Egypt, and he stayed with some brethren in Scete, and 
described to them all he had seen and heard. Then imme- 
diately these men wrote down what Apa Paphnutius had 
related to them in a book, which they deposited in the church 
of Scete for the use of the brethren. 

10. Discourse on Abbaton,^ the Angpjl of Death, by 
Timothy, Archbishop of Alexandria. 

The text of this curious and interesting apocryphon is 
incomplete, but the general drift of its contents is quite 
clear. Timothy, Patriarch of Alexandria, who sat from 380 
to 385, pronounced a discourse on the thirteenth day of the 
month Hathor (November 9) on the history of the appoint- 
ment of the Angel of Death, who was commonly known as 
Abbaton. In this discourse he imparted to his hearers some 

^ i. e. lllDt^ 'A^oSSwi/, or destruction personified. This was the Hebrew 
name of the Angel of the Abyss who is identified in the Apocalypse 
(ix. 11) with 'AiroWvctiv. 


information wliich lie had obtained from a volume in the 
Library of the Apostles in Jerusalem. He visited Jerusalem 
in order to assist at the great festival of the Holy Cross, and 
he went into the martjrium of the A'irgin Mary, which had 
been built in her honour in the Valley of Jehosaphat. He 
partook of the Sacrament there, and then, when the eongreg-a- 
tion had departed, he withdrew to the church, where he took 
up his abode. Whilst he was there an aged presbyter called 
John went to him, and invited him to come and live in 
his house, and Timothy removed there thankfully. On the 
following morning he was discussing the Crucifixion and the 
miracles of Christ with John, and he asked him if the ' Book 
of the appointing of Abbaton, the Angel of Death ', was to be 
found in the Library which was under his charge. Without 
hesitation the old presbyter found the book and brought it to 
Timothy, who, apparently, made a copy of the section in it 
which interested him. From this we learn that just before 
the Lord ascended into heaven He blessed His disciples and 
sent them forth into the world to preach His Resurrection, and 
to work miracles, and to baptize men, and He made Peter the 
Pillar of His Church. Thereupon Peter described the signal 
marks of favour and confidence which He had shewn to the 
disciples, and then reminded Him that the people to whom 
they were going to preach would ask them questions about 
many matters which they were unable to answer. Among 
these matters was the appointment of Abbaton, the Angel 
of Death ; Peter and the other disciples wished to know 
concerning him, and how and why he was appointed, for they 
wished to preach about him, as they did about Michael and 
Gabriel, to their congregations. In reply to Peter the Lord 
said that He would hide nothing from them, and said : 

My Father created the heavens and the earth and all in 
them by the utterance of a word ; in a similar manner He 
created animals, birds, reptiles, fish, &c., and also Paradise in 
the eastern part of the earth. Seeing that there was no one 


on the earth to praise Ilim^ God determined to make man. 
And He sent an angel to the Eastland to fetch virgin earth 
out of which He might make man ; hut when he went there^ 
and reached out his hand to take some earth, the earth cried 
out and swore by God that if any of it were made into a man 
it would commit many sins, and would at length be condemned 
to suffer never-ending punishment. Tlierefore the earth asked 
to be left where it was. When the angel heard the mention 
of God's Name he was afraid^ and returned to God without 
tlie earth. Then God sent angel after angel, even seven of 
them^ to bring earth to Him, but each was afraid, and each 
returned to Him empty-handed. At length he sent the Angel 
Mouricl down to bring Him some virgin earth, and as this 
angel was not terrified by the mighty Name whereby the 
earth swore, he took some earth in his hand, and carried it 
back to the Father, Who fashioned it into the form of a man. 
For forty days God left the body of x\dam lying without 
putting the breath of life into it, for knowing what pains 
man must suffer He hesitated to do so. I said to My Father, 
' Put breath into him, and I will be his Advocate.'' My 
Father told Me that if He put breath into him it would be 
necessary for Me to go down into the world to redeem him, 
and to restore him to his primal state. This I agreed to do, 
and thereupon My Father breathed the breath of life into his 
nostrils, saying, ' Live ! Live ! Live ! ' So Adam became a 
living soul, and My Father gave him a crown and a sceptre, 
and set him upon a throne, and ordered all the angels to 
worship him. All the angels obeyed this command except 
one, and he was the leader of the heavenly host. Then My 
Father ordered the angels to cast this rebel down to the earth, 
but some of them hesitated to take away from their chief the 
symbols of his rule. Thereupon My Father sent for a reap- 
ing-knife, and had gashes made in the body of the rebel, and 
when his back was hacked through he fell to the ground. 
Then a Cherub cast him out of heaven, and he fell upon the 


earthy and his ribs and his wings were broken, and his 
followers became devils like unto himself. 

After Adam had lived in Paradise for one hundred years, 
My Father made a woman out of one of his ribs, and Adam 
lived with her in the Paradise of Delight for two hundred 
years. One evening* when they were feeding- the beasts 
outside the north wall of Paradise the Devil took the form of 
a serpent, and tempted Eve, and she and her husband were 
expelled from Paradise. Adam was condemned to a life of 
toil, and Eve to bring forth her children in sorrow and tribu- 
lation. Then My Father told Mouriel that Adam had 
transgressed His commands, and Pie appointed him to be 
lord over Adam. And He said to Mouriel : Thy name shall 
be Abbaton, the Angel of Death, and it shall be a terror to 
all men. Thine ejes shall be like a wheel of fire ; thy 
breathings like the bubbling and hissing of blazing sulphur 
and fire in a lake of fire ; the sounds from thy lips like seven 
thunders ; thy head like a pillar of fire ; each of thy teeth 
shall project from thy mouth half a cubit; thy fingers and 
toes shall be like reaping-hooks ; on thy head shall be seven 
other heads, which shall change their forms continually, and 
from the mouths of which the teeth shall project two palms ; 
thou shalt shew no mercy to young or old; and when men 
see thy face the terror of it shall frighten souls out of their 

When the angels heard these things they were afraid, for 
they believed that even they would die of terror. Then 
Abbaton entreated My Father to allov/ him to have a day 
of commemoration and festival, namely the thirteenth day of 
Hathor, so that men might in honouring him repent of their 
sins and bring offerings to him. This My Father agreed to 
do, and He also decreed that the form in which the Angel of 
Death appeared to the righteous when dying should not be one 
of terror, and that he should treat their souls with gentleness, 
and lead them from their bodies into the place of rest. 


When Christ had said these words to His Apostles^ St. John 
replied that i£ Death appeared in his own proper form at the 
Last Judgement they would all perish through fright. In 
answer to this Christ described to the Apostles how He would 
come in His glory, and the part which He would take in the 
judgement of souls. He told John that he should not die 
until the thrones had been set in the Valley of Jehosaphat, 
that the Angel of Death should come to him in the form of 
Michael, and that his body should only be dead for three and 
a half hours, after which time his soul should return to it, and 
he should rise up again in glory. He also told the Apostles 
how He would save ' his clay ^ from destruction, and would save 
the righteous and punish the wicked. And, having ordered 
them to preach unto all men a day of commemoration for 
Abbaton, the Angel of Death, He kissed the Apostles, and 
the angels carried Him up into heaven, whilst the Apostles 
worshipped and wondered. 

Archbishop Timothy ends his discourse with an appeal to 
his hearers to 'give generously to the poor on the day of the 
Festival of Abbaton, the Angel of Death. 


Genesis : — 


1 Samuel : — 


iv. 4 . 


XV. 22 


V. 23 . 


xvii. 4 ff. . 


vi. 8, 9 


xvii. 34-6 


ix. 11 . 


XXX. 24 


xii. I . 


XV. 6 . 


1 Kings : — 

xvii. 21 


xi. i-io 


xviii. 2 ff. 


xviii. 1 7 ff . . 


xxi. I ff. 


xxii. I . 

. 303 

Job : — 

xxii. 9 . 


i. 21 . 


xxii. lo 


ii. 7, 10 


xxvii. 41 


V. 7 . 


xxix. 3 


xvii. 17 


xxxvii. 5 


xxi. 18 


xii. 12. 


xxi. 26 


xxi. 30 


Exodus : — 

xxii. 27 


xii. 14 . 
xiii. 9 . 
XV. 1-12 
XV. 39 . 

4 76 

Psalms : — 
i. 4 . 
ix. 9-12 
xiv. I . 


Numbers : — 

XXX. 2 


xviii. 10 
xix. 4 . 
xix. 10 


Deuteronomy : — 

XXX. 8-12 
xxxiv. 6 


iv. 17, 19 . 


xxxiv, 10 


vi. 7 . 


xxxvii. 38 


xi. 19 . 


xii. 9 . 


xxi. 18-21 , 


xlviii. 22 

. 335 

xxiii. 21 


xlix. 7 


xxiii. 21-3 , 

. 306 

xlix. 10^ II . 

. 334 

xxxii. 3 


1. 14 . . 30 

6, 351 



Psalms (coiifinuefl) : — 


Jeeemiah : — 


Iv. 22 . 


iii. 22 . 


Ixv. 4 . 


xxi. 12 

. 390 

Ixv. 9 . 


XXX. 17 

. 341 

Ixvi. 13, 14 . 


xxxi. 34 

. 301 

Ixxvi. II . 30 


Ixxix. II 


Ezekiel: — 

Ixxx. I 


xviii. 23 


Ixxxiv. 10 . 


xviii. 27 


xcix. I 


xxxiii. II 


civ. 29 


cxix. 1,2 


Daniel : — 

exix. 162 


i. 17, 19 


cxxviii. I 


iii. 26 . 


cxxxii. 4, 5 . 
cxliv. 4 


iii. 27 . 

. 295 

cxlvi. 4 


Hosea : — 

PHO VERBS : — • 

xiii. 3 . 

. 338 

i. 24-30 


iii. 14 . 


Amos : — 

iii. 27, 28 . 


V. 13 . 

. 432 

viii. 10 


X. 2 . 


Nahum : — 

X. 15 . 


i. 15 . 

. 351 

X. 19 . 


xi. 4 . 


xi. 7 . 
xi. 10, II 


Bel and the Dragon : — 


33 ff- • • 

. 385 

xi. 19 . 

. 343 

xviii. 20 


Matthew : — 

xix, 17 


iv. 2 . 


XX. 2 . 


iv. 4 . 

. 463 

V. 3 . 

. 342 


V. 7 . 

. 353 

ii. II . 


V. 8 . 

. 376 

ii. 18 . 


V. 15 . 

. 395 

V. 4 . 


V. 28 . 


vi. 4 . . 33 

5, 337 

vi. 19 . 


ix. TO . 


vi. 24 . 

. 264 

vi- 31-3 

. 464 

Isaiah : — 

vii. 7 . 

. 478 

vi. 3 . 


vii. 8 . 

. 475 

xl. 31 . 


vii. 12. 

. 414 

]xv. 20 


ix. 13 . 




Matthew [continued) :— 

_ l'A«E 

Luke :■ — 


X. 31 . 


iv. 4 . 


X. 38 . 

. 280 


V. 33 . 


X- 33 • 


vii. 38 


^- 37 • 


viii. 16 


X. 43 . 3 



ix. 36 . 


xi. II . 


xi. 9 . 

4 75 

xi. 38 . 


^\ ?i?y ■ 


xii. 0^6 

. 332 


xii. 19 ff. 


xiii. 43 



xvi. 13 


xiii. 46 


xxi. 3 . 


xiii. 49, 50 


xxi. 4 . 


xvi. 17 


^^i- 34; ys • 


xvi. 19 

4 7 'J 

xxi. 36 . 328, 344 

xvi. 34 


xviii. 18 


John : — 

xix. 13 


X. 11-16 


xix. 38 


X. 30 . 


xxii. 4 


xii.' 36 . . 30 

4, 309 

xxiii. 13 


xii. 43 (?) . 


xxiv. 37 


xiii. 18 


xxiv. 43 


xiv. 3 . 


xxiv. 43, 43 



xiv. H-i] 


XXV. 13 


xiv. 13 


XXV. 31 


xiv. 19 


XXV. 30 


XV. I . 


XXV. 31 ff. 


XV. 16 . 


XXV. 34 



XXV. 36, 43 


Acts : — 

XXV. 40 



X. 1-31 


xxvii. 34 


^■?^^ • 


xxvii. 34 


XX. 31 . 


xxviii. 19, 3C 



Romans : — 
viii. 18 


Mark : — 

viii. 34 


ii. 17 . 
viii. 34 



viii. 35-9 . 
xii. 1 . 


viii. 36 
ix. 33 . 
ix. 41 . 
X. 31 . 
xii. 43 . 




i. 37 . . 29 
iii. 13 . 
xiii. iff. 

1, 450 

xiii. '>,t^ 



Galatians : — 

xvi. 15-18 . 


V. 33 . 




Ephp:sians: — 


Hebhews {contini 

icd) :■ — P^GE 

vi. 12 . 

. 343 

xiii. 2 , 

. 434 

xiii. 4 . 

. 394 

Philifptans : — 

iv. 3 . 

. 483 

James : — 

i. 22, 23 

. 432 

2 Thessalonians •. — 

ii. 1^ . 

. 335 

i. 8, 9 . 

. 396 

V. 16 . 

. 351 

1 Timothy : — 

1 Peter : — 

vi. 6 . 

. 230 

i. 17 . 
ii. 11 . 

. 417 
326, 417 

2 Timothy : — 

V. 8 . 

. 343 

iii. 15 . 

. 432 

2 Peter : — 

Titus :— 

ii. 14 . 

. 293 

iii. 10 . 

. 261 

1 John : — 

ii. 17 . 

270, 352 

Hebrews : — 

iii. 2, 3 

. 326 

ii. I 

. 343 

viii. II 

. 301 

Revelation : — 

ix. 37 . 

. 267 

iv. 8 . 

. 270 

X. 31 . 


xvii. 8 . 

. 483 

xi. 34, 25 

. 304 

xxi. 27 

. 483 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 7022) 

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Fol. 26 a 


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no\ecoc XjvTovi • etr^evcee. . epejuioT • ec^co • otjvAjvc 

Fol. 26 & 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 7022) 

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gTHR e "atCOI 111* ROO 1TA.I e flo'X R T2vT0'\AAHpiiV : — I 

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RA-q Qse A. RROTTe qi neuRo^e SLuj^t • jvirto 


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n p2)^CTe • i)^TroTro>w Si npo H neR2>».noeTKH u?' -si 
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nitoTTe e gcofe mia*. • js^tto) necjuoT G nnoTTe ncT 
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e poR M^ eipe n ite itTivTrei e feo'X. gR poiR • jvroi 
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d^Tu> Jvqp £6^s> js^qTJviyeoeiiy r R(5^oju SS Ji^^ioc 

J&IRTUip gR Tno*\\C THpC* JS-qjUOTTTe e nOIRORO- 

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t^eRHJLijv JLxn ReqHpn • e Tpq 'SOott e fioX e 
TexP''^ SS nTonoc • juir r^hrc sxn rujSSai.o • 



jS negooT €t iSjuuvir j>.qiijtone n oTpuiJuie ncnoir- 

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nito6e -xe nne neitsrli nujiite to-xn v — 
3tpi rumeeTre -se nnocjuioc Jtin ueqeni- 
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qna.ujcane uja. eneg^* e Tfie na.i iinp Tes.'xpoR e-xH 
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qcHg^-se n wdwHT -se nTooir iteT ottk- 
js.nd.std-T * 

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npcoute* g55 nujdv [55 nga.]i7ioc femTiop • -se Kd.c 
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nnoTTTe nd^gtOTii • xxvi neqevi'u^eXoc eT 
OTrdvivfe .%— 

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k\hci«w k ngdiC»ioc juepKOirpioc H Tfiu> • Ta^noA- 


JvirU> TCtOTHpiJv • iUL nAlAkl KOTT « COK CTT nOTTpOT * 

nq&.&.q n il ^«J^s. Zi Teirq^pocTrnH H TJUWTepo n 51 
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K TROintaniis. nq iS neqcjuoT e g^p^-s e qswii • juu 

neT OTrek&.fi THpOT g2vJLlHtt 

n'sc IC ne^pc neit2s.AHeeinoc n kottc gi? OTiue 
eqega^peg^ e ntong A.Tr(o TccoTHpiN • Jx neeoce&e- 
CTi^Toc n «.p;)^inpecfeTTepoc i^na. a^fipis^juu • nnpo- 
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juepROTpioc H T^ioi uq 5i ncqcAioT e 2^p».x e 
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weioTe Axn nujHpe THpoT 51 ruAOMA-cTHpion • 
Kqj!vd».TH 55 nig2v w neTCAiOTr • Mq^oTC«iv niigHt • 


nceTiofig^ e -xwi ii mj^^jS neiippo ne^y^' nqnto 

giS negooT U. n*. (5'Iinujiite : — 

«.noK lOiCH^ nie\d.x**^ " T*.\ivinaipoc • nujHpe G 

njLi2vRjvpioc cicmKioc * nd.p^ -xiivr? n TKJveoTViKH 

ZcoKp^ eka^i'O'Tov SiaKOVov Trat? tov 
l(oar)(f) StaKovov ev^aorOe virep jxov 
o rXao? ^apay^L^; qe 

e-ypa(f)L jxrjVL ^apfxovri. if]. hioKV' xf^- 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 6783) 

nBioc xrm Tno\TT:\ n nneT ot- 
XXB xux eTCT:\eioc • necTP:\TH\:\- 
THC H tpm:\hog nppo nH eeo- 
iiiCTH Tes[C8ine nS :\T:\nioc nH 
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n neTariuH aS thocTh noMC spiuuh 


tp:\i:\hog nPPo 8h otgiphhh ^e 

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H oTTKopiiHAioc n fippe ^Ix neoToeiuj €t Sa- 


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p £OTe eTTUja^MccuTG e Tixx^Te.* e fioTV 
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TivTooq •; — 

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jtioouje ngHTOTT • 

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eq*2£0ce euia^Te • 

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_Ht i.7roTra)M|^ Md.q e fioX eqnHT n ctoq • 

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e npn* gu TjuiHHTe on* n neqTa^n* eqeine 55 



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gSJUHIl V V •% 

. T X O O O 

mu eAev 'xib^n^ inr jiiiis.K2vpi uiep -i^ievu 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 6783) 

nnioc :xTiu Tno\TT:\ n nen neT 
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n pXi n civp^ e iiis^ir e njvgo • ei aah Tei nenpec- 

e poq js-TTW UTJv'Xi CJU-OTT e fcoTV oi TOOTq ixn^vT 

ne'2s«.i ud^q* "xe liuiovt • nTCOWj «.ii ne ne>.i • e t£i€Fo1 25;. 
^^s.I pto* UT Jviei ujev poR e nei juiev ^v'\'\^v ^tti^p ^'^ 
neujuteeire py[j2vu n-sc cooTTn UT^vgiH utsv- 
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d^pi njv jLieeTe uja^ii ^^^no'XjvTre 55 necjmoT 55 
neon eT SiuiivTr • n Tep iJLiooige e goTn gSS 
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€T oiv ooTe • 55 nnoTTe • s^non n^^uifsio nei eTV*.- 
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TeuoTT -xe ne nTJvqjvuiiwgTe n d^Md^noTTAi nenpo- 
t^HTHc 55 neoTToeiuj «<qeine 55juoq xin ns^pscTon 
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ne nTevqji^juiivgTe 55uioi gn eopjuH 55 nenn^ 
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jutivT' ^Tco i^xntoTvJ £ Tipo u^<T^>. nud^nton n 
necKHTT 55jjiono;)(;^oc • b^-yud neia^g^* e p*.T g^ip55 
npo • n oTrno<3' n nis.'S' 

Uimci^ Ui^i dw neon p ottw n^vI giS ncj>. n £OTn* 
eq'xoii I5JUIOC • ose | X^*P^ ^"^ n^^Jtiftco nenpec- Foi. 26 « 
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eT p gu)T gii n'XJvie IT J!vt juloott (^v)* exc oTAAHHige 
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goTrn 55np i».jv^ e pivTn ^ nc^^ n fcoX* n Tepi 
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eujTCOOTn 55juioq e nonq • ^.q^ nqoiroi n(^\ neon 
€T 55ju&.Tr jvqeKopnp 55 ncone* e^qTO^q e npo 


35 nKJ<T«<t<ion • ii rep emeivTr e poq j^ipignHpe 

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n HCji^TT • neqcoii a^qfecoK e TJueconoTSvUiiiv H 
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n gHTq • *wq^ neqoiroii e TWjuiTe ^qcuopup nuisie 
CT ^':&vi pcoc I ^uipic Tpe puijue ^ TOOTq • s^qTco 
u uecooT M \ivfid^tt i^qiie^i^T e holi. ^^Tjuooite • 
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riGT oTiv^-fs eipe 55jnooir nwoTTe ^ utootot • 
ne-xivi ii&.q -se n2s. ex cot gt OTevesii JUi<T2v5UioT e 
neKpdwit €T oTS' ' '2sie iv n-sc gen n^-i e poi • 
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ne ncoii H eeo-xwcxoc nppo • s^Tto nTd^Tce>.no7r«jf 
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it oTfoiT tt55jLia«.Tr s^-TUi Uisjue • jv (otmcopioc -aiooc 
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niijHpe ne 55 nppo ne • n Tep nnd.Tr •2k.e "^te a*. 
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n £HTq € T^e ^^vly^s.I n ne*. noJ&e TA-pe nnovTC 
Ks^jvT n^>vx e feoTV | 

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€Ujis.i\3'xi poijue Tcon ^ Tex epHjL«.Jv* nqcTVcco'^K 
gn nengice • ne-sivq nis^i iKiHs. mrpoc ose nicTeTre 
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nex -xjvxe eT exujoon n gHTq 55n exnivT ^?^s.p e 
pwjjie eqnHT igjv pox es jlih Tex eTcon 55jJiono- 
^oc eqixHT uji^ poi eqcouj e e m^ go ivTro) 


iSne nei kgt kjvtt e poi • s^W*. ^itTi ee eT qjuiHii 
e fco'\ eqitHTT tg^». poi 2>^igiJL)n e TOOTq gU ncd»- w 
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uix go ei JuiH Tei d.n«^ nj)vju6u) • nenpec^TTTepoc it 

TKU^VHCIdw n U|IHT»' — 

6n€J '^H epe nei gtofe kh e 2^p^vI eTomonojuiiiv nre 
nitoTTTG • TeiiOT -xG eic na^ oTTcoaj 2sw nnoTTTe -soKq 
wdii € iioX JjL nooTT * n€^^is.i ttis-q "se CX-pes. ^^v coit 
OTit con a5 neKgoTTM • ne'2s;ivq nsvi '2ie aiK Ad.jvTr 
iX njv gOTvi ncdw nns^Ke smn wkoXs.cic epe «pqp 

nofcie U gHTOTT • gJLlOOC n&>H JUt I He\ JULJv oS TIJv Pol. 27 b 

con • Jx nei His.'y • d^Tto im«^Mi)».Tr e £emiO(5' n w-x 
ujnHpe • iieTeTujH i^td^p K TKTrpievKH ne negooTr 
eT ixiAevir • giS n Tpe noToein 'a.e n TuirpidwKH 
ccap e Sio\ ' i^iccaTAA e geiig^pooir eTcouj e fjoX 
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jivKOK -xe ne'x^.i ttis.q -se njv x«.epiT n eicoT e«p 
cs" ' gi nevi • epe nTooir itis^ctogii giv port •; — 
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ei e necHT e'2£li ri[KoXdk,cic • ^.qoTegcjvgne n H'^- 

JLAWpiCTHC • €T TO e IteV^T^OOTTe e Tpe TT^ JivW*.- 
na^TCIC Ili>.T -Xe TUTpXiS-KH Te JxTtii T*.nis.CT«vCIC 

55 n-sc nooT • ne'2s:ivq itd.i on -se g^nc ne e Tpe 
ne;)(^pc ex e nei AXis. iX nooir wb^Tis. TeqctruHei^. • 
Td.d^cnjv'^e iXiAoq xi Ta^npo gi T«<npo * eTei -xe 
eq'soi x\ i\2vi exc Txe^e zs^qoiruixi Jx npo IS. nx\JvT?s.- 
c«iou • ^..qei e goTxi • s^tto) WTeiritoTr d^ npo otcou 
AJL»v^N6.q V »>^^^ I « '^^^ ^^5 ^ gotrn nxcTe-ye x\i^*i Foi. 28 « 
«*«. cxxHir jvTw xi2v exooTe • is^itOK najufico nex e'Xa^- ^^ 
^eiCToc is^intsTT e ne^c e Js^q^ H neqoirox e goTti 
e neon eT iiJuid.Tr a^qjs.cnes.'i^e Sijuoq n T&.npo gx 
T^^.npo • nee n OTCon nTi>.qex gi nxyitjuto • e^qev- 
nevnTjj. e nequjftHp • &noK o^e njjuiJ&oi nex eXjy.;)^^ 


jSjUi^T js.Wft. ivqei e fcoTV gi tootvT 55n evieuue • 
Qse UT^vq6aiK e TWit • i^ttoK -i^e iieijueeire -xe 
oTcon AAJjioiio^oe ne • ne-ssevi itis^q -xe n&. juepjT 
n eia>T s±h sUin ckqcooc itis.i -se Si nei niKT e pJS 
K c^vp^ • eqjiHir uji>w poi e nei a*&. • lTc^s-fe'\'^.^s.K 

IIXrvi Ajid^TivJuioi "se wiiLX ne nei con 5u[juono;)(;^oc • 
iTT;s.qei e goTit d^qj>wcn«^'^€ jSjuiok Hn eiSiniyjs. 
&.I10K e Tpq^vc^^v'^G SIaioi • ^e's^vq K^s.I -se iine 
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oiuq IT i><iy iT ge* ne-xjvq ujs.i "se n^^i | ne n-^sc K itJs. 
Tne JLin n*. nKJv^.* ^*^* ^le nujnpe jul jutdvpiA. n T^^vp- 
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TcTVioc ^ TuinTepo • n Si nnTe • epe nqcjuoT 
juin nqujTVnX' njvu|wne nSijtii^n g^xJUHn • 

Ile-s^^q nswi on -se n;v jutepiT n con n^^juiioi • 
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ee nTiv nnoTre toujc hswI d.ip genKOTi* a.<V^a. 


£ItH ^^Jx AlMTpe '2i€. OTTK OTeiCpO rt RCOgT nctoK 

gi gH jS neKpiTHc • rVTTio neiepo ct aSjajvit iij&.pe 
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peqprtofee* neT eujuje ne e Tpe kujXhX £jv poi 
uj2vw ^nivpivc^e « Te^iH ct gs^ gOTe ct xxxxb^ii' * 
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Rirpoc jvqpijme e gp^^i e •scoq • i>.noii rxe js^ipxjuie "" 
e g^pivi e -xoiq • jsvind^ir I\ pileiooTre iS ne^c 
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THpOTT eTCOO^^ THpOTT CTTdw^e pjvTOTT * ft. OTPd. U 

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feivp itoiiiv eTe nes.! ne nujnpe n Te<3'pojuine • nT^v 
njutft^-Kdwpioc isvnjs. ujenoTTe SSTon 55juioq uci^q • 
ivq-xx n Tev^TT^H 55 njU2vKi>.pioc s^n*^ K^rpoc jutn 


TivU2».nis.Tcic • Hoe ct cHg^ -ise otH ^<^ 51 juiis. n 
ujcone • ^35 nui | H nj*. eiWT • epe neircAJiOTr €t 
oTi^A-fe tte>^uju)ne viStuid^vi gevxinn.; — 

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e iio\ e-xil npo jjt nKi»-Td.rfioit • ivqcoigli • e.'sjui 
nctouiiv 35 njuidwU;vpioc • jvqigoone M2vq H jjix H 
ciiend^'^e wji). negooir 55 ngjvn 15 axu • 2s. ncnp 
ficoK e 2^p&^i £ Tn€ Axn Kq^v^'^e'^.oc • js.iiok ris^e 
s^iAioouje • s^iGi e fioX ujjv necnnTr e>vnjs. nj^xjioTTit • 
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e pooTT a^TT'^eooTr 55 nnoTTe • a.hok "xe s^sis'o) gjv 

^THTT n getlKOTI HgOOTT • 

Iliimcj)^ Wis-i i^i^coK € n^s. juions^CTHpxoit gn ujiht 
dvicgivi 55 nfiioc 55 njnes^Respioc is.m< Kirpoc • 
dwiKe^ivq git tukXhcijs^ n ujiht • CTgHir juin ot- 
co\c'\ n ncT itJscoaTli e poq • eTeootr u TCTpia^c 
eT oiTjvJvfe nswT* xtu nujHpe* juin nensid^ gt oir2v&.f! 
wjd< ene^^n eiteg^ gaoumn •* — * — 

s s s s 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 6783) 

oTerRuimoH e :\^t:\too^ hoI neHFoi_8o& 
nex oTaaB H eiuiT <i>\3LBi:\Hoc neni- ^ 
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Fol. 31 a 


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oTeiPHHH iiTe hhottg 8:\nHH • 


nop'cift.noii !£ ihk \b<c eT ^o-xfo eviroii t». 
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TeTTt^pocTHH jLxn npjs.uje K npcouie iiT*^Trcco e 
Sio\ gK THTUH juunoTT H tottg^ ne^c • euj-se 
nui^o eT^pswite puj2vn ngoT uine * ei e "xtoq* ese 
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55 nvid^T \iTis. TDmoTTi ngoooT H mohtoji ei e-xn 
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ngwoTT 'a^.e ItToq Hi nuiKoii • n Tepe qej ^'sJx 
Tiwb.^ iMtpoiJuie • ^Kd^pnoc Tx nnsROit • 
CX.UJ (je. TenoT ne nnjvpnoc eT xxxxiK'S' coiTAA d^iioK 
^^^vT^vjLlO!rl • ott xionoit jSnp •^icia.A.'^e OT-a^e 
jSnp upiipii | ott eKK^nciev it otcot TnT^^cty- 
TisML esui^^-ise • e Tc^rn^)v'c«co^JH n moT'^i.ivi Td.i 
jLtett eixioiTTe e poc ^s.n "se euH^Hcidw 51 nniKoii 
e tM ndvi pco jivirujTdvJLt. Hxtoc • giTlii ne nTs^q- 
TOiOT« e fco*\ gn neT juoott 2s.qgjuiooc ^i TOirndJLi 
Jx neqeioiT ^.qp puiuie giTAA nqoTregc^giie • gen 
ujo n wjo «.n getiT^ev n T^iiv • ne nTdviroTcon • 
SSjuoot Hd*.n g^iTii neqcnoq ct OTr^,esii' nTJ>^Tr- 


'^siOOTP ne ««^i • Te^7Rp^v^^v • nTEfio • Tniwpeeiii2v • 
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jv iteT JJjuibJ^ p ujnHpe eTTitivtr e iie'y's:«v'2s:e eTJutoT 

eiitexir e nenTi^qjuioTr | 2.*^pon* ivToo ivqTOiOTrit foI, 32 a 
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nqujHpe ne • ottujcoc 11 pquiooKe Kd.7Vcoc ne 
eqt^opei K TcIiTe n *.peTH • 
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nTe oTb. -sooc mj>.i • ose iuiTiujf^ojui e Tpe npuijjie 
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e fcoTv. gn nec*pi>.r^H eT oifi>.b^Si • IiTd.'xooc go) juin 
nencHp -xe otH £Oiite e a.Ti.e).T ncioTrp Suliim 
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ncxoTp iSjuiiii JAt-ioq itiiut neT M^>.UJly^>.'2se e 
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niTo\id.e • epe iiecneTe jS noTVTTJtiiKon to giaicoq 
neTitd. end.ittOTr juuLtoq i.n ne n^ge Tnpc • d.*\*\d. 
H Tep eqnd.Td.cce | jSjuoq ;)^cop\c gonXon giFoi. 32 6 
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oT'stocape ne n goTTo • Itocnt^ xjieii nn2>^Tpi&.p^Hc 
nqwjoon ne gil nni n TpH ii KHAie •;— ngcofi 
oTTon^^ e fcoTVv -se ecgooir ^.irw ecgOAJtoiXe 
nijuuid.q S JUHHue • i?c?i Tec^ijue eT Jxax^k'S' Jx 
n*^pd.noiuioc u}*wHt ecarn Tevc^epiiv e poq • utok 
•xe to nneT o'!^^.^s.£! '2kiJUiHTpioc cejuiuje niijUA.K 
55 juiHHne giTn neK^oiTicjuoc •*— eneioTtouj juH 
eiocK eiujdv'se kSajuihtH WT^^TevTro e pcoTii nn*^- 
peTH jun iieignHpe aaH 51 junfostocape 5a nei 
neT oTTes^jv^! • es-^Aev -^coottm j ose epe neqTJMO gH 
5a nHTTe ^^>^£TTl ne iiT«<qp pooAJie e t&hhtii e &o\ 
g« jui2>^pi«v TnA.peenoe • 
^Xnecoc j^Kcsen nwT e fiovV d>.Kg2vp€g^ e Tnic^c • 
&.Tro:> enconcn £2vpon Tenoir <^pi nxxis. eT y\ n 
gHTq • eneioToouj juien nTii^uje ujis.'ate niSijiHHTn 
itTA-Td^Tro e pcaTn n neiynHpe kt^. nnoTTe enep- 
c»ei mjuLOOT € fioX ^i TOOTq 51 nex neT oTiKZ^ii 
^ftwijioc '2i.iJU.HTpioc n^>.p;)(^HenicKonoc eT oTra^jvfe • 
jj^^TVx -^cooTrn n tk juiUTjs.ceenHc jutn Tiuiirf(3'cx)fe • 
jS nb. nji.'se n eA2v^icTon • iv^^A. juis.pnKTon 
e ue ca». UTueine e TuiHHTe u OTrpcoxie eqti^opei 
K ujOjULTe n i)<peTH' eTe ns^j ne Tn^peell^^>^ 
TJt«.!itT&>p^iepeTrc • *<iroj TJunrjuix.pT'Tpoc • niju. 
^e ne tuki (:^is.uioc neTpoc ne n&.p^HenicKonoc 
ne n pjvKOTe • gjS ni\2)^\poc oTrn epe TjmnTpq- 
wjSiAUje ei-xco^on • no\iTe7re giTSi nppo n e>^no- 
juoc '2^ioR\H'^is.noc • ndwi nTs^qnel^eTre ecgopctjp 
n n€RR"\HciN K^vT^< x».is. jvirto ne xxn Xa-a-tt eqeipe 
55 nuj55aje eT o' gn otroirtjong^ e fsoX Hca^ 
pivKOTe jui«^Ti.2Kq e feoA -se n^vp^nenicKonoc 


nerpoc nneT oTrd.js.fe • ewqs'coajT ix^ii € go n- 
pcoAie • js.*\Xjv eqKto ugrnq e ne UTes-q-sooc ose 

jSnp p gOTe gHTOT U IteT Mi^JUtOTOTTT MX neTM 

ccojuis,. e*ji«<5'oju. -xe iSjuiooTr e julottottt H iteTJui 
^fTT^H • e T^e njvi uqTdw-spHTr e negoTo • js^ttco «e 
«jA.q'2sooc xi neuAHpoc "xe Iinp Tpe girnov^Tris. n 
ptAijuie nepS THTTn e ne^c • 

Heir n otrpcojute o^e gu TJvn^o^ijs. Jx neoToeiuj 
€T juLo.ft.Tr e nqpjs,M ne '^uiupjs.Tiop • U^ki -xe eite- 
ne igfenp ne H ».n&.THp ne • MTJs.qfeoiu e RHJue 
d..qp jLi^s-pTTrpoc • Ilivi -xe '^(jaRpd.Toop ne oTr^pic- 
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itTC nitOTTTe • g'conf e pon -se js^itofiujlt e Tev^Tr^n 
it neitujnpe • 

HToq "xe ne'xjs.q njvc ote kjs. pco tjs. ctoite TpcooTrit 
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nenRd^ ct OTd^is.fe e &.cojiicoTr r ujojurt u con 

gR e&.\A.&>C*. gJS npA.R R T€Tpi«.C €T OT«k«kfi ' 


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fe^^nTi^e n gHTc K nujHpe ujhui KJvTdw Tnsvpa.- 

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n neiriyHpe n pjs,cTe • j)».coTru>u|fi -xe ecsca Sijuioc 
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ne-at^^c M&.q -xe es.iic^ oTTUjiijjio eioiriouj e ^js.n-'^'^e 
11 uivwjHpe • ne-se n-xij^.uionoc n^.c -sse aaH t€ 
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noTriijHpe gtooT nliiJia^T* 
H Tcpe TeTujH -xe igojne iv njvp^HenicRonoc 
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TOTT e ^i.n^'^e Gjuioott • ^irio H Tepe qfejvn^'^e Foi. 42 6 
d^ireitte e goTrit j u nujnpe w Tecgijute it piS ri-x 


^o^ijs. • nvtoTTe "xe neT eipe n iteujnHpe 
Ai«>.Tris.jvq jvqgen ngiofe € nswp^HenicKonoc • w 
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Tpe Teiwe e goTn K2s.q n KiyHpe m Tecgijue it 
pii T».it^o^i2v 55 njmeg^ ujojutrtr it con • e!»,?rui 
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e pd^TC iS|nq iiTO e £io\' ne-xe na^p^Heni- 
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"^Se itTO OTT € &o\ TtOIt ^it TOTepiCRlJv* H pH 

ne jvuj 51 noXic • dwCOircoujS it<3'i TJUJv2vTr it 
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ne-sivq njvc -xe js.'sic e poi r&e. oir ne itT2vp«>.akq • 
eic gHHTe c^iwp line nnoTTe -xi it itOTrujnpe ctt- 


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e poi njv -xc k eitOT gii oTTjArrfpiingHT • KcooTri 
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thoXic pjs.KOTe e p&.Tc it TUJuiff neT otrjw&.fc* 
nTwfid.n^'^e n iteitujHpe • ^.ttw JSn eqoTOiuj e p 
n^.1 iw'Wjv gen Ke uirfXTiioc • ite UTa^qepHT 
JjLuloot enTOTT e "xcoi •* — 

A.iei e £io\ €"2:11 e^*.'\'\^s.c^. is.ige eT'^soi eqwHir e 
p2vK0Te • ivis».\e e poq xin iid^ujHpe • K Tep eitei 
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giTK it itof?" K^eijuojit goiCTe e Tpe q^wK it nc 
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gi nec^oc itToq ne nTe>.qct^pi^i:»i'^e | it noTTujHpe Foi,44a 
git nqg'ias jutjuin Sijuioq* e^iroi on 55 nnevir it n^ 



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eqoTOivig^ e fcoTV H TJUiUTJULJvipcojue * il nnoTTe 
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e feoX gii AAjunrcTHpion ct 07rjs.«^fc • d^iroo «vqR<s.*wTr 

oT5<2».6* Ilvmcwc d.q'sooTrc e Sio\ xin itecygHpe 
€ Tecno7v.ic ^vt oireipHitH • 
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d,q^ jiS neqoTToi e nppo na^KOJuioc • d^irco jS 
noHHpoc nis>p&. nKJvg^ THpq oviOK?VH'!^2s.noc • ne- 
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ii nei JAe>. • line i*.«e^e mJjuloc • « Tepe 

e pa^ROTe e p^l^Tq JjL neTpoc neT chuj • a^iroi | 

wjHpe js.cTcesi!OOTr e iteirjunrcTHpion eT rs.b.^pi • 

d^TTOi eiC OTTAJLHHUje WgOOT 'Xllt llTdwCjfeuiK 2S.TrOi 

ou is^cKToc € nei aax • oir Te neT KOire^ Tpes.&.q 
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•se jvp^nenicuonocv n Tep qctoTJS "xe n(^i nppo 
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t]^»Ldoc neTpoc • Tecgijuie *^e n '^coRpivTtop a^q- 
Ke\eTre e Tpe ireine aajhoc juii necujnpe cka.t 


OTT 2>vpK». noT£&.i Hcto evpfccAiK jvpnopiteTe xin 
lte^pJc^^vtTOc • jvcoTTtoujS n&i TAiiivpTTrpoe (^^v) 
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nppo '^b.e ne's^.q nes-c '2£e jutft^Td^juioi "xe nT;s. ot- "^ 
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SIjuioc • nccTd^TVo iS neciynpe citjvTT eoiK gHTc 
ttcepoKgoir eTTOiig^ jliH neTrepHT gi oTcon • wtoc 

necuj^H • 
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JjLAXis.'y €qespe 51 nqoTooiy nR&.ipoc niu. • ne-xivq 

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n gHTq giTii o'yc:^eoiioc • epe nnoTTTe gcoioq 
iiT&-qp poiAAc e>.Trt^eo«ei e poq giTii n*2^i&.^o'y'\oc 
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giTAjL ne npo«il^HTHc • etteeume -xe -se T2)s.n«<To\H q 
jvnon neT gJS nK&.Ke Jtin eji^ifeec 51 nju-oir • 
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dwifxe npujige* eTeTiies.c*js>nH Res.Ta.. n«ji nTKJUivf- 


ricev£ Juuue neii-xc neitcSp • nj>.i e to\ gi TOOTq 
peqT^,n20 awTwitgOjutooTcioitTeviOTr Ji^TTOinoTToeiuj 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 6783) 

n:\cRHTKOH H vkhx e4>p:\in 


Ilgice i>.ni>.«TKi>.'^e Sljtioi e uj2v'xe es-irto tjuiIvt ^^t 
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gH KeiiK2s.ipoc • ^irtxi nee eTiTo w 2wt cootth ^e 
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! € eijue e neT gi •xcort •xe kjvc eiteXo eitpuofce • 
«epe TR».eHt»Hcic • xin nujjs.'se HTe cfjoi n iteit- 
eiooTe p oTToein e Sio\ ne wee n npeqp oiroeiit 
« Tne e £io\ -se cenoTViTTeTe giS no^T-^js. niju 
€itjs.KOTrq • xxis.\\cTis. epe iteT iuuui2s.Tr gn TAiHHTe 
H geitcoTTpe* xxn gewjs.pooTre eiuji^'se e H^Whw 
juLVi ngd^ipe-^KOc ct ujoon gK iteTotroeiui • Ktooit 
•2k.e eiTTJviHT nee i? geiicone Jx xxe. e !tt».«je cottH- 
TOTT • ei^Tto on giTn weTrujivse Si Aie jun neT- 
no'\tf'^2v nepe neT'SiN.'xe xxn neT AiocTe Hiaoott 
ROig^ e pooTT* nixx c»ivp ner iiiwn».T e neireMio 
n^ tH uji? gTHq h kia* neT itjs.itj)vT e pooTf gri 


juocTe HKOCJUioc • itixi HpqTOopn h U'jsa^cigHT 
neT iiis.ud^ir e Tajtivfcejiiitoc Jx neirfsioc exieq- 
noojuiite e neT coTToin • niju. 55 nopnoc ii eq- 
'Sji^gjS neT eqwjivq«2!v7r e pooT eTr&.g^ e pjvTOT e 
neujTVH^* ncTe Gn qujcjane H iy*.Tr ^.ttw eq- 
OTivd.^ • iiiju. n peq^caiif h It gHT ujhju. eqiiev- 
*.nd^«Tiv € pooT • eAieqnuiiie UTeTrnoir eirjuinT- 
piipjvuj • s^ iteT iSjuidvir ^^Cfiotti'^e gli nei ut^s. • 

nnoTTTe "^i ^.oot ji^htott • 
^Too iK<^<^ npoijuie -si rcot e iio\ gi tootott* tH- 
Ki<eHi?Hcic 'i.e j>.non d^c\o ecjuioouje gi gengiooTe 
eTTcoTTTtOtt es.cjLioowje 2* geitgiooTe eTJjioK^ 2s.iro3 
e-ygoce • xxn \d^j><ir c»e<p Hpoojuie •sin 55 nei Md^T 
K<x> nccaq K nq^^^pHjuis. e Tifee nnoTTe • jvTTto xjlji 

p55pjs.iy Qsnt 55 nei n^-tr OTr-xe uin pijojjie eqe£i- 
fciHTT* xxn ptojuie eqqi e poq •sxn G nei nd^Tr 
eTTcoiuj 55juioq • oTT-^e aiH '\2)ve)vT eqqi e poq • 
£inio&ne<3^ juxtoq • d^ntytone ca.p THpK e jun 
jvicencic i? gHTn • d^iton THpn is.itp peqs'oiiiT 
d^np pq':siiiv2vTr • i^np pequco^" &.non THpn jy^np 
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ujoTeiT • eno JiiXbA tHjuiotiic • neT nnir | i:»A.p e 
goTii e necnmr e njux e TpeiTKiveH («v) Hiioq •;— 
qoTTtouj e K*.eHc»ei n geitRooTe • HLoTcoig e -^ cfio) 
55n*».T eqTces^o goXtoc e Tecfcu)** — qoTtouj e ^ tio- 
AAOc 55n;vT eqTC2s.£!0 goXoic e nttOAi.oc% — qoToiiy e 
p t]^i?Voco(^oe55njvT eqTCj^^o e ncTrWdv^iH- qoTwuj 
€ Tpe TTg^noTivcce nivq • 55^^»>.T qrci^o e grnoT^vc- 
ce •; — qoTTwuj e Ke\eTe 55^^vT qTcevfco e Ke\eTe 


M&.q • ne WTd^qa^ii).! g.^ eH^miiv • qOTregcxgne • ^K 
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gOTit equjiiie nciv oirjuioTnc enqcooirtt xxjuloc ».« • 
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itqTHH^ie e Tpe Tiycone eiTKicooTr • 
in nj^cviHT IJL juiepvT muL neTe Hqn2^piJ«JLe mAi 

nTft.iris.noTft.ece H tikocjuloc cejAeeiye ou e s\ft. 


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K gHT* nTltCOOTn ftvU to KecMHTT c ngUi^! nTft^T- 

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nTft^nci e £OTn e wjn gice juin nen-sc • ft.Trto 
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HTft.nei e goTn e 2is*noTft.cce • ft^irto Tnoirtogli! THpn 
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ft.'tjpioc e goTTM € nenepmr • Tntouj ft.Wft. Tnnoi ft.n 
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ft.n e goirn eniSjuft.ft.'se Jx nengHT v pujft.n ott- 
ptojue* ei e-sn oTrpqiutooTT gs TegiH 
neqgo «jx6e wtc nqgHT ujTo[p]Tp* ft.non gtoton 
TnnftwTT ft.Tio TnctOTjut nuja.'se n nft.nocTo\oc 


ft.T£itone e pooT • e nxift. UTupiJue nTnft.igft.- 


TKcu)T5i MX xjiHHiie '2£e nTVoc'oc IS. nnoTTTe jvTT'^ioi- 
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jutooTTTq € js^quioTT e T^e itennofee • jvTto ^ m^i | 
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jvTToi tKo n is.jneXHc • wctofee gii nenpooTuj • JDEne 
npH eujqi e poq eTctouj Ji nq-ssc jvq'A.irnei ivqivTe 
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RTe n€«£HT e ^o\ giS nK2vR€ e noToein • nKd..T«<- 
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niigHT iiTnpiAAe € Tjfee ttertttofie Hjjlim iljuLOtt • 
UJivpe nnawg^ rijui ngjsvg^ Hcon £^v necHT JSuion • 
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WTnp gOTe *.it eno n jvt ccotH Kcjv nosoeic* 
j\, nR«<£^ oTtOii ii^qcjORS « ^ewnoXic • evqgtofec € 
^o\ e -isoiOT • e T^e Top«7H Jx nttoiTTe • jvttco H 
T€i ge on ixn Kp goTe • d. npH p efiH Kgd^g^ n 
con • ji^TTOi jvqp RjvRe gw Tna^uje iS negooT • a. 
nR^^Re go^cli 55 nnsvir 55 iuteepe • H Tei ge on 
55n Tip goTe Sine nngHT ixiceA^ne • oTr':^e 55n 
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4*^ gencncjooiq ena^-ujtooT •2£e enjs.njs.Tr nTnp goTe nTn- 

noiT e pjs.Tq 55 nnoiTTe gn OTrpiJuie juin otrjLie- 
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lAHnoTe nTe Topi?H 55 nnoTTe ei e -scon'; — 
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e Topc^H 55 nnoTTTe nqno) n*».n e fcoX -se js.n^- 
noTS^c n&.q • 

Fol. 48 t 


UJ iiecttHTT Jx^vpIleMIO « Mettv^T;)(^H gH geittiHc^*. • 
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nenitST er oTKis.Si cncconK nqcXcooTV.H • jua^-pTi 

juJvpn Rto Kivit woTuji aaH OTKdwrtujii €tt*^«oTrq •* — 
n&.p«Rto2^ e n£iioc H neneiooTe • n ujopn enixHit 
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AAJuon SnooTT I «THKis> tootH e Sio\ n pa^cTe • Foi. 49 « 
iSnp TpiiJiiiooujfe UnooT ttoire«j «toot€ nTiiei ^1 
e ps^cTe HTitujine nc^.'XJs.^Xiott eneccoq •* — 
Hnp Tpnt^opei n 0T\i£siT0Vi h oTi^'ooTrite iX- 
nooT* pjs.cTe -xe giocaq WTnujirte wcis. oTrujTHit 
eitivrtoTrc ecXeRXojR •;— Hnp juiookjg gn oTeni- 

CTHlxei SUOOT pAcCTe ^OiO^^ S^^ AJLOO^e ^ OT- 

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CU>tI£ €R«jTpTO>p gil OTTHUJOT * H eUOTTOigiA •' — 

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e fcioX 15 neTH&iOC 55 nnoifTe • jvttw 
x?TeTH I ^pHcTTAAeire noTra^ hottjv 55 neT g\TOTru>q Foi. 49 b 
gu gw^ niJUL HT€TKuioTroTrT 55 neTwcaiuiA. gn ^** 



^eit^-CKHcic • nTeTrt2s.picKe w weTneiooTe inTi 

JieTHcilHTT • V.KTSk KnoTTTe • 

CwTiA € n-^sc eq-sco jlajlaoc -ste Hee eTeTrioTreuj 
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f!o\ gJS nengoife ct «Js.wo7rq • euT^>.':ipH7^ uce- 
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js.TT'xoKq e f!o\ gn OTgrnojuonH • 

OtK oto« € i^qp gju.e H Tivioir npoiuine iln oTrujifje 
iiTe-trec»Kpds.^iv eT n;>.«0TC • e ^.TcavgwoT e fioX 

eTTiiROTK gi necHT etPAiioouje £k ottoMio jliH 
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TC Txippe JS nottoK e feoA 15 nmKo« • juimca. itJxi 
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55iu.ivT€ € neuj^HX aah totujh H poeic gvi oTrpiJue 
Atn OTis.ajd.gojui • 
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e TfenHTXt «j2vitTe ni\2s.^ eujTWOTrn ^js. poq • is.qR05 
nevq st gettpqT«».itjeoeiig eTe rtJs.i ite* itq&.nocTo- 
Xoc ne eT oT^v^v6 • K^)<T^s. ee ex ch^^ 'xe is. neT- 
g^pooTT ei e fio\ e'2£;i5 nnd^g^ THpq* js.tC'^o^ 
5ijuuioq • i^TKoncq gn OTXocf^H • Jwqei e fsoX 
n^i nenoTT'Si.i • oTimooir juin OTrcnoq exe nexi ne 
nJfeivn^cjL«.2v jun necnoq eT Td.iHT* en TJuE -xi 
fce^.n'^cxidi I c^jvp juLen-si necnoq • TtTon giotoK ^oi. 67 b 

His. ujHpe gdwpeg^e Tei nic^c* j<tu> nnoTTe n ^pnnH p'A.'2k 
ni>.wjo)ne nliju&.n nqTOTr-xon nqn^^gjuiK nc^ujcone 
enuioTn nneugooTT THpoir • ot'^w gju n-sc njw 
AitepiT n xgnpe gj5 tvsx.* j^pi juljv jmeeire gto njk 
juepiT gj3 n-sc e fio\ giTn ic ne^c nen-isc • ndwi 
eTe ncoq ne neooT jun n^jud^gre ujd«> eneg^ n 
eneg^ qe 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 6783) 

uxi ne nBioc n^nu:\RAPioc im8:\H- 
HHC nnoflo:K:oc h tgmoh n:\i etx 
H^eiooTe cnme hxh n neT:\rreMOH 
HHOTB- e :\^xiuK e bo\ n n^Bioc gt 


nonoHH eH:\HOTc- H cot ^toot n 
neBOT- ne^ip 8h otgiphmh htg 
BHOTTe cnoT e poh thph 8:\nHH.:- 

Dei £iioc <[T».p TeitOT e ^niwigjs.'se maSjuhtk e 
T^iHHTq* n».pd^ oTpcojue UTe nnoTTe ne evTrto 
oi. 68 a tt I ujOTp ujnHpG juLO-oq UT&.qujaine giS neit- 
pTVe oTToeittj • n2vi TeKoir iieTn OTrpujiuie ujoon on 

TnoAic g^pcoiuiH oTrpi5juis.o euiis^Te ne • riToq ne 
"^PX^" H TnoXic • nqpjs.It ne eiTTponioc • 
npjvM nTqcg^iAAe ne eeo'^ojpjv • Jviro) iieTTo npq- 
lyiiuje noTTe 5Anecitft.?r •xiti TeTjuiitrKOTri \ — 
Hj»^! 'ik.e nepe ujojunT Miynpe ujoon ns^TT • necitevT 
AJieu Jv-y^ viivTT n ottuo^ [three-quarters of a line 
erased] n T^.^ic • gjS nni^Wiv^on mipptootr • 
nROTi gtooiq *.TrTj.d.q e Tpeq<2ti cfea> enegfemre 
Ji nnoTTTe* jmimc*. nj^i ^xe ^.qeiAJie eitoiuj 
nnec;)(^o\2>.c^uoc • ivTO) itqgn TeirjLiHHTe ne* 
ni^TVin on* JvqTc«v£io Itiieg^HTre JJ. niioTTTe i^iyi)^ 
itqAAHp e tkkTVhci*. equjnie ncjv nnoTTe • Jx 
negooTT jun TeTTuyn* 


H<5'I OTTCOn 5i XlOltO^OC UTC T-tAOirilH €T cev pOTTlt* 
T&.I eT OTTJUOTTTe € pOC •2te WeTe JUeTttROTK €q- 

oTTOJuj e i^toK e eieTVHii • e wj'A.h'X gu Jxxxis. ex 

2ke 2s.qiyiv'xe Ain icac gi^grit neqni • gjS nuj^.«2t€ IS 
nnoTTe • «^qp ujnHpe | K<3'i iwgi^imHc e negcsTo * ^oi. 68 1 
equ^»^T e neon JS xioito^^Q^oc jun nqc^HJUiv • a*H p^c- 
TeqiS'inujjs^'se €t go\^ jjiu itqjLieeTre • e gcaru e 
nuoTTTe wee n oiri\tx>^f %• 

Ilecate icogJs-imHc * •se n^. ^oeic H eicoT Htor n^^ 
Tcaw • H epe neKJLi.on&.cTHpioM • h epe neujuio- 

ItJvCTHpiOSl i^-c) TOilt • 

Ileose ncoM iJ utono^i^^oc nivq ose ^^.ttOK eiujoon gH 
TiuioMH wneTe AAeTrnKOTU* evirto puja^it nwoTTTe 
pgne^q eioTfcoig e fsoiR e eieXHii r[T^s.«J'\H\ JS- 
AXiiiTF giS nju.^, eT oTi)vev£j* js^ttoo gix noTcoig 
5ui nnoTTTe • ^n;^s.KTOI e n*. uid*. niie con * 2wtio 
2k niAOito^oc Ta^juoq e T^je gto6 iium Hre*. loigevn- 
iiHc Td..JLioq (sic) e T^iHHTq • n rep eq 

CtOTAA "xe tt(5^i iwc e nes uj^.-ate iivqjvxift^^Te H Tsriot 
S neon G juono^oc s^q-siTq ctt-Iajsw eqecTT^i.'^e 
2».T(jo ^.qT^kpRoq n ^enttos^ tta^Ui^iy eq-xco iuuuoc 
iij>^q 'se eKujjwttfcwR na*. juiepiT neon e eieTVHO. 
net KOTK git oTeipHnn iinp gonn e poi * oTr«xe 
juEnp fccoK e tkaiouh nc^ Kjs.e)vT nccan e fco"\ -se n 
^gn TV^-js-T ».n e poK gjS n«s. fiioc THpq • enei "^.h 
nd,.eiooTe xie iXtJioi exiivTe nj^pA. nevcnmr • 

K2vi i:'i)<p ^w^^T^s.^>.T e tootott n genc^ojAdwC^uoc ' Foi. 69 a 
iy^TOi epe niSk eiu>T ^ssw SttJioc "xe ^n^s.^ ne^n it p^'^ 
gen no 5" Ht^s^^ic • 

\osnon R^>.T^>. neT glS neqgHT eqoTojyg e ^ n^kl 
nne cd^ajq enTew^ic eT-soce njvp&. Tcoq • ^ifm 
juinncjv nM eqoTcouj enp ujeXecT e poi* JvnoR 



'^e guitjOT on j>.i6coK e THKAnciiv • jvicwtS e pooir 
eiriouj gn oTjuiv etr-isa) aaxaoc "xe neooTT THpq 
Ji lies R0CA510C. oTT^iuofe Hcuifce ne • js.Tr«jct "ate ntT 
itevKivTes.t^poii€i iS nes uocjuoc nqoTi^g^ Hcis. 
ne-^c gu OTTgHT eqeoTTTton • jlioi:*ic itqitoTrgii • 
Ke jLUvAicTd. niv con npwAjie H pqpitofje n • e t^jc nis.i ^concTT aaaaok ^^s. eioiT eT 
OTTi^ivfc • e Tpe K'siT riIijui?>vK e TK-txoTrnH • HTeq- 
cujTii "i^e 
6 itivi \\<^i neon JUL Mxonoy^oc • d^qcopu n otjs.ka.uj 

-xe eiUJiSvliKTOI ^IliS.'itlTK HAAXliS.! € TivJUlOItH * 

!^e *.TrTiv'2£pe nigis.'^se jutit itcTrepHir gi oTcon • iv 
noTTis. noTis. AAJUtooir jutoowje e TqjtioirnH gn 


Uimc^- rtsvi "xe js-q-xi wjcxne g35! nqgHT vita's njuis.- 

His.pioc iwc eq*2s:cx) Jxmxoc -se npoiTtow xieii Kis.2vT | 

Foi. 69 b nTd.£ia)R uj^ MiveiooTe WTivTpe TTcuime M:^>.l K 

p^H oTreiTivi^c'e'Xxon WTd^couj gjcocoq • -se u ^cooirit ivn 

n rieriToXH 51 ne^c • b^TiXi on ^itiv^ynTq oH njuiev 

e TiM*.6coK € poq • d^qei -xe 

6 nni Ii itqeiooTe • *.q's;a> e pooTT n oir'\oi(3'e n 

'^Aieiue eqosco iXutoe "se ^.MJvTr aS itjveiooTe • -aie 

A.tiOK ^ujoon gIT oTTujine n tiahhtc n n^^ujloHp 

c^oXivc^ROc "xe ceujoon THpoT gIT Tec^oTVH 

epe oTTeTis-i^KTeAioii K hot^ UTooTq I£ kot*^ 

noTTiv UT^^. weTciooTe cjutliTq nbHF eirtoig gitotoq • 

dwHOK -ixe g(o eio nee n oirgHKe gi? TetrjuHHTe 

eAAnTq eiuiT Xjuues^Tr h lx^)v^»^T • j>.qni».gTq 

^e e-sS nq£o ucTi iwc gi^ p^vTO^^ H nqeiooTe eq- 

Qsoi Sauioc "se ^concjT SuiaiTlT uiveiooTe eujWT 

ejAivTe TKcjuLine n».s H oTeTa.'ct^^eXion goi -^ie i\js.e 

eiuivg^e e poq gn ite^a^i's iTtjs.'xi cJ&oi e Sio\ n 

gHTq • 


ecjeipe gi iiis.! js.cujd^.'ste uiii nec^ivi ecxco Siuioc FoI. 70 a 

55 neitujHpe uJ3c • ott Jtionon ose cg^!vIq Siuiis^Te 
jvWdv Kocjmei SXxAoq KivAtoc gli gen cone Jx Alt' • 
ettdwiye cotutot • 

SK Teir HOT €T HxAXiKS- i>LqoTegcA.£tte Hcgri nqeiiiOT • 
j>.qein€ itft.q H-^ot Tiuje noo'\oKOT'|-Jioc juITgeMOiiie 
51 jLie • eTTis.iHT ».qTft.».T iToTTcs^g^* U£jvTn\OTr& • 
a^qTiv-tJiio n2vq H TKOcxiHCic It OTre7rft.iTC*e'\iou 
KT is^Tcd^gq* j^.Tco a^ neqeicoT "ssiTq e^qTi^d^q H 
icoc nequjHpe • a^q-xiTq -se 

H^g'i ICOC ^>.qp^s.UJe e g^pd^i e -xcoq • jwtco itq'2s:i cfeco 
g^p2vi H gHTq ^n oTntO(5' It 5SKd.g^It g^HT • ^.ttco wq- 
<5'coujT e fsoA gHTq 5J ncoit 55 uioito^oc uja^itT 
qei rtq^coK it5AJL«.«<q \ — 

Ilmtces. ^eiiKOTi -^^.e Hgooir &.qei H(3^i ncoit 55 juoito- 
^oc € Tfie ne itTevTcJuItTq AiYt neTTepHT •; — 

H Tep qtid^TT "xe n<^\ icoc e neon njuiono^X^oc is,q- 
pj>.uje ejLievTe e>.Trco 2vqTe?VH'\ | *.qd>.cnd^'^e 55jLioq • Foi. 70 b 
equjoon git 0TitO(3' Itpj».uje • ne-sd^q ites^q ose n*^ P** 
Qsc HeicoT ^cooTrt e noTcoui It st^veiooTe • uilt 
neTjue e goTit e poi • JUdwAieT*. TbJLXixb^T KgoTo 

Giycone ec«j;s.«ecoT55 e £co6 It -^uieiite e £^0Trt e 
poi • « itecpiSesooTe (^/^) ^^gice itd^i e negoTo • 
2vX'\j>w -^concn 55juiok juid^pltge eee KTltJ^con n^-it 
it-xioTe • jkTco 55np Tpe \^v^v7^ eijjie • e neii'scouu/y • 
ne'2£e nAiioiio^oc itiN^q -ate Itee eTpevitJvR ^njs.«<c 

IXttco ne UTNueneieTJUi e poq n-atoeic itis.'soKq it&.K 
e ^o\' ji^qTcooTti -^^e 

H^i ICOC Axn nxjiono^oc • js.Tjfe(OR itJs.Tr Tt-xioire • 
ivTei -^e e-slt ejvWivcjv eTujine Itcis. o-yx^KHsu) e 


nneeq 33 itjcoi eq-sw Hjuoc • -xe ^ni^pa^KiviVei 
JuuuoK TiiK coil e TpiTneAii rg^ejue njSjutjswW • -se 
Ka^c eKe*2ti iSjuton IS necitivT e tjuomh H w€t 
ejneTrnuoTK • nneeq "xe 3X n'ssoi ne-sivq cse 
gjxooc mhtH ujevsiT js-ottji 3S iuk oioi itcReTre • 
A-TTto TsinswCis'Hp ^jut noToiuj 5i nnoiTTe • ne-xe 
I(ji>£&.ii«Hc AA niieeq -se uijvtjs,aaoi <2ie OTHp Te 
Fui. 71 a Teuglijuie • neose niteeq | ttjsvq -xe uje HgoXoKOT- 
pAAis. ^noc • Te TgAAxie 3a njv csoi •; — 

ToTe ne-se looc it&.q -se ^K^.T*wivTr ne>.K • it Tepe 
icac -xe TivTe itjs.i e nweeq • ^^.qei e JiMxts. €t epe 
neon 3a aaoho^oc gicocoq • ^e'2£^s.q iiei^q -xe nis. 
eitoT ecAAe aa n'^soi oTrnoisr t€ ^^.tco nex ^«j€ 
e poK ne e Tp ufewK iiiMt Tiv^H • AAHnore nee 
ei eosto itcecoTTuen iicecg'onn Ktc OTujine ujtone 
itivtt • -ate dwUntOT H-sioTre • totg evqfjijOK e goTn 
€ nqni ii<3ri roc ujiv TqAA^^ir • ne*sft.q tijvc -sste 

''^COncTl AAJUO W Td. AAepiT AAJUi^i^T • ^cooth 
•2te Js.p'2itOK £ fco\ n lti>.OTr(jOUI THpOT • Ke OT2k 

noTooT ne -^igivjvT AAJUoq • eTTujoTujoT itivn ne 
gi oTTcon • uToc "xe ^€'s^s-c n^vq "se ^oofi uiaa ex 
RO^^^)^«Jq («v) n^^ ujHpe «viTes SSiiJioq itevK Htoot • 
*.Tco *.noR ^n^^QsoRq iti>.R e £io\* ne-se uJSc it 
TqiAJKikTr "xe TpcooTfii -xe ittgnpe ujhaa THpoir ex 
tt3AAAd«.i git tcc^oXh n oircon it oTruiT ^.it ne • 
OTT-xe It cMei.Tr ^.it ite • iiTis,TrivpicTis. aajiaoi ^aa 
neTUTivA.7r • ciottcoaa e ^o\ ^It iicTTiiRd..* — &.itoK 
gcaooT ne aar \i>.i^'s- tyoon itd^i e Tp^v eipe ^t3iAA^)».^^ 
Foi. 71 6 It TtgEfjico It tt€ it[Ti>.TrA.js.T itevi • isTTix) AA nujinc 
pAAfe R(j^> 3aaaoi jvvt itRc con e Tp*w fetOR c Tec^o\i!<c- 

^RH € Tfie nej gwB • ne-sse TqAAjs.i.Tr itd.q • ^e 
neT€ ROTTa^iyq -J^ itAAAA«.R • pujjvit ncReioiT 
e\ e ^.'^TTw 35 nitj^-y aa AAeepe ^ita. Tpe qT2vd.q 


M^^K -sse K2vc €RMd.eipe 51 neROTCjoog n gHTq jun 
neKUj^Hp • TOTe n Tepe neqeicoT ei e goTTW jS 
niid^TT i3 jneepe • is-cxoi e poq w goi£i niju. iita. 
HOC •SOOT Jt&.c • xtToq -^e d^qoTraiajfi • 
He'iSd.q -se neTqoTii.ujq THpq '^^^)^T^^^vq Wivq • *wWa. 
iuia.pKT^ o^^2Ii!2^v\ e poq nqpoeic e poq -se 
OTujHpe ^HJUL ne • umnoTe iiqTftwROO'y • ^ ^en- 

juiOTTTe e neTrujHpe icoc js.t^ it^^q w nnoirfi • 
^TTU) ewTTTeui ngiIgJv<V e poq • « Tep q-xi H mioTrfe 
Hf?! Koc i^qei e rujiis. €t epe njuoito^oc H gHTq • 
nToq juH n^pi^'K €t xioouje niitjiikq ne*2s:ivq 
M&.q -se nd>. "soeic itcow nei 2**2.'^'^ ^'^^ Rites-T e 
poq nioi ( ne • es.pi Td>.i?Js-nH nt^ Rjvjs-q ^2>.gTHR Foi. 72 a 
MTdwficoK e nixis. n iievujfiHp Tei^ujine e fioA gi P**^ 
TOOTqir (sk) ose eTrtiHT «j&. poi Twewir • totc ^.qeijue 
w^yi ngXXo jS AJioiio^oc -se equjjs.'se itSSjus^q e 
Tfee niteeq ii n'lioi • 2v?v\a. nTes.qo7rtoiy enoonq (?) 
e T£ie n^Iig&-?V ct juoouje iijjuuies.q • uJ3c -xe d^.q'si 
55! nuje iigoXoROT^itoc evqei e njujs. 55! nno<? « 
weeq 55 n-xoi • ne-se^q Wb.^ -xe -^concn 55julor 
nj^ CSC Kcoit -zse rj^c €R€c£it€ notoi e £io\ • 
KTnfewR n».H gH oTiS'enH • evtiOR xxn thk coii • 
nneeq -xe 
H Tep qco)T55 e k&.s ^iie eqoiroi^ e fecxiR iw^q 
H'sioTre • ne-sewq n^^q n(^i nueeq -se es-ioTto 
eico^Te 55 nes.'xoi • evTio jviotco ei-sco 5JUH0C k&.r 
iiKe con -se Tgeiuie 55 n&. "xoi otro^ tc • ».'Wiv 
eiga>ne uj^^Ra^ca 55 nei jujv • o^d^UTj^TevXe n2>wTreiM 
e n'xoi «jii^iTi>.Xa)TR • 
Ile-xe icoc "se j^ioTTui ei-xco 55*Jioc ha-r "xe ujdti-^ 
TgHJuie nevR RevT«>. ee iiTd».R*2£ooc • RTeTROir "xe 
^.qeiiie e fiioX 55 nuje ng^oXoROT-'^Moc iiTOOTq 
eqpevuje esjiJvTe • j).qT».ivq tii^q eq-xoi 5£«Jioc • ote 


TerioTT eojciine na^np nepsi Kd^Td. poK j^pic iijuLiijvii 

MTiifeaiK iiivvi HosiOTre • niteeq "xe Jx n-xoi n Tep q 
CiotSa € itjvi • j^q-si 5a nuje ITgo^os^OT^stoc « TOTq 
eqpjvuje ejuii^Te • ne'2£dvq h ujSc. • -jse fiuiK «».ni 
neKuj^Hp iti^ei • eiytone noTOiuj jui nnoTrre ne 
^iti^qi j5 neTJipootriy Kd<\toc • ^>.qKOTq 
H(5^i icogi^vmHC • «vqTi<M.e ncoit Jx jutono^oc e £(ofc 
Miju. IiTi^qujcone SXAJioq • 

ne negooT e '^iiis.cfsTe n^-picToit e Mis^uj^Hp • 
eioTiouj c«is-p e KUiTe ncjs. ottujhju Ht^jt «d«.T • 

i^qei n(5'i ottthtt ejievuoTrq • j>.qi5[C0K HiS'i nneeq 
jS n'xoi evqev^e p;s.Tq nc». nei cji. 31 w^s-Oi u ott- 
KOTi • 2s.qgjuiooc es.q'soipli oirfce icoeviiiiHC («v) xiH 
nue ijionoD(|^oc "se TtooTW jvJtiHiTri &.\tOTH • eweT 
ujTpTCop i?is.p eiroTOiuj SI noopS e ngjSgi^'X nce- 
Foi. 73 a R&>2s.q uccooTT jSn oTrjc^tt oe • icoc -xe ne-xivq 55 
pA«,€ n^SSgivX ex jLiooaje KSSxji».q "xe TOiOTrit it"? fciou 

e fio\ evTei e taioiih gii noTcouj 51 nrtOTTTe • 

ei^quToq "xe 
H(5'i ngHgivTV. eotn ejvWis.cev Hxn eq^e e pooTT jvq- 

cgTopTp e«ji&.Te ^55! nqgHT ♦se d^p2s. T2vnoiT WTi^ 

t55 TJvJue na. '2s:c 
GiTA. ne-sd^q ok -ate eip goTC jutHnoTe uceRCOTC rictoi 


KUJTe ucwq iItoot • ivttOR -xe nTis,uja>ne n ^s,T 
pooTuj ivTrto iipjut^e 

pijuie g« oTTiiofT H piiuie • ecsco ijumoc -ise ottoi 
w^.! nsv jjiepiT nojHpe loigxunHc • ott ne nT^^.q- 
ujoine Haaor uis. ujnpe t^oA.^ oiroi nis^i n^v lyHpe 
•ate is.TTujoivr e nengo ca luic njs. ajHpe | xi. JLiep\T • FoI. 7;ib 
OTToi Md^i nijut ne iiTi^qqi 55 ^^. gnfec n gHT • K pA«.c- 

Otoi Md.1 niju ne nTei.qqx Jx n*. JuepiT n ujHpe 

nJuiepiT Htjs. viy^^n •; — (J3 faSc 
Iliv ujnpe is uiepiT • uS noiroent K «2vJfeis.\* ^.i-sootk 

€ Tjfee OT cot]^i2v • jS nei ge e nTUiuj HTd,.qiijwn€ 

Ottoi wiKi n&. ujnpe ex goX^ nriivg^pn ottoii mxi • 

oToi m>^\ ^^w lynpe eTgo\^ n*. nei go €t Ajieg^ ii 

pjvuje itxJti • 
Otox whkX navTOiKtoit m n&>i7i?e\oc • otroi itivi oS ne 

'^n2v*wq '2SLiit SinooTr e lio\ • « Tei ge *^e on neqne 

n gHT • eqrsiujKi^K e ^o\ eq*2£0i Slaaoc • ose ot 
ne nT^vqlyu)ne Sjuiok cJ3 njs> AiepiT n ujnpe n 
'^cooTTtt *wn e ne nrivqujaine Huiok gn oTr<3'enH • 
u Tep oTQtoou e ^o\ nc^i nc^ujq ngooir ngnfee • 
epe Tno\ic THpc p gnfje nijLju*vTr • TOTe neqeicoT 
*wqT(x)OTrn s^q^con e ^oirn e nnesk.'W iv-^on jvqTis.JLie 
nppo e 2^6 n\jui UTis^trujoone • js.tco ivqns^pdvKi<\ei 
juumoq e Tp qTilnooir n oTne'A.eircic e iio\ ^U 
JU12V nijn WTe Teq|juiitTepo ^e a^d^c eTeujine eFoi. 74rt 
T&HHTq juieujdwK ncege e poq • n Tepe nppo -xe P-**'^ 
CwiTjuL e U2>^\ j>.q'\TynH exsiawTe ^ o-y Hrn^ v\ ^ht -se 


nqAte Hjuioq ejuiivTe e T^e TqxinTCivie • jutn Tq- 
enicTHjuiei* jvTto -xe nqoTTtoui nJCuuiJvq (^'sxi'^jv e T£ie nqito^ H otcouj e goTti 
e poq • TOTC nppo 

geiuLij^TOi e Tpe Trujiiie itctoq jvirto jviTRaiTe 
gil juid. niui Hn oTge e poq d^imoTOT e nn^-X- 
?y.i!v^oii •; — 
HeqeiooTe -^e n Tep oTrgice eiTRWTe wcwq 5In 
oT£^e e poq a^T^ eooT Si nitoTTe • iwc -xe js.qei 
njAOwawCTHpioit iiToq aaH nne AJtOMOX©*^ ^t 
jAoouje «I£uiJvq • d^qqi 15 neTrjsvC^iTeXion « Moirfi 
nlLtJii^q njvi Htj^ itqeiooTe cjuIiTq nevq • d.q- 
TbJLxe npoeicTOc e £wfe niJti* HT«<qujciC»ne Jx 
nujHpe ujHix icoc • JuiH Tqitoar H nicTic e goTn 
€ nitoTTe* n»^p;)(^Hiji».M'xpiTHc -xe neota^q iS 
nojHpe ujHJUi -se n». ujHpe eic gHHTe ^newT e 

Fol. 74 6 pOK -Xe HtK OTTKOTI gtt TeRiS'OT | &.T0) wcd^ie 

piOf cjuLb^Te. gH iteRgfiHTe : — 

\oinoii njs. ujHpe oToit kiju ct oTtoig e d^noTJs.cce 
3S nei KOCjLioc eTo Htk(3'ot ui2s.irp gSSe ngooir • 
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Fol. 77 b 


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(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 7027) 

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E e 


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il Uj2vllp iKT &OMJL UJJvir^ TOOTIl • gITW HeitCllHTT * 

2>wTrio uujjs.neneietrixei eircR€Troc eoTTOjiiiq • tH- 

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TOOtt • pUJ^.n OTTeAllv^XC T2vgOOTr • H €T«J2>.ngRO Fol. 8a 

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'Xoc 'xid.ROjnei W2>.t n TeTTpor^H* nqeine m^T 
55 lUuooTT e fco\* gn oirneTpN. v 
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fiOHeidi TNgooTT gn oTtS'enH • nq-jsooir e feoX WTeT- 


ttOTT Mq'2£oopoT e ^o\ e T^ie ncooTTn Jx neirgHT • 
€ goTM e poq • 

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iijvs • n Td. Tpoc^H H juiHHne • eq^ iiuioc ma>i n 
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gHTq* a^TTlO dkltp TCTUJH THpC ltUj\H\' e nitOTTTe 

Fol. 13 b 


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\oc eTgTTJUiiteTre £i en Jx nxii.R«*.pioc ^)^^^v oit- 
itoqpioc • CX-Tto nepe ottmoc?' n oirpoT ojoon gn 
Teqg^iwevnjvRTjK. e nitoTTe • is.ror -xe evme^T Ri». 
gHTT H Td.'XofiHTe eT TO £iu)C0T 2vi'^ KTecn^^uje • 
e TR2vice' T Re n^^uje -i^e jm^joXt xxaxoc -xe 
nweic^'to eiRH rjv ^ht • CVi^ 't^c. 15 nqctojuijv e 
necHT e noiruiui n oTneTp^. 2>.ic(0Tii e negpooT 
n oTTjuHHuje Rjwi?'?e'\oc eTpj^uje s^tw eTtoaj e feoA 
•xe js-WnXoTTidw • 


Fol. 15 b 


^\^ o^e. jut n&. ajXH^ e g^p^^i e -scoq • d^Trco ^>.I(3'0)'X n 

^ njueg^ en cii\if • &.Tca iiTeimoT i^ T^iTiie ge • 

JvttOK 'xe ».sp tyiiHpe eiA2)^T€' jS ii€v\Tft.qwjuiTie • 
jviOTTojui SI neitTd^qceene JS noem • ^.tw «».ico> 
il nxiooTT WTivqceene e pon • n Tep eiM&.T '2we ^e 
xi noTTCAiuj js.rt 15 nvtoTTTe ne e Tpjs.fyco 55 nes jlijs. • 
jvinep^ TOOT e feo\ jviuj'XhTV e g^p^s^i e n^ • j>.7ru) 
eic nptojiAe iiTJi^qei «j». poi k ujopn ^^q^^- &ox9. 
US.I • evqei on tgiv poi uee u TegoireiTe • ne-sevq 
\\iK\ • -xe n*. nnoiTTe jv newssc tjvaxom iSnooTT -ate 
mtHTT ojA, pon e nei juid. • eic ce npojune JuTn en- 
itd.Tr e ptojue ei jlih tci wtok Jui«.Td.js.R* it Tep mJ5cK 
•xe MUJ^s.'se juiti itestepHTr • 
\oinott ^e'2s;^vlt Wi^q "se o) nencott • cjmH neugHT n 

OTKOTI It oeiK 2S:e UTa.ll €1 git OTTglH eCOTTHHT * 

^ 2w nis.c -xe TOtylt e Tp «<5'w jliu rtett|epHTr' rt 

\ev 07r2^ooT*_TMpi.aje "xe itHuidiK* ca newcoit 35 

uiepiT • H ^ocoit "xe it ujivsse uiit itenepHT • etc 

gHHTe* ^.Teiite e £OTit K -"^ot woeiK* eT^HJut 

e>.TrtO eTrpoOTT gCOC "Se ItTiivTWjD^TOT grt T€Tpip • 

K TeTitOTT 2<Trente -xe oit it oTTitK*^ e ^J^!^7^oTOJuq 
a.it2.**<3^<^ "^^ A.itoToiUL Airt iieitepHiT' 2KTybi ne'a^js^q 
ita.1 "se eic Txieg^ co Kpojuine "siit itTiMtei e nei 
Aid. qTOOT It oeiR iteT thuj it«.it 55 uiHHMe • 
CTeiite aSaioott it».it e 6o\ £it55 nitoTTe • It Tep 
Kel 'Sk.e uja^poit 55nooT eie tr to j.7ritTc itd.K • a^irco 
exA iTeiAte eiteg^ -se jiTivTrei Tcoit ^.W*. Hmhtt 
e goTTit itge e pooTT e^r hh e g^p*.i • it Tep noTco o^e 
itOTfWA* Atii ttenepHTT jvtip TeTiyH THpc itttj\H\ 
uj*. gTooTre • gTOOTTc "xe it Tep equjwne • i^inivpa.- 

R«.\ei I i5A*ooTr e TpeTrKevj>.T 2_^ ^tht ly^. negoo-y 

\fe 55 njs- jjiOTT • 

He'Xi.T It^vl "ate o5 netieoit 55 ngco£i • thuj na^u «.n 

Fol. 16 « 

Fol. 16?) 


e ^o\ e Tpe K(3'io Jx nei aji^. • is-Wis. TOiOTTM ric fioiK 
€ RHAie* it"e -xtjoit lie nT2vKnis.Tr e pooir* e Mecnmr 
eTp njueeTre nikT* 2v7ra> eTrgmr I? nex ciaTlE * ivnoK 
'xe &.inivpis.KdwA€i AAJtiooir e TpeT -sio e poi ii nev- 
Y^b^n WTOOT "xe Iln oirneiee H -xoot e pooT* 
2viMtivi?K&.'^e HiutooT i^Tio on iSn oT*2s:ai e poi H 
neTpa^n* ij^TOTTOiujfe i\e.'xe>.Tr ate ne WTs^q^ pa^n e 
Xivis-TT niAji * A.TOi eT coOTrn n gto^ ni*jt nToq ei 
cooTn n nenpis.n • Tenoir (gre nencoit &.pi nen- 
AxeeTe ig2vnT nn2vTr e pon gii nHi S nnoTTe • 
cnoT'XJv'^e -XG Xin p Kis. nKOcutoc e p gA^V j5- 

JUIOR • "Xe ivqp gJvA. n OTTUIHHUJG • it Tep OTW I •a.e Pol. 17« 

it n^wi • jvTCAioT e poi ».Ta> j^.Tis.cnev'^e Haioi • Xc" 
jvie'i € Sio\ 2} TOOTOTT • n Tep eioire 
ILuooTT ne<T£00T H juoouje • d.iei e £io\ e 2JP^^ ^"^^ 
oTrmrc^H ULmaoot • es.noK 'i.e evigjuooc n ottkoti 
e T&e ngice • j^Tr(xi neirn £enno(3' ntynn pHT 
^i-xn THT15H* n Tep exAjLtne «vTr<ji> nT».ju[Ton n 
oTKOTi • M(3^oi ei^oToi gn nujHn • eip lynnpe • 
jwoi eijjteeire e feo'X ote niui ne nTes.qTtocjcx^'e 55- 
juooT AX net juijs. • is^Tto on oTn gen^nne ngHTOT 
eiroTn nnft^pnoc • sxR genniTpe jvtrto ^en^pjudi^n' 
jLxn g^tts^JiTG • jun ^enosAineg^* jun geneAooXe • gen'xops.Kion • xin gennicjujv • jun gen ne 
ujHn eTujewj c-^ no^rqe e feoX* trtith necTii^Tre 
juooT e ^oX ecTco H HigH« THpoT ct pHT gju 
nuiis. eT jULUd^TT • it g^ocon | ':^e eip ignnpe* itFoi i76 
iitynn* zs.Tfw eieewpes juuuloot uiit neTneivpnoc* X'x 
e\e qTOOTT n wjnpe ^hjul ^.Te'i Jx noTe eneccjiOT 
git TeTgiKton • epe gen6is.\oT enecooT to gitooTr • 
AA necjuoT n gen nepteoiiiis^ • n Tep oirnoig^ Ok.e 
€ poi ne'2t2>>.T nis.1 -^ie D(^2s.ipe ms. nnoTTe nenxiepiT 
it con • 

!\nOR "Ske 2vH12v^ MOTTtiOUJT n^s^TT • itTOOTT O^e JkTT- 


TOTMOCT J>^TivCniv'^€ jXlAOI • ItCTttJOOn gtt OTTOS' 

wciS'p^.gT • CTTo itee « ite iiTivirnwite e n Ke ^s.Ia)M 
gjS netrpdwige xxn neircoTVcA e goirit e poi • ivir^oi 
•xe €TROTq It WKis-pnoc gn wujHn • eTT-^ Uaxoot 
e goTM e TiiTi^npo • js.itoK •a.e es. ^^>. gHT GTrr^pjs.ri€ • 
€ T^e ee ct oTo\o\e e goTii e poi • evip cd^ujq c»&wp 

ngOOTT 2*. gTHTT II OTTOOJUl gtt ttRJ>kpnOC V? Ky^Htt • 

Foi. 18 a b^i'^noT OTT "se £ fcoTV. | Ttoii d. TeTvTei e nei juiev* 
\£ d«.7ra) nTGTW geiipiS Ttow* IIe'x^s.7^ n&>q(i/V)* ace new- 

cow • js. nwoTTe tTimoottk ujiv poii TWW^v'2s:to e poR 
jS nenfcioc THpq • b^non c^^^p jvwow H pZi ot- 
noXic wTe RHjLie -se niSoie • weweiooTe •a.e we 
g^eiifioTr^eTTTHc we WTe troXic • jivwoii -^e ^.tt- 
Mc^su e':^H£i€ • e Tpe^r nd.i'^eTre iijuiow • neit- 
^oon •2k.€ gen^di.ti'^Hfse u otcot jliK nenepHir • eiio 
tt OT£HT « oirtOT • 
H Tep un2vX'2keTe "^e'^Hfie • ewTWcsu e n'^H- 
jLiiow n Tcp oTTnis.i'iveTre aaiaow k2v'\wc gw oiroipS 
Miiut gi cot^ift. mjt* WTe nei kocjuoc • woT£iy njvi- 
■xeTre *2i.e Tenoir gw tcoc]^i&. H nnoTTe • oTgooTT 
•xe e Sio\ gn oTTgootr • wu|&.'xe juw iieitepHT gen 
wei uj^-Qse • js. nxiee-ye eT Wd^woTq p goife gii 

Foi. 18& neitptoAie* | €t £i goTw • js-rtTOiOTTit ii nqTOOT 
\^ ^.ttTe^evM e goirii e nTooir • e Tpw ecy^^.'^e juutiow • 

ujes-w TniiJvT e ee eT epe n-^sc nd^Toujw JuExioc • 
d^wsice itSiui^^it w g.'^HKOTTi noeiK ud^nojivir w 
civujq ngooT • 
H Tep noTe 'xe. e goirn giS nTOoir • iiTeTrwo^ j>.TreR- 
CTivcjc ge e g^pjv'i e -stoR • ^wTpcojue eqo w OToeiu 
THpq s^Aiis-gre WTWf^'i'x • js.qttTiti e nei aji2v • 
RTewei *xe e nei jjid.. • jvMS'iRe n oTrpcoAjie n gixirioc 
RTe nnoTTTe • d.iroi jv ni)vC<c«e?Voc Ji n-isc Tivj^n e 
TOOTq is.q(3'u> eqTCis.f50 iSijioR e p giSgivX jS 
nuoTTe u oirpoxine itgooT • ^5a n'jstOR "xe u 


nei sjLis. to news:c n con • cic £HHTe TngOAioXoctei 
ttjvR H n-jsc • Qse eic ce npojuinc • tHcooitm 2vm n 
^ne I KoeiK • oTT-s^e ' H Tpot^H • uces. itei-Foi. i9« 
ujHn iSjud^TC • ettorig^ e iteTRjvpnoc enujjvnoTTOiui ^V^ 
c»dLp e it2s.Tr e neitepHT • nuHTT kjvtjs. gfc'xtojuj^c 
e nes jute^ nna^TT e wenepHir • WTup TeTfujH Twpc 

« TKTpi2s.KH JLlTl nCnepHTT • XlTmCWC IITC noT^ 

noTdC 6wR itquoXTTTeTre • ncx*.! -xe na^TT ose e 
TeTncTnjs.'ce tcom • ne-xs^ir ws^i "se ucooTg^ e nei 
juijs. e T^e nei goifc* enex •i.H kjvtji. c»iifcjvTon 
uji^qei ns'i OTrs^c^cfeXoc Htc nnoiTTe nqcTrnj>.c»e 
Gjuom iS ncd.Md.TOtt • jliK TRTpid^KH • neiujoon 
•xe MjLAJUd.TT eip2s.uje cjutd^Te • 
8pa.i "Jwc ^n njuie^ cd.ujq ug^ooTT qunir n&i OTTd.i'C'e- 
vVoc ttT€ n-sc' uqcTttd^^^e iijuion nJuL«jid.R £s oircon • 
nptouie •s.e ct nd.cTrnd.c'e e £$0"^ gi TOOTq 5ut ne^^c^e- 
?y.oc CT jSjma.^ qwd^TSfio e SioX | ^11 nofee wiai • FoI. 19 6 
d^TTOi juin ?V.d.d.T n d.n^c»Hjuieiioc ttd.euj^iics'oju e Xh 
poq • n gocott "xe nujd.'se iutn nenepmr d.'iujw'XlE 
eTc^ROTqe Koar jS neiigto'A.Ai ttTcqge • eneg^* tt 
TCT HOT ttTd. nec^tioTqe Td^gon • d^MToiOTrn d^nd.- 
d^ge pd^Ttt d^ttCAioTT e nnoTTe • jLtKncioc d.qei 
H<5'i oTd.d^eXoc • d.qc-yttd.cie aSjulou juu nene- 
pHT • gii nctojuLd. JLitt necRoq H n'xc • d^noR 'a.e 
d^ipee n neT giuHfe e T&e eoTe ttTd.\ttd.Tr e poc • 
d^qcxioT •a.e e pott d^qfjioR e 2^pJ>^i H nmre ent^^coujT 
ucioq git ttettfcdwX* It Tcp qjfeoiR -xe d.TttH^e 55- 
MjLoi ne'Sd.T itd.1 -ssLe Td.-xpo ri^ (3'55(yojui tt"? ujoine 
it oTTpcojme It "swcope* ItTeTrnoTr dwinnt^e nee n 
iter gd. nnpn* dvirto TeTujH THpc n TRTpi|- 
d.RH • Iid^ge pd^Ttt rwjXh'X wjd. grooTTe • n Tepe Foi. 20 a 
noTToein -^e ei e g^pd.1 It ujcopn It TRTpid^RH • etc Xe 



gHHTC oi\ ejc ne c-^ noTqe ct noTiS ^.ttujoiXiS 

llimccjoc A^qei its'! njs.KTi:«e*\oc A.qcTn2)».r»e jSjixoit 
js^TTOi i>,qcjuioTr e noTi». noT*. Sijuiow eq-xto jUaxoc 
•xe eqeujcone itA.u n ccroiiig^ uj&> eneg^* xxn ott- 
npoc^H-^is. n 2S.T T^vKO • js^jton 'i^e THpn 2^* oTrcon • 
e fco\ gu OTrT&.npo IT ottujt • j^KOTcoujfe ose £&>- 
juiHii • eqeujcone • ju-uuccjOC j>.qKOTq («v) e poi K(Ti 

e RHjuie • nc* acco ttnenT^-KHevTr e pooir e nec- 
MHT' H jud^iitoTTe • -se rji^c eTK*.RC02^ n juE 
no'XTr^iv IT wct on-b^a^Si* j^ina.piv.KdwXei iT^toq e 
Foi. 20& Tpeq Kb<b.T I g^^gTHTT • nc'Xft.q ttjvi Qse liTis. n-sc 
Teuj ngoi^ «2vtt evtt • e Tpn p £a)6 eTTioT IT £Ht • 
A.'\^2v epe nnoTTe ^ JS noTiv noTi*. Rs^Tis. ee ct 
qiijs-ujqi • 
TenoT (^e TtooTit n^ fitoK 's:e Tis.i Te ee jTT«s.qTO«jc 
tt^kK j>^qc«AO'!r -i^e e poi • ^s.q£!CJOR H nHTe gw 
OTGOOT* js-TciKe "xe IT oTjuHHttje IT gTrnopjv 
i^itoTrtoju jj.IT nenepHT evirco j^Tei e feoTV gi too- 
TOT eireno jjjljoi e fioA ett^s. coot j5 jj-hTVioh • 
^wm^s.p^vK^v\eI "xe ajjuoot • -se osio e poi IT neTn 
pis-ii • TTtoott •i.e ik.T'xoi e poi IT KeTrp2wtt noT^. 
noTTA.' Ilujwpn ne iloc • irAteg^cniiT ne &.Jt'xpej>.c* 
nAjeg^ ujojAitf ne gHpd.H\i,jjnoH • njjteg^ qTooT 
ne eeot^i'A.oc • ITtoot -ii^e j^Tgoin e toot • e "xio 
St neTrpevii* e necnHir eirp njjieeTre ttA.Tr* d^ttOK 
•a^e gio iteiconcn jjajoott • e TpeT p n&. Jj-ee^re • 
CXmujTVhX -xe i.ndvcnN-^e | it tteitepmr • Jvijjioouje 
€ ^o\ ei'A.TrnH ejui^^Te • is-AXd. e T^e necjj.oTr ITtjs, 
iteT oTTi^jv^ TJV2VT i\b^i iteip^uje ne • Ntei -xe e ^o'X 
e RHJue IT OTT^IH • IT ujojasTt ITgooTr IE jj.oou}e • 
^.TU) n Tep eige • e itecwHT iS jj.&.moTrTe mjItoii 


«0TTe i?&.p lie itecNHiT* er Haa3^^' AwTco it€ gjeri 
jwUcotticTHc lie • npeqtgAAige H nnoTTe £l£ neir- 

(5'enH "Ske ^vTC£^.x K uei uj^^-xe viTJvTeoTjjioTr e fcoA 

•stocoAJie • d.TT'sooirq e ujiht • a^TUd^ivq gu tkkXh- 
cijv eTT^HT • It iteT ttA^ctoTAA £ poq Js^TOi iteTrujj>.'2ie 
n gHTq • eqo H AjteXeTHcie mjvt gwi T».npo | n Foi. 21 
oTon MiJUL • eT^eooTT H nnoTTC j>».t w eTCJuoT jutfe 
e neqneT 07r«v2v£i' giTV? Tex^)^pIc• uiH TJiAnf- 
jutjvipcoAJie 5S nertoic jc ne^c • n^^i e feoX £^i 
TOOTq neooT n^K^ juH nqeiWT n 2vXTJs,eoc uin 

ecco foxHTiop e\2s.;)(;^[icToe] 'ii,xjvRo[noc] 'y^ juj^KJivpioc 
juiepROirpioe •xijvRo^woe] tott b.^\ois- jui€p[KTpsoT] 
xie«Td».CTpA>TH\&.Ta< THC noXeoc Xes-TUitt 
€<?pd.v^«.c 6ife\oc AiMHceH^ juoT Ke OTei.It 
e'XeHC ett th fc^iCiXi*. cot 

et^pN^HJU-TMH TTfel f ftwHO TOitt ».t<I0lt JULJs.p- 
T[TpaiIt] V^KJV GTOTTC T^e Wt^ C» 

O Situ Okecno-^H jixH TJUitrfjevip oottui H itetteiooTe 
V^ Aiit vtSuutepjvTe stcitHT Jvfcfcev jvfcpevgeswJUi ne- 

npa^eiCTOC "^^ JJin TtJvpx[H]'2v.lJ>wRO[ltOC] Jvfefels. 

Ro[itoc] i^Tw njutono^oc St iTiuioitJscTHpion 

iS t^d.t»IOC iUl€p[KOT!rpiOC] neCTp^.TH'Xi.THC 

niiA €T lyoon (^pi nTOOT H t6(x> • jwttcjuivi nei 

n gHTq Aitt neT iis^ccotH e poq gn ot^ grnq 
•xe Ki)^c epe nevicHp ri evi^es-eoc xiTi nncT 
oTTivj^fi evniv OKiiot^pioc ni^niv^aipiTHc tt^s.- 
cjuoT e pooTT jLin nctootrg^ e gOTii ii neir- 
jLioitdwCTHpioii THpq gjS necjLioTT K Tne a^tw 
necjAOT jut nii^-g^ e R'xhr e feo\ Jx nTHpq 
nquco OTTCJUioTr juin oTcei jmn OTgi wo^qe 
xiH o^^c(OTHpI^v eirjuHtt e fioTV gii neiriL«.o«js.c- 
THpioit • nqTOT-sooTT n(So^&c xx n-xies-fcoAoc 
juin I?pa)jj.e H nomrpoc • eTr^js^tiei -ke on e 
fioX gtt ccojuijs. npoc neT kh e g^p^^i npuijjie 
niju. • eTeccoTix -^e k2s,'\coc ngAAg^-X €t n«>-- 
noTTc jvTco MA nicTOc enei -xh neTn tK^ot e 
gennoTTi ^[n&.K«^.e]icTdk EuuiwTn e-xn ^a^g^ J&cok 
€ gOTrn e npa^yge iS nen-sc jvttio ncepiinujiv 
n*2ti K'^.HponolJlI^. xin ncT oT&.^.fc TnpoT 
giJU-Hn ecenjone • 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 7025) 

oTeTRraraoH e 3y.*^T:\Too<^ Hoi nen f ;_i« 
neT OT313VB H eiiuT ex t:\iht k^t^l "^ 
cnoT Hin- xux Tnoeeoc n:\PXH- 
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n:\rre\oc n nnoT- an btpg neHeiooTe 
GT ot:\3vb H3^nocTo\oc- MTGi n ncHP 
e TBHHT^ xe eTeT:\ujeoeii!j nno*^ H 
THHTPiune THPc eTcooTH 'xe ceH:x- 


ncHP :xe nne '^otuiuj e \TnH miooT 
8H xxxT SaraB eTOTAlTei tdioot e 
Bo\ 81 TooT^ :\s[T:\nooT :\e xe 
neaooT htg nx eiiuT Ti^ao'^G p:\t^ 
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xxxu nS GT8:x • Bto*^ '\e oh n:xp^H- 


G g 


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nn:\ no gt gpg n8:\H h:\tiuh n hroc- 

Foi 2anOC nX I UJlUnG S 8HT^ 8H otgiphhh 

'X'e oiroit wuA ct 2viTei qw^.-xi* jvttco ncT ujine wa.- 

<3'itte • ^.Tto neT TOOglJ cett».oTrcon njvq • 
CN.Tio on -se gcofe kijui eTeTnjvNiTei 55juoot ^15 n*. 

On 55JUIOC • it<3ri njui€\ocfpd.t^oc €t OTrevAwfe -x^;^ -se 


wjs.ii.TOT K iieT 07rjvA.& £1 TCgiH | juH neT juoouje foI. 2 b 
^S nitoxioc 51 TX's.c • ^ 

Hjs.ies-TOir « iteT OTiviJi jurf iieT ogitte wctooT • 
H2viJ!.T0T n weT julottujt K uquLKruLlffpe uct 
Kj'me nctoq gjui neirgHT THpq* 

C\.ir(;i> ow Qse neT ujiite nc2v n*2soeic ticeni.ujaicoT ».it 
H^s.'P^)s,eow. niAJf 

CVwg iie ncT ujitte nc«v n'2ioeic : — UI tt2vJu.ep4>.Te * 
cwTAA gn oTT''^ gTHq ui li jujvi cwtaI • HeT ujine 
Hc2k n'2toe\c ne poiJUte m*jL eqAneXHTev 15 neqno- 
JULOC Axn neqenToXH jmlt neq-xiRMOiJU^. 5i ne- 

gOOTT «.it TeTTUJH R*.T2i>. RCT CHg^ -se WHC nttOiUlOC 

AA nnoTTTe en TeKTJk.npo e fcoX* j^.too on cse ujuje 
c ptoiue nijuL n | ;)(^pic^*.noc e jueg^ £HTq e fioA FoI. 3 « 
gn nuivpnoc n nqcnoTOT nee n OTg^pe n € 
ctojjiJs.'<^Kon • 

HeT ujine nc*. n-soeic ne ptojue nijui eT ujine ncjs, 
nT2>i£o e pjvTq n n&.iTi?eAoc iS nnoTTe eTOTcong^ 
e iio\ jS neTp luuieeTe eT oTAwjwfc • 

HeT ujsne nee. n-soeic ne pojJu.e niju ct igine ncd. 
nqneT oTris.5^ eT q'i 5* npooTUj n nevgice • nT 
jsiriyonoir nceRjs.Jsir gn neRnXHcW • 

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wpoutne • epe 5^'X2!<j»ji ujoon gil nnA.pis^'xicoc nT€- 
TpTt^H eq^eeT iul^»^^^^>.^s.q epe H^.^rireiVoe sihtt lyjv 
poq JSuiHHnG • neosivq vl<5i m^ ei'coT ose iieviioTc 
iy.n e Tpe npoiJiie (3'(jo ju&.T^.ivq • jvW*. ji«.&.pIiTis.|- 
juiio nevq ii OTrfioHOoc \\ixTi>. poq • ^vqeIMe mot- 
giKHjfe e-sH dw-xijui* d.qto£i^ j>.qeme n o^rei n iteq- 
fceTcnip * e^qAJiivgc Itci^p^ b^^TisJuiio n oTcgiJuie • 

I\':i.^s.JU tt Tepe qttegce • e g^p^vi ^ n^ittHfi ^vqus^T € 
poc Ile'Si^q "se T^^.I tciiot oTReec Te e £io\ git 
wevReec i>.T(x> oTe^vp^ Te tjsi ceMJs.juiOTrTe € poc 
^e Tecgiixjie -se nT^s.^^'XITc e fioX giS necgooTT • 
6nes "XH es.'^v^xi ne iiT».q^ pj^ti enTlJiuooTe THpoT 
jLxn iteeTrpioit xxn tt^js.'\2v«^Te juik '^toon mijli eT 
Kijui 2.P*^'* 2)*^** nRd^g^ uiis. g^pjvi € iteT gn axjulot- 
KeioTe • 2\'^evju ne ItT2s.q^ pd>.tt e pootr THpoT 
Kd^Tiv noTre£]c^.£He juE ne*. e'ioiT K is.fT&.eoic • 

C\.'2k.e)vJL«. -^k-e It Tepe qujtone gii ^^^)vp^v•2keIcoc it 

TCTpTt^H ItTOq JLlIt eTTgJs. TeqCglJUC ItUJHT Tt- 

poxjine • eTTo Si njs.peeitoc • eTujoon uee it Tti^i?^- 
ueXoc jS nnoTTTe • juiimcis. n-stoK •a.e it citdiT 
HujG itpoiuine gtujooti gjut nY\j^p&.'xexeoe vt TeTpir- 
t^H • GirgA 'xe Js^cei ecn^-pi^f^e ii njuigiT JJi 
nnjvpiv'xeicoc • giVoTcoq ii n'soX'ssX e rsii it iiRi^p- 
noc it itTfeiiooTe • jlxR itKe'^tooit THpoir e ^o\ ose 
2vq':£00c n(^i niv eVtOT e Tpe tt'^ iie^Tr e ottcojia 
K^^T^. neqo?re£Cd.£ite • eT'si it TeTTpor:^H it TOOTq 
n iK'^bjLX • juit e^rgSk • 
Ilgoq "^e goicaq • js^qjei 31 nit*».Tr it poTge • e osi* 
'^'l HTeqTpoc]^H KA.TA. TeqcTWHeiiv • Gnei *xh epe 

t^oq o itee It iteenpioii THpoT • equioouje e-xit 
itqoTpHHTe • HTCTrge • ^•:^^^^J&o'\oc "xe iteqajoon 
giToTTijoq ii nnivp^v-xeicoc eqarop^ e pooir ii ne- 

Fol. 16 a 


^OT Axn TeT«jH • H Tepe qttis^ir e poc juLi^jiriKb^c 
js.qfetOK. e gOTTii e n^oq ne-stivq £^p^'i H gHTq • •2se 
eic ^HHTe e^'ige e TeTrKe>.ip'i'*< * "^^t^»..«JN•2se e ^oirit 
e It€CJU^^-^v.^€ • Tis^nevTr 'se '^itis.Tpe coTtoxt e JfeoX 
gjS nujHii T2s.po'T iio'xoTr e fco'\ gjii ^^^s.p^s.- 
•xicoc • -ate js^itOK gcocoT iiTd^TitO'xf e fjoX « 

Il€'2s;2vq njvc • e lho\ ^ pwq 53 t^oq • ^e € T^ie ot 

UTeTnOTTlOJUL dL« 1 e fcoX £jS nUJHM CT gn TXIHHTC FoI. 16 5 

AA nnes.p^i^'xicoc nee H iitijHit THpoT • -se eite- \h 
ciooT m!(5'i «eqK&.pnoc • HToq (su) "^e ne-sies-q -iie 
gn OTcoA*. i. n-jsoeic "xooc it2vit T^vpKoT(JOJJt e 
&o\ ^H ujHsA nsjJL tT 2** nnevpes-o^evcoc ei julh Tei 
nigHii H cotK nneT nej^ucyq jmn iineeooTr ^15 
neg^ooT €TeTifA,o7ra)Ju € fio<V it ^htcJ gH ott- 

JLlOTTTe TIti>.JU.OTr • 

Ilgoq -xe n€'2£2s.q ites.c -ste WTeTMisJuioT d.« • CX-XAdi 
TeTWivujoone Hee H wei uc^Te nTeTuesjue e nncT 
itiviiOTrq juH nneeooT • itTeTnnep^ ner go^^ 
e fjoX 55 neT ca^uje • 6 T&e nd.i nTis^ nnoTTe 's.ooc 
itHTtt R Tei g^e • -se j HneTnoTrtojui UTeTiip ee iiFoi. i7a 
miioTTe • b^'S'ixi Jin ^\o eqiy^w'se e goirit e poc *\e 
ujdvttT qTi\2>wiiiw juuuioc itcoTTOiJUf e £io\ gii 

jJlTio UTeTnoTT jvcujcone cchh rjv gHT jvceiJiie "xe 
ecKH Kiv gHT • ^coci ii £enj?'a)a)jfe€ Ji kHt€ ^wC£(U>^c 

js.'2k.js.ju "xe n Tepe qttis.Tr e poc cckh kjs. gHir • 
^.q^TrnH ejLies.Te • IXirca js.qiytone gn OTrno(3' n 
AAUivg^ tt gHT AJitt geMpijieiooTre eiiis.iyooo'y Ilcssiwq 
Kd.c Qic e T^G OTT j>.pujoin€ n Te\ ge* e\c ^khtg 
enttJs.juioT "^iiit nooir e fjoX* C\.Trto n-soeic iiJs.s'wnT 
€ pott nquo'SsH e ^o\ gS nnevlpi^-xeicoc Foi. nb 

Htoc -i^e ne'x^s^c nj>.q -jte jjjulot ui? oirtojui pujj>.tt a* 


nitoTTTe j».nei\H e poK ^itivTevXe gcofe niJiii e poi 
g2ivgTii nrtoTTe • s^tco It Te'i £€ • ^.q'xi ns'i *.'2».ijLt. 
*.qoTroiAt. JvqKto wb^ gHir ^^.^^a) ^.qeiuie iiTeiriioTr 
-se eqKH Ka. £HTr • evqgoific Jx nequto kaw gHT • gti 

HTevnoT js. TecjuH St njs. cilot ujcone lyiv poq gli! 
^^^s.p^.•2k.eIcoc • -se ^.•^is.juL en TOiti • Ile'sjs.q ose n«w 
♦atoe'ic kt d^icwTii! € tckcuih Js.ip ^oxe ^vl20^T -se 
^RH Kiv gHTT • IIe'2se Jiis. eioiT iiis.q -xe mi a* ne 
iiTis.q'xooc Mi.K cse OTTCaJU € £io\ giS nujHK 
igi>*>iiTe RKUi K&. gHTT • Ile'Sd.q -se ns^ | •soeic • 

TecglAie IIT &.UTi^Ti)..2vC (sic) MJS.I K flOHeOC • WTOC 

€ T^e OTT i^pp iib^'i ' ne'2s:jvc "se ^^s. -xoeic t^oq ne 
HT *».qp ^bJX iXtJtoi • ^wiotroiju -se ejeujione uee ri 
it'moTTTe •; — 

KCgOTTOpT WTOK OTTe tteeTpiOtt THpOTT jS nRJvg^* 

eReujtone eRiAOoige e-xu gHTR«; — u negooir THpoT 
55 neRcong^* ixR nRcnpjui&, THpq wj^. ttct£j^£j^ rppj_ 
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55 neROTToeitg THpq • uin neT khit THpoT e 
fcoX it gHTR»; — ^^iroi tt Te'i ge ^vqly(JO^e eq- 
juioouje I e-sH gHTq • R&.Tis. ee i\T^>>. nd>. eiioT evno- 
f^2>,.ite e -^stoq • ne's:Jvq on H Tecgijuie «se e feoX* 
ate jvpp nivi epe'2£no H noTujHpe gK OTrTVTnn 
xin oira».ujivgojiJi • ».t(jo pitj^ROTe e noTrgjvi • ^.ttio 
w Tei ge • js^qROTq e ivxi^xi • ^e'x^>^q «d.q • -xe 
qcgoTopf ii(3'i nRd.^^ e Sio\ ^H ueRgfen-ye • Grc- 
OTTWiut 55 neRoeiR gn TqtOTe 55 neRgo • juin iteT 

•2£in nOOTf e feo\ -Xe HtR OTTRd^g^ ivTU) eRttiS^ROTR 

on e nRes.2^* GRetottg^ g55 ncong^ 55 nRocjtioc 55 
v|fic nuje xxif^i^Sie. npojutne • nTe njnoT ei e £^p&.i 


e -swK n^ KOTK e ^.Y^^'^ € nu».g^|riRe con* tck- FoI. i;tr^ 

nRJvKe CT griiTioui. nqTOOTr • oT(J&.c Hujo 
upoJLtne • 
Six nuieg^ ^ot ot^j^-c itujo npoixne • ^itjvTHttooTr 
AX n2s.ujHpe jS ju.epiT e nuocjuioc • nqujcone ^H 
oTOOTe Jx nevpeewiKH iS v^ic « efcoT • 6t€ tjvs 
Te ju.2kpi2s. Tnes.peen:oc eT OTres.dw£! • nc'snoq e-xiS 
^K^v2^ nee n oirgHRe npcojuie • ncs'co €co 55 nd^p- 
eeiioc II Tecge Tecgec^/c)* S[iii^p ai^v^s.^! igouiTe 
OT(3'«vC npoxAne giS nROCJUoc • ^n^w'2s^ nnpjw 
ugoife niju. Htc TJLiurpoijjie | ujis^T S nnofie S-FoI. i<)/ 
AJLb^Te. ' '^[itd^.eipe n oTjAHHiye it(5'oui gi ujnHpe ^^"^ 
CAiK HHne e pooir • ^«&.T07rnoc H wer juoottt 

CH(5^ riqTpe tt(3'Jt"\e Jiiocuje Hes.\* qn*. Tpe ctOTjS qni<TpeTriy2>.'2te • *^njvTM6 nneT cofeg^ jLin 
nc^i-x eT njoTTtooir • SLnjwOTrton n n£ijvX n n£i*We 
giji nuji.'xe n TeqaroAi* 
SivnXcoc ejun nnne gn ne ojnHpe ex eqn^k^s.'^^ js.Trto 
£n n2v\' THpoTT cena^nicTeTe e poq j^n* e ngevH "xe 
n n&.i THpoTT •; — Cen«».T0i07>-n e g^pjv'i e "xtoq nce- 
njs.p^.'xY'^oT AAJuioq e njuoT n|ceT*^A.q e TOOTq Foi. 20a 
n OTgHtjexicon -se ni"\js.TOc nqnpine iijuioq *^^ 
e t£!Hhtk«; — *4^n&.ujcjL>n€ gn otrjuiop^H n<^(^\ 
e T^iHHTK •; — Cene<^d..&.c e goirn £ix neqgo e 
T^HHTn • Cenis.coajq nceT^y^vioq e t£ihhtk • 
Cenjv^ gjs.n e poq nee n niuj&,\ pne : — CenjvTJs.- 
\oq e'sn oiruje n cpoc n TJuiHHTe hWcthc cn«<T 
e T^HHTn • Cenjs.^ k\ojui nujonTe • e-xn Teqa^ne • 
Cenis.Tcoq n oTgJU^ A«.n OTci^e • e t^hhtk • 
Cenjv^ eiqf e neqtji's xin neqoTpHHTe e 
T^iHHTn* ^n<!v^ JUL neqnnaC gi necpoc • nceuenc 
neqcnip n OTTVor^^H nTe otjuioot jun OTcnoq 

Fol. 20 & 

Fol. 21 a 


ei* e Sio\ n gHTq %— | rtjs>i ex nj^tE^io n Hitofee 
5a nROciAOc 

gK weT xiooTTT gli njuieg^ ujoutirf itgooT itqei € 
necHT e 2iwJAYiTe nqoTwiyq K Hpo KgoJjtSr itq- 
gtopfc «iiiiJio;)(^'\oc Jji neiiine • iiqenie JiuiOK e 

TfcHHTK u) d.'xivjui nwjHpe H nnoTTe iia^ajn nd.i 
THpoTT uj^.jiT eqcooTe jSjLtoK nquTOK e nnes-p2s.- 
•xicoc riRecon • e Jixxts. Ht is.Kei e fsoX n ^^Tq H 
ujopn "xe »vqujn Tcotope jxiaok €ko H ojli€ }5nis<T 
q^ nridC e poK • 
CX-tioK ne nujHpe Jx nnoTTTe b.\y^li ms!i THpoir «j2>.tt 
-^ccoTG ii nptojuie n TOOTq IS n'xYes^fcoXoc • rX.Ta) 

cToXoc eT oTiv*.^ • ^TTOi H TCI ge ^. niv eitoT 
iioT'se K d.'ikft.jui JLisi e7r£&, e fco\ gii nnji^pis^o^icoc* 
es^qiguiTAA 51 npo ivquui w ott'xt rtes-Jtiic n cei».Te 
ecpoeic • £ npo 5i nnj^p&.'xeicoc -xe Hne ^*.js.t 
fitoK e ^oTn e poq • uja^iiTe ne iiTivq'^iOOT THpoT 

Il'xi\fco'\oc "xe js-qTcoJJtnr e d«.'^«vAA • 51 nftoX 51 

nnivpjv'xicoc • Ile'SdN.q nes.q -sse eic gHHTe u) 

js.'^iuu. nTjvTno'2iT e fco\ gJS nev eooT n tck- 

\oi(3'e '^^ — 6ic ^HHTe gco jviTpe TitootK € fcoX 255 

nnjs.pjs.'Si.icoc UTe TpTTt^H e T^e -xe A>Re>>.^T n 

uj5i«.o e n». juij*.. n ujtone gH Tnev — Giuie ttevK 

oi. 2iJ» '2ie n -^tta^Xo Js.n ei^ Tcon nSjuuiivK Axn neT|nHT 

5jih juiimccoii hct nmr THpoT e £io\ n gHTK wje^rt 

TJs.'siTO'y THpoTT e necHT e 2sJuriT€ it55jLies.i • 

lA.'a.eKJui "xe H Tepe qca>T5S e ita^i evqujtone gri otH- 

*^*^2. ^ S***^ ^"^^ oTpi'uie ettdwWjcoq jS negooir xjiiT 

TeTTigH • ne-xe n*». eicoT 5S A*OTrpiH\ na<c«i?e\oc 

-se eic gHHT€ eic npcojLie ut j>wiTis.ju.ioq rjvtjv n^. 


e'iiie • 2i>.qnaLpjs.fc2v i? TeitToXH • ut ivWd^ivc e 
TOOTq • d^qoTTWAA e ^o\ ^jS nujHit • d^qeine H 
o'yno(5' V? oce eotn Tjunrpoiuie THpc • 6 T^ie nev'i 
^n2vi>.R nppo e g^ps^'i e •xcoq • ose wtok ne wts^r- 
eiite AAJLioq uja. poi ^S negooT m^'i eTe cot 
jtiivfujojLiTe nc K 2s.eo3p • 

6pe n€Kp2vii itiviycjone | n goTe g« TTJvnpo « OTOii FoI. 22 ft 
ttixi* eTrejuoTTTe e poK -se jvM2K.Tain ndvi?c«e'\oc Jute 
iJumoT • epe neneine aau TeKgiKtoii itjvujoine gn 
oTTRpojLipii jmH oTT-s'aiiiT jLiv? 0Trd.nei"\H e ^oirn € 
\]y^;)(|^H w'ikx {^w\T OTT-^ 55 neTnnK • 

Gpe n€R£i&.\ juttt neKgo n&.iytone siee it mVpo^oc 
«KCOgT eirqi goeijui goeiJJi gteH Hxioi : — 

Gpe neg^pooTT nuj«<ttTK ita^ujtone wee aa ne^pooTr 
H tAtjuhth ri cs^tc ct «sepo gsi OTTRtogr juK 
oireHit • 

Gpe neg^pooT SSngliglii* n«eKcnoTOT ud«.aj(x)ne 
nee iS neg^pooTr n Tc^.lyqe Hg^poTM^-s eirnik- 
lyd.'se g^p^^'i g« ueiravcne •; — 

Gpe TeRivne n&.«j(x)ne uee niiei nocy uctttWoc wfoI. 221 
ucogT Qsin Tne e necHT :— « 

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OTT^IC AJld».ge H UJIH • 

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ujcone Hee n nei ocgq eTTHJui • 
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gR neTgiRtoR xan neTTuiopt^H • 
Gpe neTofeg^e H n£io\ K TOTT^^npo HdvOTUjon cMd.Tr 

nujiH eT(3'uiujT e neqTOOT rcjs. ax nROCJU-Oc • 

CReujcone eRe^uje gH TuiHHTe eRgixooc e g^pa^s 

e-xH OTTopoROc R Rcogr:— 
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i5 RRi^g^ ujjv g^P*»^'i € s^^T gR SSjuott Reiooire • iiRe 

\*.&.T gton e poR g2w poc H Tne -sir -sojq 

I i 

Fol. 23 a 


St n[H&.2^ ujA. -sioq •xstt nSigiT u|^)^ npHc* -sivt 

Hue 0Ti-!>. ttOTTtoT ^ JJi neqniift; lg^.MT • oTeecopei 

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pujdvtt TeTitoT Jx ncTTiv^e "xtOK e J&oA • eReotrtoM^ 
e 6oA «ce m^s- e pou • Giriy A.ititis.7r e ncKgo nn*^ 


55 nernvidl • GRes^ui n Tei g^e eRO Sppo e ^Y^i^i € 
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JU.OC -IStOR € SioX' 

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».tton g^eR^^.Toc ^vttfico\ e feo\ g*^ eoTC * 

n35TO € fcoX 35 lib. eicoT • eq-sco aJjuloc • "xe n«v 
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THpoTT -se Jiwirp na. xieeire ^{-3:55 nRs^g^ nee ii 


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gHTK uc€"<^ jvi?is.nH 2} ■*JtvvTitiv ^jS ^eKp^>vU Hce- 

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n-scoitoAJie Jx nwng^» Tis.^a^pi'^e JJjtxooT ms.w • gll 

11 £^oTe • ji.A'Xjv CReficoR uitx pooT eKo H pS pjs^uj 
€ goTii € pooir* ttjis^itT eKciite mjuuloot e i^oA. 
gn ccojuift.* 
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Uj2>.IlgTHq £ gOTM C ni>.n\2s.CJU.Jv • i^^ 

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IX ng^c^ioc icagA-itwHc ^^^<pee«oc O7rtoti}£> eq-asto 

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(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 7022) 


And it came to pass in the kingdom (i. e. reign) of the 
Emperor Diocletian/ in the third year of his reign, in the 
first month, that the Devil led his heart astray from God, and 
made him to do the things that were not seemly. And 
Diocletian worshipped idols, and thrust the God of heaven 
behind his back, for the sake of [creatures made of] wood and 
stones, and for the sake of the vain things that were 
fashioned by the hands of men. Hearken [ye] now to [the 
account of] the valour of the young man [called] Victor. 

And the Emperor Diocletian took counsel and decided to do 
the things that were unseemly before God, Jesus the Christ ; 
and this is what he did. He made seventy^ images of gold, 
and gave unto them the name of ' gods \ which they certainly 
were not. To thirty-five of these he gave names of gods, and 

1 March 27-April 26, » He began to reign in 284. 

3 Read cigqe. 


to thirty-five the names of goddesses ; now the number of his 
other gods and goddesses amounted to one hundred and forty. 

And the Emperor Diocletian affixed a decree on the outside 
of the door of the Palace^ wherein it was written thus : * I, the 
Emperor Diocletian, [hereby] command that from Romania 
[in the north] to Pelak^ (Philac) in the south, every man, 
whether he be eparch, or general, or count, or bishop, or elder, 
or deacon, or reader, or servant, or free man, or soldier, or 
countryman, shall worship my gods. And any one among 
these who shall say, "I am a Christian,^' shall be remem- 
bered, and he shall die by the sword. And as for you, O all 
ye noblemen of high senatorial rank, who hold office in con- 
Fol. 1 b nection with the Palace,^ ye shall give effect to | this decree in 
6 such a way that every man shall worship my gods ; for these 
are the gods who give us victory in battle, and it is they who 
are the protectors of you yourselves, and they give strength 
unto you and unto the whole army. Therefore, he that 
doth not rise up early in the morning, and come at dawn [to 
me so] that we may go into the temple together and offer up 
sacrifices to the gods, he, I say, that doth not come [hither] 
shall be cast into the sea, so that [all men] may know that 
I am king, and that there is no other king besides me.' 

And it came to pass at dawn, on the first day of the month 
Parmoute, that the Emperor Diocletian, and all his army, and 
the eparchs, and the generals went into the temple. And the 
Emperor took his seat upon the throne, and he caused the 
herald to make a proclamation, saying, ' O [all] ye Roman 
people, come ye and offer up sacrifice.' And the Emperor 
made an altar of silver and a vessel wherein to bum incense 
of gold ; and he made a great pedestal of gold, and he placed 
it before the altar so that the [statue of] Apollo might be set 
upon it. And the Emperor commanded them to bring frank- 
incense, and the finest flour of wheat, and the purest oil, and 

C» * i. e. those who are officers at court. 


rare old wine, and to pour them out upon the altar whereon 
was blazing fire. And afterwards they lighted two hundred 
candles on golden candlesticks, and four hundred candles on 
silver candlesticks, and two hundred white horses drew his 
gods into the temple. 

And when they had brought his gods into the temple the 
Emperor Diocletian stood up on his throne, and he lifted his 
crown off his head, and set it upon the head of [the statue 
of] Apollo, and he bowed down and worshipped it three times, 
saying, ' Thou art the god who livest, O Apollo, the greatest of 
the gods, who dost give unto us victory in war.' And after 
the Emperor had worshipped Apollo, his three fellow [Caesars], 
Romanus, Basileides, and Euaios,^ came and worshipped Apollo 
also. Now these | held equal rank and power with the Fol. 2 « 
Emperor, and he loved them exceedingly. And he had given *^ 
unto each one of them fifty centenarii ^ of gold, in addition 
to the most noble rank of generals in the army and the other 
honours which he had bestowed upon them. And Diocletian 
said unto them, 'O my fellow [Caesars], I pray you to be 
persuaded by me, and to worship my gods. Ye yourselves can 
see this great festival which hath spread abroad everywhere 
this day. I swear by the salvation of my strength, and by 
the salvation of the seventy gods, and by the strength of the 
great god Apollo, that I will make the whole world worship my 
gods, and the festival which is being celebrated this day shall 
be proclaimed throughout the whole world. And ye your- 
selves shall give propitiatory offerings and gifts to the temple 
of Apollo, besides those which the eparch and the generals 
shall give.' And Romanus gave thirty centenarii of gold, 
and Basileides gave twenty, and Euaios gave ten, and the 
Emperor gave sixty ; in all they gave as free-will offerings to 
[the temple of] Apollo one hundred and twenty centenarii of 

^ The allusion is probably to Maxim ianus, Constantiua Chlorus, and 
* A coin of great but uncertain value. 


g'olJ. And the Emperor also gave three precious jewels [to be 
set] in the crown of Apollo^ and they were of exceedingly 
great price. 

And the Emperor said unto Romanus, the general o£ the 
army^ ' Offer thou up sacrifice to my gods ' ; and Romanus 
went forward and oifered up sacrifice together with his two 
fellow [('aesars], as did also the other nobles who were 
attached to the Palace. On that day six hundred thousand 
soldiers and two millions of the people of the country wor- 
shipped [Apollo], and all the multitudes of the people were 
gathered together at the sacrifice of the Emperor. 

And it came to pass that when the turn of the Protector 
had come to offer up sacrifice, now his name was Basileides^ 
he would not worship the gods of the Emperor ; and Diocletian 
put him to death together with all his house. And the whole 
city was greatly shaken by the thronging of the multitude, 
and men died, being choked by the fumes of the frankincense^ 
and by the smell of the incense which the people were offering 
Fol. 2 h up upon the altar, j And those who died through being 
•^ crushed by the multitudes were five thousand in number, in 
addition to those who died in the temple, who were also five 
thousand in number. 

And the Emperor Diocletian went about throughout the 
whole city, saying, ' When ye shall have finished offering up 
your sacrifices, [ye shall] eat and ye shall drink at the door of 
[the temple of] Apollo and Artemis, and ye shall glorify them, 
for it is they who have made the heavens, and the earth, and 
the sea, and mankind.^ And the Emperor went back to the 
Palace at the time of the morning meal, and he called 
Romanus the general and said unto him, 'Take this edict, 
and make the rest of the multitude offer up sacrifice before 
thou dost leave them.' Then Romanus the general took the 
edict from the hand of the Emperor, and he gave orders to the 
people, saying, ' O Romans, offer ye up sacrifice.'' 

And it came to pass that when all the people had offered up 


saeriflee^ it came to the turn of liis son to offer up sacrifice. 
Now he was a young- man of nineteen years of a^e, and he 
worshipped God, and held His commandments in fear. He 
was a virg-in in body, he ate oneo only eacli week, he prayed 
all night long, and from the day wherein he had heard the 
Christians crying- out to him in the cluirch his heart had 
departed into heaven. He hated the world. He did not drink 
wine, neither did he eat food cooked with fire. He did not 
decorate his person, and he did not adorn himself with rich 
apparel and fine raiment. He did not mount the horse which 
was used in a chariot (i. e. a war-horse). He neither ate food 
with his father nor did he enter into converse with him in 
the presence of any one who was greater than himself. He 
never gave utterance to an obscene (or, scurrilous) word, and 
never, imder any circumstances, did he swear an oath by any- 
thing- or by anybody. And whenever he heard | concerning l^a.-'^a 
any one who was in distress, if that person w^ere a Christian, ^ 
he used to minister unto him, and give unto him of whatso- 
ever he had need, without informing his father and mother of 
the same. And this was in addition to the things that he 
used to give to his slaves daily. He was wont to rise each 
morning at break of day, and to come forth to the door of his 
house, and if he saw any one naked he would strip himself of 
the garment wdiich he had on him, and give it to him. And 
he performed ail the commandments which were written, and 
he fulfilled all the instructions in the Gospel of our Lord 
Jesus the Christ. 

And his father wearied him exceedingly, saying, ' I shall 
take the daughter of Basileides the general for thee to wife,' 
for his father and J^asileides had made an agreement in respect 
of her for two hundred eentenarii of gold, besides gifts, and 
four hundred eentenarii of silver, and ten menservants, and 
ten hundred maidservants wearing golden bracelets, and four 
hundred horses, and ten hundred mules, and ten hundred 
camels, and ten hundred farms which were under tillage, and 



ion hundred ships which sailed the sea, and ten houses 
(palaces ?) to [each] one of which were attached ten farms 
under tillage, besides the things whicli his father was to give 
to him, and a very large number of men who were to do the 
work on [his] land. 

And the blessed A pa Victor would not be persuaded by his 
father and Basileides, and he said unto them, ' All these things 
shall perish ' ; and he kept himself for the kingdom that is in 
the heavens. And the Lord Jesus was wont to appear to him, 
face to face, and He loved him because of liis pxirity. And 
the noble Victor made for himself a small chamber in his 
Foi. 3& house, I and there he would retire to be free from the com- 
^ pany of his parents. He had not slept upon a couch since he 
was fifteen years of age. He prayed by day and by night, 
and he fasted from one sabbath to another. He attended the 
assemblies for the Holy Communion. He prayed one thou- 
sand and sixty-five prayers during the day, and seven hundred 
and thirty prayers during the night. His food consisted of 
bread and salt only. 

And the Devil goaded him with carnal desire, for he wished 
to make him fall into fornication ; but this noble iVpa 
Victor vanquished him by means of prayers, and fasting, and 
by his Christian citizenship. And his fellow noblemen were 
always making a mock of him, saying, 'Why dost thou not 
eat? Why dost thou not drink? Why dost thou not wear 
fine apparel and put on beautiful raiment ? Thou wilt die, 
and then others will consume thy possessions.' But he was 
wont to make answer [unto them], saying, ' Apparel be- 
cometh moth-eaten, gold and silver crumble away, [and] the 
beauty of the body becometh destroyed in the tomb.^ 

And Apa Victor was wont to go into his chamber^ and to 
pray unto God in the following manner : ' O Lord, hearken 
unto me ! [O] Lord Jesus the Christ, Thou knowest the 
speech of heresy, and [Thou knowest] whether I love Thee or 
not. O my Lord Jesus the Christ, permit Thou not the love 


of women to rise up in my lieart^ lest Satan find a place of 
abode in my heart, and lest mine enemies rejoice over me, and 
lest Thou Thyself become wroth with me, and say unto me in 
the day of the Judgement of Truth [when] I come into Thy 
hands, " Depart thou from Me." Hut let Thy lovim^kind- 
ness hear patiently with me, and do Thou not remove Tliyself 
from me. Glory be unto Thee, O Father, Who art in [ the V 
Son, and unto Tliee, O Son, Who art in the Fatlier^ and unto 
[Thee, OJ Holy Spirit, for ever, and evei-, and ever ! Amen.' 
Then Romanus the g-eneral said unto Apa Victor, his son, 
' my son A ictor, it is now thy turn to worship the gods of 
the Emperor, in whose honour tlie whole city is keeping- this 
day a feast, especially Apollo, the greatest of the gods.' 
And Apa Victor looked into the face of his fatlier, saying, 
' O my father, hath this foolishness obtained sucli a hold upon 
thee this day as to make thee forsake the God of heaven for 
the sake of the glory that is vanity ? Remember, therefore, 
that wddch our Lord Jesus saith in the Gospel, ^'^ Whosoever 
denieth Me before men, him will I Myself deny before My 
Father, Who is n the heavens, and before His holy angels." ' 
Do not therefore deny Him, O my father, that He may not 
deny thee. For God gave a commandment imto Moses, saying, 
" Speak tho\i unto the cluldren of Israel, saying, Be ye not like 
unto the nations who worship creatures instead of Him that 
created [them]. And lift ye not up your eyes to the heavens, 
to worship the sun, and the moon, and the stars, wdien ye see 
them, and the featliered fowl of the heavens, and the four- 
footed creatures of the earth, for in that day I will destroy 
you, saith the Lord," ^ Now therefore, O my fatlier, be not tJiou 
like unto them, lest God destroy thee. By the truth of God, 
O my father, I grieve on thy account. For it would be better 
for thee that thou hadst never been l)orn than that, having 
been born, thou shouldst live and make thyself a man without 

^ Miitt. X. 33. 2 Compare Deut. iv. 17, 19 ff. 


And whilst Apa Victor was saying- these words all the 
soldiers of the army were looking- on him and on his father. 

Foi. i 5 Then Romanus said, | 'O my son Victor, hearken unto nw., 
H and do thou offer up sacrifice, and let us hriiig- to an end our 
trouble in this place. Now 1 have never given thee an occa- 
sion (o g-rieve from thy childhood up. Remember, O my son 
Victor, that I am seeking- after thy bride, and I am going- to 
take her for thee to wife in the very next month which is 
coming-/ xVpa Victoi- said unto his father, ' I have not asked 
thee for a bride or for a gift, but I am grieving exceedingly 
for thee, for thou liast denied the Saviour, In very truth, O 
my father, thou art a miserable man, for the works which thou 
art doing' (lod hateth. Now woe and confusion shall come 
upon thee, because David said, He who is in a battle, and he 
who carrieth away stuff (or, spoil), the same share [apper- 
taineth] to both alike. ^ Moreover, O my father, the man 
who committeth sin, and the man who is of the same opinion 
as the man who committeth it, the same disgrace [apper- 
taineth] to both alike. I beg thee therefore, by every means, 
do not this thing, my father. Get thee away from this sin 
which leadeth unto death. Look thou into the Gospel of the 
I^ord, and see that whilst the Jews were crying out " Crucify 
Jesus '\ Pilate the Governor took water, and washed his 
hands,^ and made himself free from the habihty [for Ilis 
death] among the high priests and the Jews, and he delivered 
his soul from death. ^ 

And his father was fdled with indignation, and he swore 
an oath, saying, ' By Apollo, the greatest of the gods, I will 
deliver thee over to the Kmperor [so thai ] lie may destroy tliee. 
Dost thou not know that 1 am well acquainted with the matter 
wherewith thou art occupied ? Thou hast learned to work magic 
in this Name of Jesus. Think not, however, O Victor, that 

Fol. 5a He will be able to help j thee, for very many men of thy kind 
*> have died for His sake, and they have been stripped of their 

1 1 Sam. XXX. 2t. ^ Matt, xxvii. 21. 


worldly goods and of their estates and possessions. I'erad- 
venture thou art grief-stricken because I have not taken for 
thee to wife thy bride/ 

And Apa Victor answered and said, ' My father, the fruit 
of the Devil hath taken deep root in thee/ Ronianus said 
unto Apa Victor, ' Knowest tliou not, O miserable one, that 
when a man is disobedient unto his father they put him to 
death?' Apa Victor said unto his father, ^Yesterday thou 
didst worship God and I was thy son; but to-day I am not thy 
son, because thou hast made thyself disobedient unto God, and 
thou dost worship idols. Truly did Paul the scribe say, "■ In 
the case of a man who is a heretic, if after thou hast admon- 
ished him once or twice, and he doth not hearken unto thee, 
let him alone, for thou knowest that his portion is not with 
God/^ ^ For this reason thou art not my father/ Roman us 
said unto him, "^ Hearken unto me, O my son Victor. Do not 
throw away and waste thine early manhood. And do not 
disgrace thyself in the midst of the imperial palace, and 
before the whole of the Emperor's army. I myself shall be 
put to shame because of thee, and shall be disgraced before 
the Emperor and his servants, for thou art setting at naught 
the law of the Emperors, and thou art shewing thyself to be 
an ill-educated yomig man among thy companions. And 
they will take away from thee thy rations, and the Emperor 
will be angered because of thee. But, if thou wilt hearken 
unto me, I will make an appeal to the Emperor on thy behalf, 
and he will make thee a general, and thou shalt be a man of 
dignity and honour in the palace of the Emperor. Be thou 
not disobedient to me, O my son. | Dost thou not know that Fol. r, h 
I and thy mother have no other son except thee ? I swear by * 
the health of Apollo that if thy mother were to hear that thy 
body hath troubled thee during the last few^ days, she would 
be able neither to eat, nor to drink, and she would grieve 
sorely [about] thee. O my son Victor, 1 swear by mine own 
I Titus iii. 10. 


health, that on the day whereon tl\on wast born to me I made 
an offering of twenty centenarii of gold to the tern[)Ie of 

A[)ollo. I was bound, deaf, ^ On the third 

day after thon wast born to me, I betrothed the daughter of 
Basileides to thee to wife. And therefore I swear by thine 
own health, O my son Vietor, that if thou wilt vvorshij) the 
glorious gods of the .Em|)eror, I will make a gift unto thee of 
another thirty centenarii of gold, in addition to the otlier 
things wliieh I have determined to give unto thee.' 

Then Basileides and Euaios went to Apa Victor, and they 
said unto him, ' V^erily we come to entreat thee this day as a 
free man. Wilt thou then make thyself to be as it were 
a slave before us? Why hath thine heart turned its gaze 
aside in this manner ? And why hast thou not hearkened to 
thy father who hath made supplication to thee ? Do not put 
our hearts to shame, who bow humbly before thee.' And 
Apa Vietor became wroth, and he cried out, saying, ' O God, 
look Thou with Thine eyes, and with Thine ears hear. As 
1 wish to live, even so do I wish that everyone else may have 
life with me also. I have no feeling of envy (or, jealousy) in 
me. Behold Thou then, O God, the things wdiich they are 
doing unto me, and see how they even dare to say unto me,| 
,,!. Ga ^' Take thou thirty centenarii of gold, and deny Jesus in the 
lA midst of this multitude.'' Do they not think that I myself 
am Judas who betrayed (or, gave away) his Lord for thirty 
[|)ieces] of silver, for which reason he inherited the outer 
darkness for ever ? I swear by the prayers of the saints, for 
I am not woiihy to take an oath by the name of God, that if 
thou wouldst give unto me the whole world, and the kingdom 
of Diocletian, and his possessions, and his gods of gold and of 
silver, which he hath made^ I would not offer up sacrifice. 
For it is written, " If thou shalt gain the whole world, and 
lose thy soul, wdiat is the profit [to thee?]''^ Dost thou not 

' S(iH)e words seem to have dropped out of the text. 
* Mark viii. 36. 


know that for the last twelve years 1 have fasted the whole 
week through, from Sabbath to Sabbath , and that I have 
never once washed in a bath ? ' 

And when Romanus had heard these thing-s from his son 
Victor, he said, ' I swear by Apollo that I will deliver thee 
into the hands of the Emperor, and he shall destroy thee. 
Thou dost not know what I know well, that thou art treating 
tlie law with contempt ; for it is written, ^^ When a son is 
disobedient to his father they shall slay him."' ^ And Apa 
Victor said unto his father, ' Behold, that which is written 
is fulfilled this day, "A father shall deliver his son over to 
death/' ^ If thou shalt deliver me over [to death], O my 
father, there existeth One Who will help me. Shall not I 
reward thee with tlie reward of my Lord? Eor when, the 
Jews were standing before Him, and crying out " Crucify 
Him'^, and were buffeting Him, He did not rew^ard them 
with evil in place of evil, but He shewed compassion upon 
them. And moreover He is shewing mercy and longsuffering 
towards all this mxiltitude this day, and upon this lawless 
king I who is carrying out these evil designs in the midst of Foi. c-,h 
this city/ ife 

And the Devil fdled the heart of the father of Apa Victor, 
and he made him to deliver Apa Victor over into the hands of 
Diocletian the Emperor, And when the Emperor had looked 
into the face of Apa Victor, he said unto him, ' O thou Victor, 
why hast thou not hearkened to thy father, and worshipped 
my gods ? Is it possible that thou dost not know that I have 
absolute power over thee ? ' And Apa Victor tore off his 
golden chain, and removed the insignia of his rank which he 
had on him, and he threw them in the face of Diocletian, 
saying, ' Indeed I am in no way a soldier, and I will not wear 
the badge of an emperor who is mortal, for I wear the badge of 
the Emperor who is in the heavens. For it is written in the 
book of the Christians, " It is not possible for you to perform 
1 Deut. xxi. 18-21. 2 Matt. x. 21. 


the service of two master^; ; [ye must] eitlicr [serve | (lod or 
mamnum," ^ And aq-ain, " It is not possil)lc for you to eat at 
the table of the l^ord, and at tin? table of the demons.'' ^ Now^ 
tlicrefore, I will serve tlie (mxI of lieaven, and I will not serve 
mammon, that is to say, tliee, () Emperor/ 

And the J'^mperor said unto Apa Victor^ 'How dost thou 
dare to insult me in this fashion ? Dost thou think that 
there are no instnunents of ])unishment and torture in the 
prison-house wherewith I can have thee punislied ? Have; 
1 not already commanded (or, announced to) thee, sayin<^, 
" "Never let me hear this name of Jesus [issue] from thy 
mouth?" If it were not that I sliould inflict shame on thy 
father^ I would not permit thee to utter one word in my 
presence. Is it possiWe that thou hast never heard that an 
Emperor like unto myself gave orders to a g-overnor, who prit 
to death thy (lod Jesus, in whom thou puttest thy confidence ? i 
Fnl,7«xhis king- w^as Herod, wdio g-ave orders to Pilate^ and Pilate 
"^ put Him to death. Now, if it was a mere g-overnor wdio slew 
Jesus thy God, how much more is it possible for me, an 
Emperor, to destroy this name of Jesus from under heaven, 
and every one who worshippeth Him ? Now, therefore, O 
"Victor, come, hearken to thy father, and do thou offer n[) 
sacrifice to the g-ods. If, however, thou wilt not do so, I will 
banish thee, and they shall })ut thee to death.'' 

And Romanus turned towards his son Apa Victor and said 
nnto him, ' Art thou still not persuaded to pay worship unto 
the g-ods of the Emperor?' And Apa Victor said unto his 
father, ^ H' Diocletian be thy g-od, [g-ood and well] ; but he is 
no god of mine, for my Lord is Jesus the Christ.' And his 
father was exceedingly wroth, and he commanded them to 
bind his son's arms behind him, and to carry him outside the 
city, and to spear him there [until] he died. And they tied 
the arms of this noble Apa Victor behind him, and they 
fastened a gag in his moutli^ so that they might carry him 
^ Matt. vi. 2i ; Luke xvi. 13. ' 1 Cor. x. 21. 


outside [the city] to destroy him ; and when he was coming 
out soldiers accompanied him. 

And the Devil took the form of a soldier, and he made him- 
self visible to Victor, and he said unto him, ' Victor, where 
wilt thou fulfiP this evil course of action? By these acts of 
thine thou art abandoning thy father to grief. Thou thinkest 
that thy father hateth thee. This is certainly not so, for thy 
father loveth thee exceedingly. Now, therefore, hearken thou 
unto me, and let me tell thy father that thou hast repented, 
and he will cease to be angry with thee. Do ivot, then, do 
not, I say, be disobedient unto him. Consider Isaac, the son 
of Abraham, j who shewed no disobedience to his father when Fol. 7 b 
he saw the knife of slaughter which was to kill him coming ^'^ 
down upon him.^ Now, therefore, do not make thy father to 
grieve, otherwise thou wilt fall under the curse of Ham, who 
was under the curse of his father, because he looked upon his 
father's nakedness.^ Now, therefore, do not shew disobe- 
dience to thy father, and then I w^ill petition the Emperor, and 
he will make thee a general.' And Apa Victor said unto the 
Devil, 'I have not set my mind upon the possession of the 
rank of general in this world, but upon the kingdom of my 
Lord Jesus the Christ.' 

And when these words had been said [by him] they went 
in and told the Emperor that Romanus had passed sentence of 
death upon his son, Apa Victor, and that his head was to be 
cut off, [because] he had sinned against the Emperor and his 
gods. And Diocletian sent two [of Jiis] hodygwdrds so that 
they might seize him, and bring him to him. And the 
Emperor said unto his father, ' I know this day that thou 
carest neither for [thy] wife nor [thy] son as much as thou 
carest for me and my gods, and that thou hast gone so far 
as to deliver over to death thine only son for my sake. But 
hearken unto me and unto the things which I will declare 

^ i. e. to wliat point wilt thou go? 

* Gen. xxii. 10. ^ Qgn_ [^ 22. 

M ra 


unto tliee^ O Romanus. Hearken unto me. Peradventure 
this impostor ^ hath led his heart astray. I will hanish him 
to Rakote,^ and h;t hira he there in prison until he dieth/ 

And Aj)a Victor was exceedingly wroth_, and ho said unto 
the rhuperor, ' thou stupid and senseless Emperor^ this 
nialter which thou seekest to effect is good, [for] thoii wilt 
make thyself a stranj>cr unto us, and we sliall become 
Foi. Sa strau<»'crs unto thee. J Anci the greater part of thine army 
^- shall hale thee, and God shall he angry with thee, and He 
shall send His wrath upon thee, and shall destroy thy king- 
dom/ And the Emperor was wroth, and he commanded 
immediately that [his servants] should reduce his supply of 
food, hut he did not cut off his rations altogether, and the 
Emperor allowed him sufficient food to keep him alive lest he 
should die of hunger. And he caused him to be deprived of 
his rank of count. And he made them to fasten Apa Victor's 
hands behind him, and he tied him to the tail of a horse, and 
shaved the crown of his head, and he suspended a bell from 
his neck, and four soldiers filled their hands with palm 
branches and beat him therewith, and they dragged him 
naked round about through all the city, and a herald went 
before him crying out, ^ These things are done unto this man 
because he will not offer up sacrifice to the gods of the 
Emperor ' ; and they went through every part of the city 
with him. 

And on the new moon of Parmout«, the first day of 
the month of the beginning of the year, according to 
the computation of the Romans,'' Diocletian took a sheet 
of parchment, and wrote on it these words : ' I, Diocletian, 
who am the Jjord of all the World, write unto Armenius, 
the Count of Rakote, that so soon as this man Victor, who 

' i. e. Clirist, or Christianity. 

2 An ancient and important garrison town, which was, after the 
founding of Alexandria, absorbed into that city. 
^ i, e. the Byzantine Greeks. 


is banished, is brought unto thee, thou shalt examine him 
carefully three times, and slialt afterwards drive him to the 
baths, and burn him.' | 

And straightway they delivered him over into the hands of Fol. Hb 
four soldiers in order that they might take him to Kakote. ^^ 
There was [an iron] collar round his neck, there was a gag 
in his mouth, there was fettering iron about his feet, and he 
was naked, and there were iron casings about his legs, and the 
soldiers drove him along with blows. And Apa Victor said 
unto the soldiers who were in charge of him, ' My brethren, 
I pray you to cease to treat me with such harshness and 
cruelty, and to vex me so seriously. What is the evil thing 
which I have done unto you, that ye should rejoice over me 
with such keen pleasure? I have never done any injury to 
you, and I have never committed an act of injustice against 
}0u. If the Lord will He can prepare my way of escape, 
not only from you, but from everybody. Do not therefore, 
O my brethren, rejoice over me because evils have risen up 
against me, for it is written, " llejoice not over any man who 
is about to die ; remember that we must all die." ^ 1 served 
as a soldier with you at one time, therefore do not treat me 
with contumely, and for God's sake remove this gag from 
me, so that I may be able to say the word I would say unto 
my mother.'' And the soldiers shewed compassion and 
removed the gag from his mouth, and Victor went into 
his house. 

And when his mother had seen him, she was greatly dis- 
turbed within herself, and she rose up on her throne, and 
she said, 'Is it thou, O my son Victor, ] thou light of mine p\)i,9a 
eyes ?' And when she saw that he was naked, and that he i'^ 
was wearing iron fetters on his hands and on his feet, she 
said unto him, ' Why art thou in this state, O my son A'ictor ? 
Truly my soul is greatly disturbed when 1 see thee in this 
state. Art thou mad? Could not the Emperor have 
^ Compare Ps. Ixxix. 11 ; Heb. ix. 27. 


adjudged thee [to pay] money, rather than treat thee in 
this way?' And Apa Victor said unto his mother, 'Weep 
thou, my motlier, for they are going to remove the name of 
Victor from tliy liouse this day. Now, therefore, hearken 
thou unto me, my mother, and I will declare in thine ears 
my words wliich are sweet. Before every tiling do thou fear 
(Jod, and do thou glorify His saints. Keep holy His sab- 
baths. Observe the times of fastings. Neglect neither the 
widows nor the orphans, for from this day forward 1 myself 
shall be an orphan, without father and without mother, so 
that the lovingkindness which thou shewest in this w^orld 
will God also shew to some one else. May lie transfer 
it to me myself in that other world which 1 am about to 
enter, for there is nothing greater than love (i, e. charity). 
Visit those who are sick. Clothe him that is naked. Give 
drink to him that is thirsty. Receive a stranger into thy 
house, because from this day onward I shall be myself a 
stranger. Thus shall the blessing of Sarra^ be upon thee. 
The things which I have spoken unto thee, O my mother, may 
God make sufficient for thy soul. 

' Now, therefore, O my mother, I know of a certainty that 
I shall never have a sight of thee again after this present 
sight, even if I live. If thou hearest that I have died, seek 
after my body and bring it to this place. Make not thyself 
Fol.QjJike I unto my father who hatcth [his] son, but be thou com- 
IH passionate. And do thou ascribe glory unto God by day and 
by night, so that He may shew compassion unto thee in the 
days of necessity. Now, therefore, may God bless thee 
because of the refreshing (or, rest) which thou hast given 
unto me during the little time which I have been wit^^i thee ; 
and may my soul rest v/ith thee for ever ! And now I am 
going to a strange country, and into a city that is not mine, 
wherein I shall beg from one person after another, and 

^ i. e. Victor wished tliut his mother might have a son in her old 
ago : compare Gen. xvii. 21 ; xxi. 1 ff. 


wherein I shall be a helpless and a most nnserable stranger. 
Verily, O my mother^ I am become an orphan, fatiierless and 
motherless. If at this present time a man goetli away on 
a journey into a far country, whether in connection with 
trafficking- or whether for some other purpose, when hecometh 
back after a long time to his house he will find his servants^ 
and his parents^ and his kinsfolk alive ; and if he hath 
suffered tribulation in the strange land he will forget his 
sufferings, because he will find all his people safe and sound. 
On the other hand, wretched and miserable is that man who, 
when he goeth on a journey into a strange country, must 
abide in exile until he die, and indeed, such is my own case 
this day. I am going to make myself a stranger unto thee, 
and unto all the people of my house. Swear by thy salva- 
tion, O my mother, that thou wilt not neglect to enquire after 
my body. If I die, be not forgetful of my youth. Remem- 
ber, O my mother, that I passed nine months in thy womb 
before thou didst bring me forth, and that I drank at thy 
breasts for three years/ 

Then straightway his mother and his slaves wept [for him], 
for he was a kind-hearted man, and would hearken unto the 
man of no account as well as unto the noble. And his mother 
said, ' Look at me, O my son A^ictor. What hath happened 
to thee ? Could not the Emperor have sentenced thee | to pay Fol. 10< 
a fine of gold or silver, rather than have made thee endure lo 
these things and banishment to a remote city ? Explain to 
me why it is that thou art in this disgraceful state. Explain 
to me so that I may sacrifice my own soul (or, life) to save 
thee. Is not thy father present in the Palace that the 
Emperor hath done these things unto tbee?^ 

And Apa Victor said unto his mother, ' All these things 
have happened unto me because of my father, but God shall, 
in truth, forgive him, O my mother. Had it not been for the 
Emperor my father would have cut off my head. A stranger 
hath had compassion upon me^ and my father hath not had 


compassion upon me this year. O my mother, if my father 
sliall do evil (?) shall he not die ? Diocletian shall become 
blind before he dieth, he shall receive alms at the g-ate of the 
city of Antioch, and his seed shall perish quickly, because 
he hath persecuted the Name of the Lord Jesus. Woe be 
unto every one who shall hearken unto him, for their habita- 
tion shall be the pit oE the abyss for ever, and their father is 
the Devil.' 

And his mother said unto Apa Victor, •' Dost thou not 
know that in the coming- month 1 am going to take thy 
bride for thee?' And Aj)a Victor said unto his mother, 
' O my mother, what use is it for thee to bring me a bride, 
and to put riches of every kind into ray hands? For it is 
written, " The world shall pass away and the desirable things 
thereof, but he who shall do the will of God shall abide for 
ever.'"' ^ Now therefore, O my mother, do thou the will of 
God, so that thou majest live for ever. For gold and silver 
rust, [fine] raiment becometh moth-eaten and falleth into 
holes,- a man dieth and he turneth into corruption in the 
tomb, and the remembrance of him perisheth on the earth ; -* 
P'ol. 10 b but the righteous man shall never be moved.* j O my mother, 
H say not in thy heart that possessions are of value, for they 
have no value with (iod, Who can make the poor man into 
a rich man, and the rich man into a poor man before the sun 
shall set this day.' 

After these things he set out and departed, and he took off 
the ring which was on his finger, and gave it to his mother, 
and he prayed to (bxl in the following words, saying, ' Jesus, 
my Lord, Who sittest upon the chariot of the Cherubim and 
Seraphim,-'' [Whom the angels] stand before. Whom the 
denizens of the heavens call " Sabaoth "',<' Whom the peoples 
on the earth call " Jesus the Christ '', Whom the nations [call] 

1 1 John ii. 17. 2 jijitfc. vi. 19. » j^,^ xviii. 17. 

* Ps. Iv. 22. 6 Ps. xviii. 10 ; Ixxx. 1 ; xcix. 1. 

* Jsa. vi. 3 ; Rev. iv. 8. 


""the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit", keep Thou 
me without movement (i. e. sieadPast), and without, trepidation. 
Lead Thou me not into temptatioTi, for I am not c;ij)abhi of 
hearing up ag-ainst it, but deliver me from the Evil One. For 
unto Thee beloni>' the i)ower and tlu^ <»"lory for ever. Amen. 
O my Lord, be Thou with me in every ])laee wherein they 
shall take mCj for 1 know not whither they will carry me.' 

After these words he blessed all his household and saluted 
(i. e. kissed) them. And he sealed the door of his bedroom 
in the Name of tlie Christ Jesus, and oarne out, and said, ' O 
my house and my servants, truly I am departing from you, 
and I am departing- from thee, O my mother ; never again 
after this moment shall I return to gaze upon you. Remem- 
ber, O my servants, that I have never | neglected (?) any one Foi. iia 
of you, or [any] stranger. I am not like unto other young ^■^ 
men who are uninstructed, and I have never spoken a word 
out of place, but I have paid to the humble man the respect 
that was due to his humble estate, and to the noble the 
honour that was due to his exalted degree. Verily^, O my 
mother, with the very same treatment which I have meted 
out to the general and the eparoh, have I treated the man 
who w^as poor and him who was wretched, and I have paid 
lionour unto them as unto God. I have never for a single 
day manifested any sign of haughtiness and pride, for I knew 
that each and every one of us must die.' 

And after these things A pa Victor came out and joined 
himself unto the soldiers, and they put the gag in his mouth, 
and they seized him, and dragged him along, and placed him 
in a boat ; and when they had arrived at Rakote, they trans- 
ferred him to the prison, and they delivered the letter [of the 
Emperor] to Armenins, Count of Rakote. And at the third 
hour of the twentieth day of Pharmoute, the .soldiers took 
the letter and had it read to the Duke, according to that 
which Diocletian had written therein. 



F.ii. I! b And the Duke was in the praetorium passing sentences of 
ufc judg-ement upon tiie soldiers for tlie sake of the Name of the 
Christ, and he commanded that Apa Victor should be g-uarded 
in prison until the following- day. And on the morrow, when 
the Count was seated on the judgement throne, in the midst 
of the market-place of Rakote, he gave orders, saying, 'Bring 
to me this ])rofane man A^ictor, who hath been banished hither, 
and concerning whom the Emperor^s letter hath already been 
read to me.' And when they had brought Victor before the 
Coitnt, he said unto him, '^Wilt thou not read the letter 
which concerneth my patient endurance again ? [If thou 
wilt] thou wilt find stated in it that I have been banished 
to this ])lace for the sake of this Name [of Christ, for they] 
said, 'K3ffer sacrifice [to Apollo]"; because I will not offer 
up sacrifice [I have been brought here].'' The Duke said unto 
him, 'O bad head! Wonldst thou make a mock of me? 
By the health of Apollo, this is thy punishment: we are to 
destroy thy body by fire. Knowest thou not that it is the 
Ihiiperor who hath commanded me what I am to do unto 
thee? He hath commanded me to cast thee into the furnace 
of the baths, but I would shew mercy unto thee for the sake 
of th}^ father.^ 

And Apa Victor spake unto the Duke, saying, ''Yesterday 
ihon didst disgrace my father ; do not disgrace him to-day. 
And moreover, [in spite of what] thou sayest, 1 will make 


bold and will speak in thy presence, accord inj.*' to tliis world. 
In times past, before I was delivered over unto tliee, I 
received rations and money [from the ETiiperorJ, and I was 
also the fourth officer in his Palace with the rank of Count ; 
andj after the Emperor, my father was the second [in rank] in 
the Palace. But if I go on to speak of these things thou wilt 
say that I am a man of overweening- pride. O Duke, remem- 
ber thou the day wherein thou wast appointed Count and 
didst enter upon thy duties. | Thou didst make supplication Fol. 12 
unto my father, saying, " Make rae Count of Rakote.'^ And i^^"" 
my father did not consider thee of sufficient honour for the 
position, and would not discuss the matter with thee. Then 
thou didst make entreaty to me secretly, and didst say, 
'■ Speak to thy father on my behalf. Let him take from me 
three centenarii of gold, and give me the office of Count." 
And I took thee into my house, and I made all my slaves to 
wait upon thee, and they received gifts of gold armlets [from 
thee]. And after these things my father came in, and I 
threw myself on my knees before him on the ground, and 
I remained there until he was persuaded by me, and he 
made thee a Count. And yet thou didst not keep in mind 
any one of these things for which thou canst now repay 
me. But it is written in the Gospel, " He who did eat of 
my bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me.'"* 
And the Duke made [his men] to inflict gashes in the face 
of Apa Victor, and he made them to stretch him out with 
thongs [of leather], and they gave unto him fourteen stripes 
with the triple flogging whips, saying, ' I will torture thee 
until thou diest, according to the orders of the Emperor.' 
Afterwards the Duke made his man to drive iron nails into 
his hands and feet, and he covered (?) his whole body with 
iron, from his head to his feet, and he cast him into prison, 
where they abandoned him to hunger and thirst until the 
following day. 

1 John xiii. 18 ; Ps, xU.9. 
N n 


And wbon the inorning- was come the Count miwle tliem 
brino- Apa Victor unto him, and when he bad been brougbt 
into his presence every part of him was loaded with iron 
[fetters]. And the blessed man Apa Victor was not able to 
walk because of the weig-lit of the iron which had been placed 
on his boiiy ; and the soldiers supplied twelve [men and] they 
carried him. And wlien he had entered into the praetorium j 

Foi, 12/; the Duke said nnto him, 'Can Jesus in Whom thou believest 
ivx deliver thee out of my hands? [Nay]. Pvit thy belief in 
Apollo, who is able to save thee, and especially in Artemis, 
the j^n-catest of the g-ods/ And Apa A^ictor said unto him, 
' I will not offer up sacrifice," And the Duke commanded 
his men to hoist him up on the wooden framework of the 
rack, and he said unto Apa Victor, 'Wilt thon offer up 
sacrifice or not ? ' And Apa Victor said, ' I will not offer up 
sacrifice." And the Duke commanded his men to work the 
rack and stretch him, but Apa Victor did not feel at all what 
they were doing, and the executioners were exhausted, and 
they ceased working the rack. The Duke said unto them, 
'Why do ye not continue to work the rack?" And they 
said unto him, ' He is like unto a wall, or a stone, which 
feeleth nothing however much it may be racked.' 

And the heart of Apa Vu^tor was carried up into the 
heights of heaven, and [the angels] instructed him concern- 
ing the kingdom o£ heaven, and concerning the city of the 
righteous, and tlse saints saluted him. And Abel and 
Zacharias came uj) to him, and they said unto him, 
' (Ireatly distinguished art thou, O Apa Victor.' Michael 
said unto him, *■ Bear patiently, O valiant athlete. Fear thou 
not this tyrant, for I will be with thee, and I will deliver 
thee. I say unto thee that as the angels are wont to niter 
the names of all the saints coupled with [their own] names, 

Fol. 13a even so shalt thou be named with the three holy [ [children], 

*^«^ Ananias, Azarias, and Misael. And thy throne shall be 

stablished in heaven before the Lord Jesus. At the moment 


when thou shalt lift thy hands Uj) to lieaven Ihey shall 
take tlie form of the seal of heaven^ and they shall g*ive 
light within the veil, before the altar of saerifiee. And an 
ex(^eeding'ly sweet-snieliing' savour shall rise up before the 
Father, for the refi-eshing- of those \vho are in the heavens, 
and the refreshing' shall extend also to those wlio are nnder- 
g'oing' punishments (oi-, tortures). And the ang-oLs shall 
rejoiee over thee, and Jesus shall exult upon His throne, and 
all the saints shall be gdad with thee.' After [these things] 
Miehael released the soul of Apa Vietor, and it came and 
entered again into his body, which was suspended upon the 
frame of the rack. And Michael informed him concerning 
everything that should happen to him. 

And Apa Victor resisted the Duke strenuously. And the 
Duke said unto him, ^ Wilt thou offer up sacrifice or not?'' 
but Apa Victor answered him not a word. And when the 
Duke saw that he would not speak, he commanded his men 
to briner six lighted torches, and to fasten them to his sides 
(or, ribs). And when they had done this he made them bring 
a number of red-hot pointed irons, and they tlirust then) 
through his belly until they came out of his back. And they 
did these things three times to him j until his skin peeled off Fol. 13 
him. Afterwards the Duke said unto him, ' Wilt thou not kc 
[now] offer up sacrihee ? ' And the Duke commanded his 
men to place hot ashes upon his head, and to put a lieJniet 
[of iron] on him; and Apa Victor did not sink under this 
torture. And the Duke made them to take him off the frame 
of the rack, and to lay him upon the bed of iron^ and to 
kindle a fire beneath it. And he made them pour burning 
sulphur and pitch, [mixed with other] inflammable substances, 
down his throat. And the Duke said unto him, ' Hearken 
unto me, and do not die a death of torture. Is it not better 
for thee to be with me ? Do thou not wish to live with me ? 
Dost thou not know that thy Lords, the Emperors, arc they 
who have written [to me] concerning thee?' And Apa Vietor 


was not able to answer a word^ because of the pain whicli 
he was s^^l1^erillg• from his torturing-j for the bed of iron 
was exeeeding-ly hot under him. 

And the Duke said unto Apa Victor^ ' Speak one word imto 
me, and 1 will release thee, O thou unholy exile ! ' And 
Apa Victor said unto the Duke, ' Seeing- that I did not 
hearken unto my father nor unto the Emperor when they 
made entreaty to me, and seeing- that I continued my dis- 
obedience to the point that I forsook all my 2)OSsessions, and 
abandoned this world which shall pass away, accordinf^ to 
that wdiich is written, ^' ISIan shall die, and the creeping 
thing's and the worms shall possess his inheritance,"^ [thinkest 
thou that I shall hearken unto thee ? '] And the Duke was 
wroth, and he commanded his servants to throw him into the 
furnace of the pidjlic baths of Rakote, bound hand and foot. 
Fol. 14 a And he bore iron fetters on his hands and feet j and there 
^\ was a g'ag in his mouth. And certain people of the city, both 
men and women and children, wept for him, and they said, 
^ Woe for this wretched man, for his body will be destroyed 
in the lire ; would that he had been one of those who offered 
up sacrifice ! ' 

And Apa Victor stood up and prayed in the midst of the 
fire, saying-, ' I beseech thee, O my Lord Jesus the Christ, to 
be unto me a helper, and to assist me in all my tribulations, 
for I am a wretched and most miserable creature, in order that 
all this city may know that there is no other God besides 
Thee, Who art [God] alone.' And at that very moment 
the holy Arehang-el Michael came down from heaven, and 
went into the furnace of tlie bath, and spread out his holy 
apparel over Apa Victor, and he caused the flame of fire to 
become like the dew at the first hour of the day. And he 
lifted him up on his wing of light, and the wing turned 
into a green meadow. And Michael broke the iron fetters 
which were fastened upon his hands and his feetj and he and 

* Job xxi. 26. 


Apa Victor remained talkinj^^- tot^n'tlier concerning- the 
mysteries of the kingdom winch is in the heavens, and 
the city of the righteons. 

And after [these things] the Duke said unto those who 
were sitting with him, and unto the men of Rakote, ' O ye 
Ak'xandrians, Jesus shall not deliver him out of my hands, 
for there arc no gods besides A])ollo and Artemis/ And the 
Duke stripped oif his clothes in order that he might go into 
the bath to bathe, [ and Michael raised up the [stone] slab of Fol. 14 h 
the bath, and thrust Apa Victor upon it. And the governor hh 
came into the bath, and cried out, saying, ' Take shame to 
thyself this day, O A]ia Victor, and let thy God in Whom 
thou hast placed thy trust be ashamed also/ And Ana A^ictor 
said unto the Duke, 'O thou lawless man, why dost thou 
revile my God ? Thou art w^ondering where thy god Apollo 
is, and thou sayest, " Ojffer up sacrifice unto the gods who 
cannot move/' Nevertheless thou knowest well that there is 
power in my God to deliver me from thy tortures/ And 
Armenius the Count said unto him, ' This day do I know that 
thou art an arch-magician, and that thou dost work magic/ 
And the Duke set out to leave the bath, and he mounted his 
horse, and sentenced Apa Victor to be beheaded.' 

And the magistrates (or, authorities) and the people of 
Rakote made entreaty to the Duke that he would not put 
Apa Victor to death in their city, because they were afraid lest 
Apa Victor's father would destroy the whole city on account 
of it, saying, ' He is a mighty general. Let him be banished 
to the south of Egypt, and let them put Apa A'ictor to death 
there.' Then the Duke meditated within himself, saying, 
' What shall I gain by making his father an enemy of mine ? ' 
T'hen the Duke took a sheet of skin, and he wrote thereon 
the following words : ' I, Armenius, tlie Duke of Rakote, 
write to Eutuchianus, the Count of the Theba'id. | Imme- Fol. 15 a 
diately they bring unto thee this profane man Victor, who »^^ 
hath been banished [hither by the Emperor], examine thou 


into his case most carefully, and eitlier make Kim. offer up 
sacrifice or put him to death^ according to the decree of our 
Lord the Emperor/ Then tlie T)ukc delivered A})a Victor 
over to the soldi(>rs that they might fcake him to t]io south, to 
the Thehaid, to Eutuchianus, tlic Duke of the Tiiebaid. 



And on the twentieth day of Pharmoute they banished the 
blessed man Apa Victor, and four soldiers brought him to 
the south in ten days. There was a collar of iron about his 
neck, and there were chains on his hands, and ankle-fetters on 
his legs, and the torturings had made him weak and helpless. 
And when the soldiers arrived at Antinoe^ they tied up the 
boat to the shore, and they found that the governor had that 
day departed for the south. And they unfurled their sail, 
and set out for the south, and they overtook the Count 
[of the Theba'id] as he was lying becalmed in mid-stream, 
for there was no wind. And the soldiers brought Apa Victor 
into the lower part of the boat — now he had neither eaten 
nor drunk for twelve days — and they delivered him over to 
Eutuchianus, the Duke, and they gave him a supply of food 
according to what the Count of Rakote had commanded. 
And Apa Victor said in his heart, ' There is something which 
this lawless man shall do for me, besides that which is in 
my body.' ] 

Then the Count I^utuchianus commanded them to tie up FolL^io & 
the boat to the shore, and to set up his seat of justice at that ♦^- 
place. And when the morning of the following day had come 
they prepared for him a seat of justice there. And Apa Victor 
passed the whole night in the lower part of the boat, blessing 

' A town built by the Emperor Hadrian, and the capital of the Thobaid 
in the Roman period ; its site is marked by the village of Shekh 'Abadah, 
on the east bank of the Nile, 176 miles south of Cairo. 


God and saying, ' Blessed art Thou^ O King of all the ages 
(or, worlds)^ the Father the Almighty, and Thine only- 
begotten Sou Jesus the Christ, our Lord, Who hast delivered 
me in every place whither they have taken me. Stand Thou 
by me in the future, and be Thou with me in the presence of 
this lawless man/ 

Then Eutuchianus commanded his men to bring A pa Victor 
io tlie shore, and he said unto him, 'Thou art Victor, the 
magician. Now, therefore, in what way wilt thou w^ork 
magic ? Shew me, before I disgrace thee, and thou diest.' 
Apa Victor answered and said unto the Duke, ' I am not 
a magician, and 1 have not devoted myself to the doing of 
this [kind of] work. On the contrary, I am a servant of the 
Christ Jesus, Who hath delivered me out of all my tribula- 
tions.' And Eutuchianus said unto him, ' Eor what reason 
didst thou not offer up sacrifice before thou didst submit to 
these tortures? llowaver, come now, and offer up sacrifice 
with the men who are here, so that it may be well with thee.' 
l'''^<''« And Apa Victor answered and said, 'I am not at all | afraid 
Ad. of men, and I will not oifer up sacrifice, but T am afraid of 
my Lord Jesus the Christ. For it is written, "Be not 
afraid of those who can kill your bodies upon the earth, 
because there is nothing besides this which they can do unto 
you. But fear ye Tlim Who hath the power to destroy your 
souls and your bodies in Gehenna." '^ 

And the Duke said unto him, ' Hast thou come hither to 
persuade (or, convert) us by a homily which is vain ? If thou 
darest again to utter words in my presence I will make my 
servants to tear out thy tongue. Unless thy father compel 
me to release thee 1 will not set thee free, and though profane 
and sacrilegious persons ought not to be cast into the furnace 
of a bath, thou art worthy of death, and death shall now be 
thy portion.' And the Duke commanded his servants to 
fasten the hands of Apa Victor behind him, and they cut out 
1 Matt. X. 28. 


his tonf^uej and cut off tlie outer parts of his hi)s. And he 
made them hrin<^ out his necessary organs, and }K)ur boiHng 
oil upon them, and he made them pierce them witli iron 
borers. And other tools which had been made red-hot In the 
fire did he make them drive into Apa Victor^s ears, and these 
they worked deeper and deeper into them until at length the 
fumes of the burning- flesh penetrated into the inmost parts of 
his head. And he made them thrust these red-hot tools under 
the nails of his feet and the skin of his head, and he made 
them scatter over liim burning coals of fire, and he made them 
to bring fire and lay it over his body. And the Duke said 
unto him, | 'Wilt thou offer sacrifice or not? [If thou wilt Fol. Hth 
not] I will put thee to death with excruciating tortures.' "Xfe 
And he made them bring vessels (?) filled with boiling bitu- 
men, which they emptied down his throat. And the Duke 
said unto him, 'Wilt thou offer sacrifice or not, or wilt thou 
die by torture ?' And the blessed man Apa Victor said unto 
the Duke, ' Woe be unto thee, O Duke ! Thou deniest God 
for the sake of things which have been made by the hands of 
man, and thou and thine Emperors shall be punished with 
severe punishment.' And Eutuchianus was wroth, and he 
took an oath by the life of the Emperor and by the lives of the 
gods, and he said unto Apa Victor, 'Since thou wilt not sacrifice, 
and since thou hast been put to shame on the rack, I must 
destroy thee by banishment until thou shalt die.' 

And Epiphanius the recorder answered and said, 'Hearken 
unto me, and let me say this thing unto thee, O my Lord Count. 
Behold, there is a certain Camp very far away in the south 
which is deserted, and there is no man living in it. Behold, 
it is fifteen years since I became a soldier, and [during that 
time] I have never seen any one in it. Now, therefore, banish 
Apa Victor to that place, [and keep him there] until he shall 
die.' And the Count of the Thebaid commanded [that this 
should be done, and he passed] sentence on him, saying, ' I, 
Eutuchianus, hereby command that this profane man Victor 



be talicn to the Camp of Hierakion,! and tliat he he compelled 
^'"llJj " ^^ remain | there until he die.' And straig-htway four men 
*^'^* seized Apa Victor^ and carried him away to that place. 

And the noble man Apa Victor was strong- and of g-ood 
courag-e, and he related to the four [soldiers] his sufferings 
in the place of torture up to that time. And it came to pass 
on a certain day that Apa Victor was outside the place of 
torturCj and the Devil (;ame unto him in the form of a soldier, 
and said unto him, ' Hail, Apa Victor. I am a soldier of the 
imperial Palace, and thy faf her hath sent me unto thee to g-ive 
thee this message : " Rise up, come back to me here, so that I 
may make thee a general. Have I not suffered ])ain [in long- 
ing] for thee ? Come back, so that I may make thee [a 
general]. Wilt thou not hearken unto me? It is thou thy- 
self alone who hast drawn upon thy head these sufferings. 
Other people, strangers, are eating up thy goods." Dost thou 
not know that thou art an only son, and that thy parents have 
no son [but thee] to succeed them ? They have adopted (?) 
as a son the offspring (?) of [one] of their slaves. And now 
he rideth the horses, and [the Emperor] hath made him a 
(^ount in thy place. He weareth thine apparel, and mean- 
while thou art destroying thy soul witli tribulations. And 
behold, thou art dwelling in this desert place ! Art thou not 
afraid lest thieves attack thee by night ? ' 

Then the Devil began to produce a written letter, and he 
unrolled it l)cfore Apa Victor, and said unto him, ' Look at 
this, and thou wilt recogni/e the handwriting of thy father 
and his seal.'' And Apa Victor looked closely at the man, 
and he knew of a certainty that he was a phantom, and he 
Fol. 17 !; said unto him, j '(let thee gone from me 1 It is through 
"X'X thee that the whole world is in a state of disruption, and it is 
through thee that the worship of idols flourisheth.' And the 
blessed man Apa Victor turned his face towards tlie east, and 

' Probably Ilierakonpolis, a town on tVie loft or west bank of the Nile, 
about 20 miles to the soutli of Thebes ; tlie Egyptians called the oldest 
town on the site ' Nekhen '. 


paid, ' Shew Tliy compassion upon rac, O Thou only Son oE Thy 
Father, my Lord Jesus the Christ, and (hJiver 'l']i<tu me out of 
all my tribulations/ And when tlie Devil heard the Name 
of Jesus, strait^htway he made himself visible. 

And Apa N'ictor continued to live in the Cam]), and | Jesus 
was with him in everything' wlsich he did. And the noble 
man Victor meditated within himself and said, ' What kind of 
work can 1 do \vhereby I may live ?' Now he had learned 
the trade of an artisan, and whilst he was living- by him- 
self in the Camp he used to make seats and lamp-stands. 
And it came to pass one day whilst the blessed, man 
Apa Victor was living in exile that the Lord Jesus came 
to him. Now He had clianged His apparel (or, form), 
and had taken the appearance of a g-rey-headed old man, 
who had come thither from a far-distant place. And He 
knocked at the gate of the Camp, and Apa Victor came out- 
side^ and when he saw the grey-headed old man he was filled 
with sorrow and compassion for Him, and he kissed Him, 
saying, ' Come inside, O my lord brother, Thou good man ; it 
seemeth to me as if 1 had seen Jesus this day.' And 
Apa Victor did not know who the old man w^as^ and the two 
of them went into tl\e tower wherein Victor lived. Then 
Apa Vi<;tor said unto the man, ' Let us offer up prayer to God '; 
and Jesus said unto liim, ' Let iis offer up prayer/ And Apa 
Victor said unto ILm, ' Do Thou stand up j first, because Thou f'"i__|_J; ^' 
art greater than I, and Thou art [more] holy [than I]. I am Xe 
nineteen years old this day,^ and the sign of this world hath 
not as yet ceased, to manifest itself in my body, and the 
wickedness of this world hath not entirely disappeared from 
my heart.' And Jesus said unto him, ' Forgive me, O my 
brother ! I will stand up [and pray].' And Jesus and 
Apa Victor spread out their hands, and it came to j)ass that 
as they were praying the ten fingers of Jesus became ten 
lamps of fire which penetrated to the throne of the Father. 
J Literally ' 1 have come into nineteen years to-day '. 


And it came to pass that when they had finished prayinf^ 
Apa Victor went forward and sahited Jesus — now he knew 
not who lie was — and he said unto Him, 'Sit Thou down so 
tliat I may be able to enjoy I1iy face fully, f(n- behold, it is 
a very long- time since 1 have seen a maTi. And I adjure 
Thee to inform me truthfully of what place Thou art a native, 
so that I may know whether Thou art a native of my own 
city [or not]/ And Jesus said unto liim, 'Thou art a Roman 
((ireek ?) of Cilicia. Thy father is llomaiius^ and thy mother 
is Martha, and the wife whom they betrothed to thee is 
I'lieonoe ; but Ood hath chosen thee for Himself/ And 
Apa Victor wept in His face, and said unto Him, ' O my 
brother, great is Thy faith. I see that Thou art a prophet, or 
perhaps Thou art an ang-el of God. Eut tell me news about 
my house (or, home), for behold, it is a very long- time since T 
departed from my country.^ And Jesus answered [and said], 
' O my brother, shew an act of lovingkindness to me, and give 
me a cake of bread, so that I may eat it, for it is seven days 
Foi. IS h since I ate food.^ j And Apa Victor said unto Him, •■ In truth, 
'A.C O my brother, this day is the fortieth day in wdiich nothing 
hath entered my mouth, and for forty days I have not taken 
my clothes off my body. And as the Lord liveth^ I have 
neither bread nor water in this wilderness, nor anything wliat- 
soever which hath the appeai-ance of food. Eut now, O my 
brother, rise up, take this lan)p-stand and these seats (or, 
stools), and also my shoe latchet, and go Thou into tlie city 
whicli is near and sell them at their [proper] price, and buy 
us some bread that we may eat, lest our souls decay through 

And Jesus answered and said unto him, 'Where in this 
wilderness dost thou find a man with whom to hold converse ? 
And who is it that taketh care to ])rovide thee with food ? ' 
And Apa Victor answered and said unto Him, ' Woe be unto 
me, O my brother! [Long- will it be] before I shall arrive in 
that other world wherein no respect of persons is sliewn. 


Mayest Thou find it. My Lord the Christ dwclieth there, 
the Apostles and the Patriarchs dwell there, and ihousands of 
thousands, and tens oi. thousands of tens of thousands stand 
round ahout it. And if any man wlio is a sinner shall arrive 
therein lie shall not find boldness (or, freedom of speech) 
therein, because of the sins whicdi he hath committed, both 
f Jiosc committed dimug; the (hy and those conumttcd durin<^ 
the nio'ht. As for me, how wretched shall I be in that hour ! 
Woe is mc, because of the ignorance which hath been set in 
tlie hearts of men, whereby each one faiietli to remember 
death until the moment when it overtaketh him before he 
knoweth it! \ Woe is me, for I have made supplication toFol.19. 
death, but I have not found it. I have begged that some 'A."^ 
sickness might attack me, but it hath not done so. Thou 
knowest, O my Lord, that I have made entreaty for my 
death more than for my life, for I am without father and 
without mother in this world. I bear witness by my Lord 
Jesus the Christ, that if Thou departest from me this day, 
Thou shalt come back again and shalt visit me. I am the 
servant which is unprofitable. When I shall die Thou shalt 
bury my body, lest it remain lying about in this world, 
wherein there is no man whatsoever who shall keep me in 

Then Jesus had compassion upon Apa Victor, and He 
looked upon him as he wept, and said unto him, ' Dost thou 
know Who I am? I am lie Who delivered thee from the 
rack of torture at Jlakote. I am Tie Who delivered thee from 
the iron bed. I am He Who kept thee in safety in the 
furnace of the bath. 1 am Jesus the Christ, Who delivered 
thee from all thy tribulations. I will be with thee in every 
place whither thou shalt go. Grieve thou not because thou 
art living in this wiklerness. Amen, I say unto thee, that 
thou shalt be with Ale in the Jerusalem of heaven, Aly 
beloved city. And as I shall take Aly seat upon Aly throne, 
thou also shalt sit upon thy throne. And I will make every 


tyrant (or. governor) and every ruler to hold in wonder thy 
name whensoever they shall hear it. And I will make them 
to come to thy shrine^ and to bring- gifts unto thee in My 
Name. I will make many mighty wonders and signs to 
become manifest at thy shrine. Whosoever shall come to 
thy shrine, and shall make a vow, and shall not pay the same, 
because of these unpaid vows will I enter into judgement 
Fol. 19 b with them. | As for this tower wherein thou dwellest, the 
iVH multitudes who shall come thereto shall not destroy it, 
[The story of] thy life and conversation and of thy great 
valour shall reach the uttermost ends of the earth. This 
year shalt thou dwell in exile, but in the next year they 
shall cut off thy head with the sword in this Camp ; for 
thou shalt suffer certain pains for My Name^s sake. And 
I will come unto thee again, and I will give thee strength 
until thou shalt have put to shame the Duke and his 

And straightway Apa Victor cast himself down at the 
feet of the Lord, saying, ' Who am I, that I should be deemed 
worthy by Thee for Thee to speak to, O my Lord ? ' And 
Jesus kissed him, and He departed into heaven, and the angels 
sang hymns to Him. 

And Apa Victor continued to live in the Camp, and the 
Lord Jesus was with him. And Apa Victor purchased for 
himself the materials for his burial, and his coifin. And 
large numbers of soldiers flocked to the Camp for the sake 
of the blessed man Apa Victor. And the blessed man 
Apa Victor doubled the number of the prayers which he 
used to make, and he ke2)t fasts for very long periods, and 
he diligently observed the Sabbaths, and the Lord Jesus was 
with him. In the peace of God, May His holy blessing 
be with us ! Amen, 



And it came to pass that after Saint Apa Victor was 
banished he lived in the Camp. And Sebastianus, the Duke, 
came to inspect j the Camp. And Asterius, the praetor ofFoI. 20a 
the Camp, cast himself down before the Count, and Soterichos, \& 
who was the accountant (or, clerk), g-ave him a written state- 
ment concerning- Apa Victor, so that he mig-ht summon him 
into his presence. Then the Duke ordered his servants to set 
his judgement throne inside the gate of the Camp, in order 
that he might hear [the case of] the holy man Apa Victor. 
And when the morning had come the Duke took his seat 
upon the throne, and he commanded his servants to bring the 
righteous man into his presence. And the torturers seized 
Apa Victor whilst he was in his cell, and he had lentils in 
his hand, and he was eating, and Apa V^ictor threw the lentils 
through the window, saying, ' O my Lord Jesus the Christ, 
do Thou make these lentils to become stones which shall 
never be destroyed ! And they shall be a sign unto all the 
generations which are to come, lest these wicked men tread 
them down.' And Apa Victor prayed, saying, ' O my Lord 
Jesus the Christ, let me not be put to shame before this 
wicked man.' And afterwards he came down [from his cell], 
and stood before the Duke. 

And the Duke said unto him, ' These are the letters which 
the Emperor hath sent to be read unto thee ; hearken unto 
them, and offer up sacrifice.' And Apa Victor answered and 
said, * I belong to a King Who is deathless, and therefore 
I will not worship an emperor who will die. For all the 


Fol. 20 & kingdoms of the world shall perish and be destroyed, | but 
** the g-lory of God shall never, never perish ; therefore I will 
not offer up sacrifice. For the pomp and g-lory of this w^orld 
are nothing as compared with God. Verily, I know well 
that I did receive a salary of sixty ^ from my father, who is 
a general, and that God hated me because I received these 
things wickedly. Now therefore, O Duke, neither gold nor 
silver will be of the least value to a man in the hour of his 
necessity. For this reason let us fight with ourselves, for 
forgetfulness hath spread itself over our heart, so that we may 
never cease to remember the death [which cometh] in this 
world. I have never glorified myself, and I have never 
exalted myself. For this reason that which is written is 
fulfilled in me : " He who exalteth himself shall be abased, 
and he who abase th himself shall be exalted." ' ^ 

Then Sebastianus was exceedingly wroth, and he said unto 
Apa Victor, ' Offer up sacrifice.' And Apa Victor answered 
and said, ' I will not offer up sacrifice. Whatsoever thou 
wishest to do unto me that do. I fell into the hands of the 
four torturers (?) before this, and I was not afraid of them, for 
the Lord gave me strength during all my torturings. Now 
therefore, O Duke, I was banished to this spot because of this 
Name, for [they said], " Offer up sacrifice," [and I would not 
do so]. And, moreover, I do not wish to remain in this world 
which shall dissolve away and perish. Be it known unto 
thee also, O Duke, that if thou put me to the torture many, 
many times, thou wilt only give additional strength to the 
reasoning power of the mind which is within me. Wholly 
fitting for me is it that I should be held worthy to endure 
revilings for the Name of the Christ.' 

And the Duke said unto Apa Victor, ' Cease thy say ; thou 

Fol. 21 a art always talking ! Art thou a deacon, j or a reader, that 
JxSi thou possessest such perfect knowledge of this [kind] of 
wisdom ? ' And Apa Victor said, ' I would give thanks unto 
' Some word omitted here ? ^ Matt, xxiii. 12. 


the Christ [if I were], only I am not worthy of so great 
a g-ift as this — to be made a deacon or a reader. The grace 
of God is received through Jesus the Christ, Who giveth 
wisdom unto every man whose heart is right with Him, 
because He is the giver of riches^ and His treasury is filled 
with wisdom [which] He giveth unto every one who shall 
profit through Him in respect of good things. For as the 
good husbandman is in the habit of giving manure to his 
field, so that he may supply it with strength and enable it 
to bring forth its crop, even so doth the wisdom of God live 
in the soul of him that seeketh after it, and it permitteth 
neither the net of death nor the wiles of the Devil to have 
dominion over it. For the Lord is mighty, and He is able 
to perform everything.' And the Duke said unto him, ' Dost 
thou then go so far as to choose for thyself death rather than 
life ? ' And Apa Victor answered and said unto him, ' This 
death is not by any means death, but life everlasting. I am 
able to endure patiently thy torturings.' 

Then the Duke made his servants to strip Apa Victor naked, 
and to cut his sinews, and to fasten his hands behind him, 
and to drive skewers into him ; and afterwards he made them 
to dismember (?) him. And the Duke said unto him, ' Offer 
up sacrifice.' And Apa Victor said unto him, ' I will not oflTer 
up sacrifice.' And afterwards he made his servants to break 
the joints of his legs and arms until his bones stuck out 
through his skin. And Apa Victor said unto him, ' I give 
thanks unto Thee, O my Lord Jesus the Christ, because all 
the joy of the Christ hath drawn nigh unto me.' | And the Fol. 21 b 
Duke said unto him, ' They delivered thee over into my hands jti6 
as a magician. Now, then, if thou dost not hearken unto me, 
I will torture thee with the most terrible tortures.' And 
Apa Victor said, ' I will not offer up sacrifice.' And the 
Duke said unto him, ' Why dost thou not go on taking thy 
salary ? Why dost thou take no pleasure in thy chariot and 
in thine armour?' And Apa Victor answered and said, 

p p 


' Because they are used in acts of violence. For this reason 
I will not eat the rations, I have in the world which is 
to come spiritual food laid up fox me, and when I shall have 
eaten thereof I shall never feel hunger again.' And the Duke 
commanded them to strip him naked, and to east him into 
a furnace wherein the fire had been lighted for two days. 
And afterwards they brought him into the presence of the 
Duke, who said unto him, ' O wicked head ! I swear by the 
health of Apollo that thy punishment shall be the destruction 
of thy body by fire.' And the Duke commanded [his servants] 
to prej)aro a furnace, and to heat it for four days, and then to 
cast Apa Victor into it. And Apa Victor prayed in the 
depths of the furnace, saying, ' O my Lord Jesus the Christ, 
at the [mention of] Whose Name the sea dried up, let [this] 
fire be extinguished, and let the heat thereof be destroyed. 
Blessed be Thy Name for ever! Amen.' 

And they brought him and set him before the Duke, [and 
it was found that] the fire had not touched him. Then 
Sebastianus said unto Apa A^ictor, ' By the glorioiis gods 
Apollo and Artemis, I will torture thee [sorely], I will Send 
and bring a magician who is more powerful than thou, [and] 
Foi. 22a he shall make an end of thy magic' ) And the Duke com- 
■**'^ mandcd them to bring a magician. And the magician [came], 
and he made medicaments [containing] the essence and 
the venom of serpents, and he pronounced over them a very 
large numl)er of [magical] names. And after [this] he said 
unto Apa Victor, 'Take [these], swallow them, and then 
I shall see if thou art strong enough [to suffer in no way 
thereby].' And the blessed man Apa Victor said unto the 
magician, ' I have no desire to swallow them, but in order 
that thou mayest know that my God hath power to make 
of no effect every kind of magic, [I will do so].' And Apa 
Victor made over himself the Sign of the Cross in the Name 
of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, saying, ' Do 
Thou not let me be put to shame before this lawless man.' 


Thereupon Apa Victor swallowed the inedicaments, and no 
member whatsoever of his suffered the least injury ; on the 
contrary, he was filled with a feeling' of happiness like unto 
the happiness of those who have been drinking- wine. And 
the magician made other medicaments which were far more 
pow^erf'ul than those which he had made first, using- even the 
gall and the humours from a corpse. These he placed in 
a vessel, and he pronounced over them such mighty magical 
names that even the earth shot out light at the mention of 
them. And he said unto Apa Victor, ' My lord, take these 
this time also, and if no evil thing happen to thee I will 
believe in thy God.' Then the blessed man took these 
medicaments and drank them, and no evil whatsoever 
happened to him. 

Then the magician said, ' Strong indeed is he who hath 
shewn strength ! | Mighty is he who hath shewn might ! ^^IJt '' 
Thou hast delivered [thy] soul from death, and made it to *^^ 
live once again. For [it is with thee as it was with] Andrew, 
when he was broken on the cross, he was made new again. 
And this is what happeneth unto those who have gone astray 
in their sins; when they wish [it] the Lord maketh them 
into new creatures again.' And straightway the magician 
relinquished all the possessions w^hich he had, and he was 
taught the Name of the Holy Trinity, and all his books 
which were full of magic he burned in the fire. 

And the Duke said unto Apa Victor, ' Be wise, and offer 
up sacrifice.' And Apa Victor said unto him, 'Indeed I am 
wise at all times.' And the Duke said unto him, 'But this 
time thou art acting the fool.' And Apa Victor said, ' The 
fools of the world are those whom God hath chosen to put 
to shame the wise.' ^ The Duke said unto him, ' Where is 
this writing found ? ' And Apa Victor said, ' It is Paul who 
wrote it.' And the Duke said, 'Is Paul then a god?' And 
Apa Victor said unto him, ' As the wise man among architects 

1 1 Cor. i. 27. 


when he is about to build seeketh for a site whereon another 
hath laid the foundation, and then buildeth upon it, even 
so is Paul, who came at the end — he setteth the roof on the 
Scriptures.' And the Duke said unto him, ' Cease thou to 
utter such words of folly as these, for these actions will profit 
thee nothing-, and thou shalt die. Thou art a child. Hearken 
unto me now ; do thou offer up sacrifice so that I may set 
thee at liberty.' And Apa Victor said unto him, ' I am not 
Fol. 23 a a fool ; j nay, I am a wise man. If I were to hearken unto 
Jti€ thee, and if I were to offer up sacrifice, I should in truth 
be a fool. Fools can never walk in the truth, because their 
hearts make them blind, and they become liars, like their 
father the Devil.' 

And the Duke was wroth, and he commanded [his servants] 
to tear out the intestines from his body down to his feet (or, 
legs). And Apa Victor spake before the Duke, saying", ' The 
tendons, nerves, and sinews which thou hast dragged out 
from my body are like unto the pointed instruments where- 
with [the physicians] probe a wound in order to liberate the 
foetid pus which is in it, and to give relief to the whole body. 
That is the case with me at this moment. And now I will 
give thanks unto my Lord Jesus the Christ, for ever and 
ever. Amen.' 

And the Duke made [his servants] bring some oil, and 
they lighted a fire under it, and kept it burning until the 
oil was boiling. And he made them pour it upon his 
necessary organs, and immediately the oil had been poured 
upon them they fell off on the ground. And the blessed 
man Apa Victor answered and said, ' This oil which thou hast 
poured upon me is like unto the cool water which a man 
is wont to drink during the hot w^eather, and in which he 
washeth himself so that he may feel the relief thereof from 
the heat in his whole body.' And the Duke commanded 
[his servants] to hoist him up on the rack of torture, and 
to stretch him thereon, and he made them put six burning 


torcTaes close to his body ; and they racked him for a period 
of two hours. And the fire did not scorch his body in the 
least degree, for God was with him, and He gave him strength 
in all his tribulations. 

And the Duke said unto him, ' O wicked head ! I weary 
myself. I would spare thee from being put to shame, | and Fol. 28 b 
thou wilt not turn (i. e, repent). Come now, offer up sacrifice.' ^^^ 
And Apa Victor said unto him, ' Yesterday thou didst spare 
me ; to-day spare thou me not. Do whatsoever it pleaseth 
thee to do unto me.' And the Duke commanded [his servants] 
to pour vinegar and ashes into his mouth. And Apa Victor 
said, ' This vinegar and these ashes, which thou makest me 
to drink, are like unto honey dropped down my throat.' Then 
the Duke commanded his servants to dig out his two eyes 
whilst he was alive. And straightway the executioners 
came and thrust red-hot knives into his eyes and ears, and 
forthwith his two eyeballs were ripped out and fell upon 
the ground. And a smoke (i. e. dizziness) mounted up in 
his brain. And Apa Victor said unto the Duke, ' Even if thou 
hast the power and dost make blind the eyes of my body, 
I have still left within me other eyes, that is to say, those 
of the mind and understanding, which will give me light, 
according to that which Peter the Apostle said, " If it be that 
ye see with the eyes of the body, ye shall see the works of 
the world, which are vain, that is to say, fornication, and 
slandering, and murder, and calumny, and pride, because of 
which things the wrath of God cometh." ^ Therefore I have 
no need of the eyes of my body." 

And the Duke answered and said unto him, ' If thou wilt 
compel me now to inflict further severe tortures upon thee, 
[I must do so].' And Apa Victor said unto him, 'Inflict 
upon me any punishment thou wishest to inflict, for I am 
prepared to bear up under it ; only take care to spare me not.' 
Then the Duke commanded [his servants] to hang him up 
^ Compare 2 Pet. ii. 14. 


Foi. 24 a on a pillar head downwards | for three days and three 
■**X nights, so that all his blood mig-ht pour out from his mouth 
and nostrils ; and the soldiers who had hung- him up departed 
to their houses, and left him hanging-. And after three days 
the Duke commanded them to bring- him down [from the 
pillar] and to bring him to him, so that he might know 
whether he was alive or dead ; and straightway the soldiers 
departed [to fetch him]. And when they laid their hands 
upon him they became blind. And Apa Victor said, ' In the 
Name of my God, for Whose sake I am suffering all these 
sufferings, receive ye your sight through [His] power, which 
is holy ' ; and straightway they received their sight. And 
when the Duke saw what had taken place, he commanded 
[the soldiers] to flay his body, and to tear out his tongue. 
And Apa Victor said unto the Duke, ' Even though thou 
strippest off me my skin which is outside me, I have still 
another skin, which is inside me, and which neither thy 
power nor thy tortures can injure. And again, though thou 
shalt cut out my tongue, God is wont to perform judgement 
[on behalf of] those whose mouths are silenced. Now, 
therefore, I care nothing for thy tortures.' 

And whilst the blessed man Apa Victor was saying these 
things, behold, a certain young woman whose name was 
Stephanou, who was the wife of a soldier, looked out through 
her window — now she was about fifteen years of age — and 
cried out, saying, ' Blessed art thou, O Apa Victor, and 
blessed art thou in all thy works. All thy sacrifices have 
been received from thy hands, even as were received the 
sacrifices of Abel,^ the righteous man, which he brought unto 
God in integrity of heart. God shall shew compassion upon 
thee as He did upon Enoch,^ the scribe of righteousness. 

Fo].24&Thou art perfect and righteous in thy generation as was 
A*H Noah.'' Thou dost believe on God, | as did Abraham.* 

1 Gen. iv. 4. ^ Qen. v. 22. 

' Gen. vi. 8, 9. * Gen. xii. 1 ; xv. 6. 


Thou dost lay thy body on the altar as a sacrifice, as did 
Isaac.^ Thou dost manifest patient endurance, as did Jacob ^ 
at the time when Esau pursued him [when he was] going to 
Laban. Thou art a man of wisdom and understanding, as 
was Daniel the Prophet.^ Thou hast been instructed in 
divine things by thy dreams like Joseph.* Thou hast mani- 
fested patient endurance like Job," the man of God. The 
Enemy hath been envious of thee as he was of Isaiah the 
Prophet, whose body they sawed in twain lengthwise with 
a wood saw.'' And the fire hath not touched thee, even 
as the fire of Nebuchadnezzar touched not the Three Holy 
[Children].'^ Thou hast given thy heart unto God, even 
as did David, the son of Jesse. Behold, I swear by thy 
salvation, Apa Victor, that two crowns shall be sent down 
from heaven^ being borne by twenty-four angels ; one of 
these is for thee, and the other shall be for me. Though like 
thee I am a vessel of infirmity, I shall have an inheritance 
among the mighty ones.' 

And when the Duke heard this woman proclaiming these 
things, he commanded his soldiers to bring her unto him. 
And when they had brought her, the Duke said unto her, 
' How many years old art thou that thou dost dare to proclaim 
these violent words in such an impudent manner ? ' And 
she said unto him, ' I am fifteen years and eight months old.' 
And the Dake said unto her, ' How many years is it since 
thou didst marry [thy] husband ? ' And she said unto him, 
' Behold, one year and six months.' | And the Duke answered Fol. So a 
and said unto her, ' Offer up sacrifice now, O Stephanou, and •**^ 
do not die an evil death.' And she said unto him, ' My name 
is indeed Stephanou, the interpretation of which is "crown 
incorruptible", and therefore I will not offer up sacrifice, 

1 Gen. xxii. 9. 2 Q^n. xxvii. 41. s Dan. i. 17, 19. 

* Gen. xxxvii. 5 ; xli. 12. ^ Job ii. 7, 10. 

« See Dillmann, Ascensio Isaiae, chap, v, ver. 11 (p. 23). 
■^ Dan. iii. 27. 


because I wish to receive the crown which is [indicated by] 
my name.' Then the Duke was exceedingly wroth, and he 
commanded his soldiers to set her between two palm-trees, 
and to tie her to each of them. And they pulled the trunks 
of the two palms close to her body by means of a rope, and 
tied them tog-ether. And afterwards the two palms were 
released suddenly by cutting the rope, and in this way she 
was rent asunder down to the middle of her body, and she 
became two pieces. Thus she fulfilled her martyrdom in 
peace, and she departed into the heavens, unto Him Whom 
she had loved, the Christ, in great glory. Amen. 

Then the Duke passed the sentence of death upon Apa 
Victor, [and ordered his soldiers] to cut off his head. And 
the blessed man Apa Victor answered and said unto him, 
' I give thanks unto my Lord Jesus the Christ, Who hath 
given unto me these riches for ever. Now, therefore, hearken 
ye unto me, and I will declare unto you the following things 
which have been revealed unto me. Now after I am dead 
ye yourselves shall also die, at the end of my eleventh 
[year].^ And as concerning the Duke Sebastianus, an ekstasis 
shall take place, and certain men in a town shall delay [in 
paying tribute], and he shall embark in his boat and depart to 
despoil them, and as [the crew] are tying up the boat to the 
bank the Duke shall come forth. And as he is coming down 
from the boat by the landing plank he shall trip up, and the 
monoholis shall penetrate his foot, and the foot shall mortify, 
and he shall die at the end of the twenty-fourth year after 
my death. And again, all the wise men and all the orators 
shall go and eat their midday meal together at the end of the 
Fol. 25 & eighth year after my death, | and the house wherein they are 
11 shall fall down upon them, and they shall all die together. 
And when Asterius, the governor of the Camp, the same who 
delivered the written accusation of me to the Count, as a 
result of which he tortured me, shall tie up his ass on the 
^ i. e. the eleventh year after my death. 


north side of the Camp when he shall arrive there, and shall 
beat her, she shall bite him, and ho shall fall ill and die. 
And after ten days the men of my household shall come 
seeking after my body ; give it to them. For I have already 
bought the funerary swathings for my body and my coffin, 
in order that they may not bury me in the funerary equipment 
of a stranger. Only, I pray you, do not prevent my body 
from being given imto those who shall seek after it. For 
there shall be an exceedingly great upheaval of the sea, and 
mighty events shall take place in the spot wherein my body 
shall be deposited. And the people of the w^hole country 
shall come to my shrine, and many mighty deeds shall take 
place on the spot where they shall deposit my head, and the 
people of the whole country shall come to my shrine by 
reason of the mighty deeds which shall be done therein. 
I am a young man tw^enty years of age. I entreat you all, 
O my fellow soldiers, to let me depart to the presence of my 
Lord Jesus the Christ. This is the day which I have been 
[long] expecting, and behold, it hath come this day.' 

And straightway they tied a gag in his mouth. And Apa 
Victor said unto the executioner, ' Dismiss me speedily, for 
the sake of the angels who have hold upon me.' Now the 
executioner was not pleased^ to do so, for he only struck his 
neck with the sword, and his head hung by the skin of the 
neck. And Apa Victor was in torture, and his spirit was 
sorely distressed in him. And he looked up and saw Horion 
the Kotirson, and he said unto him, ' Take the sword out of the 
hand of this lawless man, and do thou make an end of me, for 
this wicked man of Sioout ^ hath already done very many evil 
things to me during my lifetime, and now also at my death 
he doth grievously afflict my spirit. May the Lord reward 
him according to what he hath done unto me.' And Horion 

^ Read JxU qpMt&.q. 

* i. e. Asyut. Tlie modern town lies about 210 miles to the south of 

Q q 


Fol. 26athe j Kourson said unto Apa Victor, 'My lord, do not think 
"*" in thy heart concerning me that I would lift up my hand 
against my brother soldier. I swear by thy salvation, O my 
brother Apa Victor, and by the dire need which is on thee, 
that I have never stretched out my hand even against a bird, 
to shed its blood, and it is impossible for me to lay my hand 
upon thee [with violence]. But I pray thee to remember me 
in the i)lace whereunto thou departest.' And Apa Victor 
answered and said, 'The Lord Jesus the Christ shall shew 
mercy unto thee, for in this very same year thou shalt die, 
and the Lord shall forgive thee thy sins. The enemy and 
the martyr shall come forth to thee, [and] I shall follow after 
them and shall sing hymns with them.' 

And Horion placed his napkin before his face. And 
[Apa Victor] said unto him, ^O my beloved brother, I entreat 
thee most earnestly'; and [Horion] girded on the sword. 
And the Camp was shaken three times. Then he cut off his 
head, he consummated his martyrdom. And Horion lifted up 
his eyes to heaven, and he saw the soul of Apa Victor, which 
Ausouel carried [to heaven] in a napkin made of byssus, and 
the saints saluted the soul of Apa Victor. And wdien they 
had taken off the head of Apa Victor blood mingled with 
milk came forth. And he consummated his glorious martyr- 
dom on the twenty-seventh day of the month Parmoute^ at 
the tenth hour of the day. And all the words wdiich he spake 
before they took off his head came true. Peace be upon every 
one who hath suffered martyrdom for the Name of our Lord 
Jesus the Christ, to Whom be glory, and to His Good 
Father, and to the Holy Spirit, life-giving and consubstantial, 
now and always, for ever and ever. Amen. 


{Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 7022) 


1 Ho sat from 422 to 432. 2 i. e. Constantino. See p. 316. 

3 Heb. X. 31. 



When He Who is alone the Handicraftsman, and the 
Deliverer of His day, and the Storehouse Who is filled with, 
compassion of every kind, is pleased in His loving-kindness 
to call to remembrance the work of His hand, He giveth to 
His creatures food in its season, He openeth His hand which is 
filled wath. righteousness of every kind, and He maketh the sky 
to pour out rain at the time that is fitting. And by these 
means the meadow doth become soft, and doth, burst into 
flower, in order that all mankind may rejoice. He bringeth 
down upon the earth the rain in the season of rain, and the 
husbandman cleaveth the furrows of the meadow wdth the 
plough, and casteth the seed into them at the season of 
'oi.27a sowing. I And the grain beginneth to sprout, and the plants 
^^^ which bear grain grow up and ripen, according to their kind. 
And there is very great rejoicing in all beings, for they 
enjoy their food, and the things whereby the body is sus- 
tained ; yea, even in the beasts of the field, which are wont 
to leap about and spring into the air when they eat the grass 
and herbs in the season of spring. And the husbandmen are 
wont to rejoice exceedingly, because they have good hope of 
paying the revenue tax on their flocks and herds. 

If now there is wont to be joy of this kind over the food 

' Probably VaJentinianus III, who reigned from 425 to 455. 


that appertaineth to the body, how much greater should 
be the joy this day, O flock of reasoning- sheep, O ye blessed 
Christian people, over the Blood that flowed out from the 
Side of God, and the Water that fell upon the earth ? For 
it made the world new again, and it became a fountain of 
water which bubbleth up unto life for ever. And all mankind 
rejoiced, and leaped for joy, and they blossomed once again 
throug-h the Water and the Blood that flowed forth out of 
the side of Emmanuel. And they brought forth spiritual 
fruits, that is to say, the virtues of the Holy Spirit. There 
were some who chose for themselves purity from the time 
w^hen they were born into the world to the time of their 
departure from it. There were others who had wives, and 
yet they were even as if they had had none. There were 
some who lived the lives of ascetics from the earliest years 
of their childhood to the last days of their old age, and fasted 
most rigidly. Some withdrew themselves from the world, 
and departed into the mountains, and became monks, and 
nobly foug-ht the battle of the ascetic life to the day of their 
deaths, j Others took up their crosses and followed after the Foi. 27 b 
Lord. They poured out their blood in their confession of ^"^ 
God, and they received the crown of martyrdom. In short, 
all mankind hath blossomed and. brought forth fruit with 
great gladness. The word w^hich is written hath been ful- 
filled in this generation, ' They shall all know Thee, from the 
least of them even to the greatest.' ^ 

For our Saviour and His angels, who are in our midst this 
day, celebrate the festival of Apa Victor the general on the 
day of his commemoration, which is this day. All the ranks 
of the angels who are in heaven gather together to us this 
day, and they ascribe glory unto the man who withdrew 
himself from the world and the possessions thereof, and took 
(i. e. chose) the kingdom which is perfect. The Prophets and 
the Martyrs are in our midst this day, and they celebrate the 
1 Jer. xxxi. 34 ; Heb. viii. 11. 


festival of him that withdrew himself from the world and 
the possessions thereof; the Christ loved him, and crowned 
him with the crown of the kingdom which is in heaven. 
O Saint Victor the General ! O thou who wearest the 
martyr's crown ! O thou unconquered fighter ! O thou true 
crown-bearer of the Christ ! O thou who didst make thy 
body a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable unto God, I wish 
to pronounce an encomium upon thee at thy festival this day, 
but I am afraid that I do not possess the strength that is 
necessary to sail over the sea of thy splendid actions. Since my 
tongue is a tongue of flesh, and my heart (i. e. understanding) 
within me is that of a man, I am not able to describe 
[adequately] the glory and the honour wherewith God hath 
invested thee. Among all the wise men who are in the 
world, who was there that was ever able to describe thine 
honourable life completely, O Saint Victor? Thou wast a 
virgin from thy youngest days, and an ascetic from thy 
Fol. 28 a childhood. | Thou didst fast two days at a time during the 
lie whole period of thy life. The door of thy house was open 
unto every one. For this reason I am afraid to set out upon 
the sea of thy virtues ; I know well the haltingness of my 
tongue, and that my heart hath no wisdom in it. In what 
way is it possible for me to honour thee according to thy 
deserts ? 

Thou wast a virgin like unto Elijah, and thou didst never 
touch a woman. Thou wast a righteous man, and a good 
man, and a man of good heart towards all the poor, even like 
Abraham the Patriarch. Thou wast the martyr who was 
the mightiest of all the martyrs. Thou wast not afraid of 
kings and dukes and governors, nor did tortures destroy thy 
reasoning powers. The threats of thy father Romanus did 
not prevent thee from following thy true Father the Christ ; 
nay, thou didst lay hold firmly upon the Rock which cannot 
be moved, the Christ, until thy latest breath, O thou who 
wast righteous in thy generation, who didst make thy body 


a sacrifice unto God, wliat shall I say, or what shall I proclaim 
concerning- thee, O Saint Victor ? I compare thee unto Noe, 
because thou wast perfect in thy generation, as was he in his. 
I compare thee unto Abraham, because thou wast a lover of 
strangers, as was he. Now God and His angels sojourned 
with Abraham because of his love for strangers.^ In thine 
own case, O Saint Victor, it was the Christ Who came unto 
thee, and the Son of God was in the garb of a poor man. 
He comforted thee in the Camp in a desert land, because of 
the great suffering which thou hadst endured for His Holy 
Name's sake. I compare thee unto Isaac the Patriarch, because 
in his case his father took him, though Isaac was unwilling, to 
offer him up as a sacrifice unto the Lord.^ In thy case, 
however, O Saint Victor, by thine own deliberate intent and 
choice thou didst offer up thy body as a whole burnt-offering 
to the Lord, through the manifold tortures which thou didst 
suffer for the Name of the Christ. | I compare thee unto Jacob Fol. 28 b 
the Patriarch, because the Christ took [His] name from him. S\c 

And as for thee, O Saint Victor, all the martyrs who are 
in the heavens boast themselves over thee, and all the 
dwellers upon the earth do likewise, because of thy patient 
endurance. I compare thee unto Joseph, because thou didst 
fight against passion, even as did he. In the case of Joseph 
it was his brethren who sold him into slavery, and in thy 
case, O Saint Victor, it was thy father who delivered thee 
over [into the hands of the wicked] for the sake of the Name 
of the Christ. Joseph obtained a kingdom [upon earth] 
because of his patient endurance, and thou, O Saint Victor, 
didst obtain a kingdom in the heavens. I compare thee unto 
Melchisedek and Aaron, because they offered up sheep and 
bulls as types (or, symbolically), whilst thou, O Saint Victor^ 
didst thyself make thine own body to be an offering unto 
God. Eor this reason we shall obtain great glory in the 
kingdom of the heavens. I compare thee unto Moses the 
1 Gen. xviii. 2 ff. * Gen. xxii. 1. 


Law -giver, because thou thyself didst reject the rank of 
g-encral in this world, and the riches of thy parents, and thine 
own possessions, and didst take up thy Cross and follow thy 
Lord. Moses did not wish for men to call him the son of 
Pharaoh's daug-hter, but ho chose to suffer with the people 
of God rather than to enjoy the pleasure of sin for a season.^ 
And thou also, O Saint Victor, didst not wish for men to call 
thee the son of Romanus, the lirst in the salutation of the 
Emperor, and thou didst reject the honourable rank of 
Fol 29 a §'®^*^^^^> I ^^^ ^^y riches, and didst follow Him Who said, 
fiH ' Whosoever loveth father or mother more than Me is not 
worthy of Me.' ^ And thou didst g-rasp the generalship which 
endureth for ever. 

I compare thee with Isaiah the Prophet, because thou thyself 
hast seen Him that sitteth above the Cherubim and Seraphim, 
and He came to thee, He delivered thee out of all thy tribula- 
tion, and gave glory unto thee in the heavens and on the 
earth. And He Who dwelleth in the heavens hath made 
thee a general among all the martyrs, even as we shall make 
the matter quite clear unto yon, provided that [our] words 
can go so far. And, moreover, on the earth hath He given 
glory unto thee, glory so great that thy sweet odour hath 
fdled every country in the world. And men build martyriums 
unto thee in every place, wherein mighty deeds and miracles 
take place, and men ascribe glory to God and to His holy 
martyr. For true is that which is written : ' Whosoever 
shall ascribe glory unto Me, him shall My Father honour.'^ 
Although thou didst pass thy whole life in association with 
the cares of this world, yet was thy whole zeal devoted to the 
love of God. For this reason God hath graciously bestowed 
upon thee this great favour, namely, He hath conceded to 
thy shrine the power of healing both the soul and the body. 
Although thou healest the diseases of the body by means of 
the grace which God hath given unto thee, yet thou dost also 
1 Heb. xi. 24, 25. ^ Matt. x. 37. » John xii. 26. 


cleanse the diseases of the soul, which are sins, through the 
sig-ns I and the miracles which thou dost make manifest in Fol. 2'.)h 
thy martyrium in the four quarters of the world. O Saint «H 
Victor, thy blood which hath been shed hath overthrown the 
pillar of Baal, even as did Elijah/ and thou hast destroyed 
the idols and the pillars [thereof]. Thou hast become the 
pillar of the whole choir of the martyrs. Thou hast quenched 
the flame of fire by the power of God which is with thee, like 
the Three Holy [Children]. ^ 

With what man [mentioned] in the Scriptures can I com- 
pare thee and not find that thou art his equal, nay, we will 
say even his superior? What shall I say concerning thee, 
O thou healer of the sicknesses that are secret as well as 
those that are manifest ? For he hath even raised the dead 
by means of the oil of the sanctuary of his martyrium, 
wherein ye are assembled this day, and I have seen the 
miracle with my own eyes, I the least [of all here present]. 
But let no man become an unbeliever concerning the miracle 
which took place, lest there be fulfilled in him the proverb 
which is written, 'The unbeliever is not [worth] an obolus.' 
Hearken ye then, and I will make manifest the matter unto 
you, so that there may be glory to God and to Saint Victor, 
whose festival we commemorate this day. Now the Saviour 
said, ' Whosoever believeth on Me shall himself see the works 
which I do in the Name of My Father, and he shall do things 
which are even greater than they.' ^ 

There was in this city a certain man whose name was 
Alexander, and he had great possessions in gold and silver ; 
this man had a wife who was barren, and who had never 
given birth to a child, and there was great sorrow in their 
hearts because of this thing, | for they had no heir to inherit Fol. .30a 
their substance. And they heard of the mighty deeds and W^ 
miracles that took place in the martyrium of Saint Apa 

» 1 Kings xviii. 17 ff. ^ j)an, iii. 26. 

=• John xiv. 12. 

R r 


Victor, and they rose up and went together to the holy 
shrine, and they made an offering in the martyrium on the 
Lord's Day. And afterwards they made a vow, saying, 
' Hear thou this day wherein we make supplication unto thee. 
If thou wilt come unto us, and wilt give us the seed of man, 
we will dedicate him to thy martyrium to the day of his 
death. Only take away the cause of the reproaches which 
we endure, and grant unto us our petition.' And when they 
had said these things they departed to their house in gladness. 
And it came to pass on a certain day that Saint Victor made 
supplication to the Christ on their behalf, and the wife of 
Alexander gave birth to a male child, who was exceedingly 
beautiful to look upon, and the grace of God enveloped him, 
and they called his name ' Victor ', naming him after Saint 
Victor, And there was great joy in the house of Alexander 
and his wife, and they distributed much alms among the 
poor. And when the child was five years of age the heai-ta 
of his parents would not permit them to send the child away 
to the shrine of Saint Apa Victor, according to the promise 
which had come forth from their mouths, but they went 
back on their vow. And they remembered not that which 
is written, ' Take good heed to thyself to perform the words 
which come forth from thy mouth, for the Lord will assuredly 
keep strict watch on thy ways, and will take vengeance upon 
thee.' ^ Finally, the father of the child and his mother spake 
together, saying, ' Behold, our hearts will not let us send the 
child into the shrine according to what we vowed. Let us 
call some man in the city who buyeth slaves, [and let him 
Fol. 30 h put a value on the child,] and we will give the value to the 
^ shrine, so that the martyr may not be angry with us.' And 
they rose up and called a merchant in the city who bought 
slaves, and Alexander set before him all the slave children 
which he had on his estate,^ and the merchant valued the 

1 Num. XXX. 2; Deut. xxiii. 21-3; Ps. 1. 14; Ixvi. 13, 14; Ixxvi. 11 ; 
Eccles. V. 4. 2 Kendering doubtful. 


child at forty holokofMnoi. And Alexander and his wife 
took the gold, and gave it to the shrine of the martyr, 
and they did not remember that it was written, ' If thon 
shalt vow a vow unto the Lord thy God thou shalt 
pay it.' 

And when Saint Victor saw that the parents of the child 
were not paying- their vow in a right manner, and that they 
were thinking that the gift of God was like the other things 
which they were wont to obtain by money, he made the 
matter to work out in the way which I will describe, and 
they were punished for their senseless behaviour. And it 
came to pass on a day that the child was in the courtyard 
round about his father's house playing with a number of 
other children of the same rank and age as himself. And 
suddenly a large stone which was in the corner of the house 
dropped upon the child, who fell upon the ground and died 
immediately. When his parents heard of this they rent 
their garments, and they cried out with a loud voice, and 
they came rushing out with the servants, and they fell upon 
the child, who was dead. O what an. eshibitioti of great 
grief was that which took place there at that moment ! And 
the parents cried out, ' Woe unto us, beloved child ! It is 
we oui-selves who have been the cause of thy death ; because 
we made a vow, and we did not fulfil our vow. We dedicated 
thee to the shrine of the holy man, and behold, he received 
thee from our hands before thou wast conceived. He hath 
burned up our bowels with grief for oar beloved son. It is 
we who deserve death. What shall we do ? At this moment 
we know not.' As for the father of the child a firm faith 
held him fast. He took up his little child in his | arms, and Fol. 31 « 
the mother and his servants followed him, and they brought ^^^ 
him into the martyrium of Saint Victor, and he laid him 
down before the altar of sacrifice. And he cried out, saying, 
• O Saint Victor, I know that thou hast the power to do 
everything, and that it was thou who didst graciously bestow 


upon me this child. Act not towards me according- to my 
senseless behaviour, but consider graciously my tears, and do 
thou make the soul of the child to come back into him again, 
and he and we together will make ourselves slaves unto thee 
until the day of our death.' 

And when he had said these words, and he was crying as 
he said them, Alexander took a little oil from the lamp, and 
made the Sign of the Cross over the child, and he put some 
on his lips, and on his breast^ and on his belly. And the 
miracle which took place straightway was greater than any 
miracle of Elijah and Elisha. For at the very moment when 
the oil of the lamp touched the child (now what [his father] 
said was, 'May the skin of my hand make healing to arise; 
return, O soul, into the child again ') through the supplication 
of Saint Victor the child opened his eyes. Great was the 
joy that fell upon his parents on that day, and on all those 
who belonged to them, and they cried out with a loud voice, 
saying, ' Great art Thou, O God of Saint Victor, and there 
is no god besides Thee in heaven or upon earth ! In the place 
of grief Thou hast given unto us gladness, and Thou hast 
raised up to his parents the child who was dead.' 

And when the multitude saw the great miracle which had 
happened, they cried out with a loud voice, and they ran 
to where the child was, and they cried out, saying, ' One is 
Fn]. 31 6 the God of Saint Victor ! ' j And the father of the child went 
afe round about the whole city with him, and he clasped his 
hand and proclaimed the mighty deeds of Saint Victor. 
After this he went into his house, and he brought out all 
his possessions and his slaves, and he gave them to the shrine 
of Saint Victor ; and he remained in the shrine and served 
the Saint until the day of his death. And the child became 
a man who was chosen of God, and he lived as a virgin all 
his life. He attained at length to the rank of the presbytery, 
and it used to be said of him that Saint Victor was wont 
to appear unto him, and that he saw him many times. 


Verilj, true is the word which our Saviour spake, ' Him who 
shall ministex unto Me shall My Father honour.' ^ 

See, O my beloved, how exceedingly powerful is the sup- 
plication of Saint Victor! And observe that God is wont 
to take vengeance upon the man who maketh a vow to Him 
and who payeth it not. As for us, when we make a vow to 
the martyr, let us fulfil it zealously in order that he may not 
be wroth with us. And moreover, to vow [and not to pay] 
is a great sin. Take thou then good heed concerning that 
which thou hast vowed. However, we must not tarry in our 
discourse. Let us now go back and tell you concerning 
another very great miracle which took place in the martyrium 
of Saint Victor, to the glory of God and the martyr. 

There was in this city a certain woman whose name was 
Kallieutropia, and she was the daughter of the sister of the 
Emperor Honorius, and she was exceedingly rich. And it 
came to pass one day, when she was lying down in her house 
about the time of noon, in a cave-like place,^ at the hottest 
part of the day, that a certain | demon leaped into her two Fol. 82 a 
breasts, and they swelled up(?) and throbbed (?) violently, ^^ 
and at the same time they shrivelled up, and became as hard 
as stones, and they hung down on her body ; and the woman 
was in very great torture by day and by night. And she 
spent large sums of money on the physicians, but obtained 
from them neither relief nor healing ; and she continued to 
suffer agonies, and her husband fell into abject despair about 
her. And the physicians used their utmost endeavours to 
work a cure upon her, the more so because she was a king's 
sister {sic), but they were powerless before the pain of the 
disease, according to what hath been written concerning 
physicians, 'Their wisdom remaineth in them.' And when 
the woman heard of the mighty deeds and miracles which 

1 John xii. 26. 

2 Probably a room partly underground, like the Arab and Persian 


were taking place in the shrine of Saint Victor, she made 
entreaty to her husband, and to her brother, that they would 
allow her to go to the shrine of the saint, for perhaps he 
might come to her, and graciously bestow healing upon 
her. And her kinsmen were persuaded by her, [for] they 
saw that she was in danger of dying, and they commanded 
that a litter wherein to carry her should be made ready, and 
they took her to the shrine of Saint Victor. And when she 
had entered into the shrine she cried oat, saying, ' O my Lord 
Saint Victor, I entreat thee to have compassion upon me, and 
to remove from me these pains which I suffer, for thou art 
a saint of God.' And in the middle of the night Saint Victor 
Foi. 32 6 considered the misfortune of the woman, j and he brought 
^^ unto her a cessation [of pain], and she lost consciousness; 
and her slave and her eunuch were close to her. And Saint 
Victor came unto her in a vision, and he was clad in. purple, 
and he emitted rays of light, and there was a staff of light 
in his hand. And he said unto her, 'If thou wishest to be 
healed [do this]. When thou risest up to-morrow morning 
take a little of the oil which is in the lamp that burneth 
before the altar of sacrifice, and with it do thou smear thy 
breasts, and the demon shall be sore troubled, and shall come 
out of them, and through this these pains shall cease. But 
take good heed that thou dost not display arrogance towards 
thy slave -woman, and take good heed that thou dost not in 
future walk haughtily and stiffneckedly, and take good heed 
to stretch out thy hand to the poor. For these sufferings 
have come upon thee because of thine uncharitableness, and 
because of thy pride.' 

And the woman became greatly disturbed, and she answered 
with fright, ' Who art thou who appearest in such a wonderful 
form, and surrounded with such great glory ? ' And he made 
answer in a gentle (or, sweet) voice, saying, ' I am Victor, the 
general of the Great King ' ; and when he had said these 
words she ceased to see him. And straightway she awoke 


from her dream, and she smelled a very strong sweet smell 
which filled the whole martyrium. And she said within 
herself, 'Verily this man who spake unto me was Saint 
Victor ; I am a sinful woman.' And straightway she woke 
up her men, and told them her dream. And when the 
morning" had come she went to the elder in the martyrium, 
and he gave her a little of the oil which was in the lamp. 
And when she had taken it into her hand she smeared her 
breasts therewith, saying, * In the Name of the | God of Saint Fol. 33 a 
Victor, whose glory I have been held worthy to see ; do Thou 5.*^ 
graciously grant unto me healing.' And immediately the 
demon became terrified, and he leaped out of her breasts in 
the form of a gryphon, and all the people saw him, and he 
was like unto a flame of fire. And straightway her breasts 
assumed their usual shape, and she cried out, saying, ' One 
is the God of Saint Victor ! ' And she gave splendid gifts to 
the martyrium, gold and very much silver, as a memorial 
of the healing which had taken place in her. Afterwards 
she went to her house to her kinsfolk, giving glory to God 
and to His holy martyr. 

And again it is necessary for us to tell you of another 
great miracle which took place through this holy man. And 
it came to pass that when the Emperor Honorius saw the 
healing which had taken place in his sister through 
Saint Victor he rejoiced exceedingly, and it pleased him to 
restore the apse of the altar chamber, and to decorate the 
woodwork of the martyrium with fine gold, as a memorial of 
the glory of the saint. And he caused handicraftsmen who 
were masters of their craft to be brought, and they began 
their work of decorating the chamber of the altar of sacrifice 
with gold. And whilst they were working on the woodwork, 
the Devil, who hateth that which is good, overturned one of 
the workmen whilst he was at work, and he fell to the 
ground. And the other workmen were afraid, and they cried 
out, saying, ' Lord, have mercy upon us.' And the Emperor 


and the other men who were below were greatly disturbed ] 
Fol. 33 b because of what had taken place. And behold, at the very 
^C" moment [when the workman beg-an to fall], Saint Victor 
appeared from heaven arrayed in great glory, and he laid hold 
of the hand of the workman before he reached the ground, and 
when he was still three cubits above it, and he held him 
suspended there. Then he went up with him to the wood- 
work, and set him down on his feet in front of the woodwork 
by the side of his fellow workmen ; and the workman had 
suffered no injury in any way, and no man had seen 
Saint Victor, with the exception of the workman. And 
when the Emperor and the multitude had seen the mighty 
miracle which had taken place they were afraid, and they 
cried out, ' One is the God of Saint Victor, and besides Him 
there is no other god, either in heaven or on the earth.' 
And when the workman had recovered from the attack of 
terror which had come upon him, he proclaimed to the 
Emperor and to all the people, saying, ' I saw a huge creature^ 
with his wing[s] spread out, and his eyes were filled as it were 
with fire, and he struck me with what he had in his hand, and 
threw me down. And whilst I was falling down, behold 
a man of light who was wearing the apparel worn by men of 
royal rank, and whose face was shining like the sun, laid 
hold of my hand before I could reach the earth : and he came 
up with me, and brought me into this place, and he made the 
Sign of the Cross over me, and he removed fear from me, 
saying, " Be not thou afraid, for I am Victor, on whose 
martyrium thou art working-." And straightway I ceased to 
see him.' 

And when the multitude had heard these thing's they cried 

out, saying-, ' One is the God of Saint Victor ! ' And thus 

Fol. 34 a by the zeal of the God-loving Emperor, and the might | of 

^"^ Saint Victor, the decoration of the woodwork in the chamber 

of the altar of sacrifice with fine gold and its inlaying with 

^ Literally 'porcupine'. 


very costly stones were completed. And now, O my beloved, 
ye see how great are the mighty deeds and wonders of 
Saint Victor, whose festival we are celebrating this day. 
And to every man who shall make supplication unto him 
with his whole heart, no matter what kind of sickness it is 
from which he is suffering, the saint will graciously bestow 
upon him healing. 

And again, there was a certain man in this city who was a 
patrician [in the service] of the Emperors, and who fell ill 
of a certain kind of sickness which was incurable ; and his 
whole body swelled up to such a degree that he resembled a 
pillar. And to see this man in such a state of wretchedness 
made one's heart to ache, for he lived in great tribulation, 
and he suffered excruciating pains, which were wellnigh 
unbearable. Often it would happen that thou wouldst find 
him sitting [on the ground], and his servant would be 
obliged to carry him to his house ; and his feet and his 
[other] members would burst from time to time, and eject 
large quantities of unclean matter. And he gave very much 
money to the physicians, but gained no relief thereby. And 
besides this the Emperors of Rome sent the archiators [to 
treat him], for he was a nobleman of high rank in the Palace, 
and others also used every effort to cure him, but he failed 
to find any relief whatsoever. And thus he continued to live, 
suffering these excruciating pains, until [one day] he heard 
of the mighty deeds and miracles which took place in the 
shrine of Saint Apa Victor. Then his servant lifted him up 
and carried him into the shrine of the holy man, and he laid 
him down before the altar of sacrifice, and he cried out by day 
and by night, ' O Saint Victor, look upon my humility and 
my sufferings, and graciously bestow healing upon me, for I 
am grievously tortured. Or let thy mercy come to me, and 
do thou make supplication to God on my behalf, | so that He Fol. 84; 
may take me out of this life [of suffering]. Behold, thou ^H 
seest my tribulation by day and by night.' 

s s 


And he lost consciousness for a short space of time. And 
behold, Saint Victor gave consideration to his miserable condi- 
tion, for he is a lover of mankind. And the sick man saw him 
in a dream apparelled in g-reat glory, and he was wearing- 
rich purple garments, and he was girded with a girdle of gold, 
and he shot forth from his person rays of light. And he said 
[unto the sick man] in the dream, ' Why art thou here in 
this condition?' And the sick man said unto him, ' Behold, 
thou seest my sufferings and my tribulations, and that I have 
drawn nig-h unto death.' And the holy man said unto him 
with a joyful face, 'I am he who shall cure thee, for thou must 
know that I have the power to do everything" throug-h the 
grace of God which is with me.' And he stretched out the rod 
which was in his hand, and he laid it upon the sick man, 
saying-, ' Healing- shall come to thee this day. But do not sin 
ag-ain, or evil which is worse than this shall befall thee ; and 
do not thou shew thyself haughty towards the poor.' And 
the sick man answered and said with trepidation, ' My lord, 
who art thou that appearest in this form ? I have never 
before seen any one like unto thee, whether it be Emperor or 
whether it be general in the Palace.' And he answered and 
said unto the man, * I am Victor, the general of the King of 
heaven.' And when he had said these thing-s unto him the 
man ceased to feel pain, and he ejected a mass of pus which 
was so abundant that it overflowed and soaked all his bed ; 
and he ceased to swell up, and became like unto a man who had 
never suffered from any skin disease at all. And he leaped up 
on his feet, and stood up, and he cried out, saying, ' One is 
the God of Saint Victor ! ' And when the multitudes who 
Fol. 35 a were gathered together inside the martyrium j saw the g-reat 
^^ miracle which had been wrought, they cried out, saying, 
' Blessed are we, because we are held to be worthy [to have] 
this pearl in our city, for he healeth our sicknesses and our 
diseases.' And the man g-ave gifts to the shrine of Saint Victor, 
both gold and silver, so that they might be distributed among 


the poor and the destitute. And he departed to his house 
ascribing glory to Grod, and he took care for his soul unto the 
day of his death. 

What can I say about the miracles which thou hast per- 
formed, O thou wearer of the crown of the Christ? And 
what tongue of flesh is there that is able to describe thy 
blessed estate, O thou valiant general ? Verily, if I were to 
pass the whole of my time in going through the miracles 
which thou hast wrought, I should be wholly unable to 
recount even a very small portion of them. O thou confessor 
and invincible athlete, who is there that is able to comprehend 
the full extent of thine honourable estate, and the wonderful 
things that have taken place in thy martyriuni ? For as it 
is impossible for a man to estimate the honourableness of this 
holy man^ so also is it impossible [to declare] the mighty 
deeds which have gone forth from his sanctuary, O thou 
veritable crown-bearer of the Christ, thou youth whose wisdom 
vanquished that of the trained orator! O thou who didst 
despise a kingdom in this world in order that thou mightest 
receive one which was more excellent and belonged to heaven, 
great is the glory which God hath given unto thee both in 
heaven and upon the earth ! [ 

As I have already said, the sweet odour of thee hath filled Fol. 35 b 
all the countries of the world, and men make mention of thy O 
name in every country, from the Camp wherein thou didst 
complete thy course even to the [region of the First] Cata- 
ract. And they ascribe glory unto thee throughout the 
world, saying that thou art the greatest of the martyrs, the 
more so because God hath made the [fame of the] wonders and 
miracles to go forth from thy martyrium into every place. 
And the wonders of healing exist for those who shall believe 
on thy name, and this selfsame gift cometh forth from thy 
martyrium and goeth from one end of the inhabited world 
to the other. If this be not so [in your opinion], hearken and 
I will shew you that it is. 


And it came to pass, they say, that in the heginning-, when 
the God-loving- Emperor Constantine built this very martyrinm 
wherein we are assembled this day in honour of Saint Apa 
Victor, a certain great general fell sick of a very severe 
disease. Now he was sixty years of age, and he suffered 
great pain in his inward parts, and he was unable to sleep ; 
and he was sick with the disease which the physicians call 
KA.'A.KHmiiuiiv.^ He had given many large sums of money 
to one physician after the other, without feeling any benefit 
from their treatment. On the contrary, he was in imminent 
danger of dying. Then he heard about the mighty deeds 
and miracles which took j)Iace in the martyrium of Saint 
Foi. n& a Victor in Antioch, and he rose up and went [ to Antioch. And 
^'^ he passed two days in the martyrium there, and did not 
receive healing. And on the night of the third day he felt 
a slight alleviation of the pain through the invincible power 
of God, and straightway Saint Victor came to him in a dream. 
He was in the form of a mighty general, and his face shot 
forth rays of light, and he said unto the sick general, ' If 
thou wishest to be made free of this disease, rise up quickly 
and depart to the martyrium [of Saint Victor] which is in 
Rome. Thou shalt drink the water which is in the vessel 
in the chamber of the altar of sacrifice, and thou shalt find 
healing. Was it because [my] martyrium which is in Rome 
is difficult [to reach] that thou didst come to this place? 
Didst thou not know that my power is in all the world, 
and that it is the selfsame gift of healing which is [to be 
obtained] in them all, by those who believe and do not halt 
between two opinions ? Didst thou not know that this self- 
same power permeateth my martyrium which is in Rome and 
that which is in Antioch? Why didst thou bring upon thy 
head the vexatious trouble of journeying over a sea of ocean 
to come to this place ? Didst thou not know that I have the 
power to heal in this place ? Rut I will not do this in this 
' A tumour (?), Kak\KHnci)Jix*k perhaps = xa^«os and otSrjfxa. 


place, and unless thou g-oest to my martyrium which is in 
Rome thou shalt [not] find healing, so that every one 
may know my power.' And the sick general trembling 
answered and said, ' My lord, w^ho art thou who appearest 
in this form, | and art surrounded with such great glory ?' Fol. 3<; i^ 
And he answered and said, ' I am Victor the general. I will 06 
heal thy body. I will give salvation to thy soul.' And 
straightway he awoke from his dream, and he was trembling 
exceedingly. And he said, ' Verily this is Saint Victor, who 
hath come to visit me.' And straightway his heart trembled, 
and he said, ' Forgive me, O my lord Saint Victor, because 
I was careless about going to thy shrine which hath been but 
recently built in my city, and came to this place.' And he 
awoke his servants at the moment when the light was 
coming, and the men who had come with him, and he told 
them about the dream which he had seen ; and then he gave 
great and splendid gifts to the martyrium which is in 

And after this he went up into a ship, and came to the 
city of Rome, and went into the martyrium of Saint Victor, 
and he lay down to sleep therein, being in great tribulation. 
And he made supplication to God and to the holy martyr, 
saying, ' O my lord Saint Victor, w^ho didst consider me to 
be worthy of the sight of thy glory in thy martyrium, which 
is in Antioch, | who didst command me to come to this place, Fol. 87 a 
I believe, O my lord, that thy power goeth through the O^ 
whole world, just as doth the sun which illumineth the 
inhabited world. Let thy mercy come upon me, and do thou 
graciously grant healing unto me, for I am suffering very 
greatly.' And when he had said these things he lay down 
until the evening. 

And afterwards he made them bring unto him a little 
water in the vessel from the altar, and he drank it, even as 
Saint Victor had told him to do, and immediately the God 
of Saint Victor brought unto him a cessation of the pain, 


and contrary to his usual custom he slept throug-h the whole 
night. And at the hour of dawn the martyr came unto him 
with great glory, and he said unto him with a joyful face, 
' Dost thou know me ? ' And the nobleman said unto him, 
Yea, my lord, I know thee. Thou art Saint Victor. It was 
thou who didst appear unto me in thy martyrium at Antioch, 
and thou didst send me to this place.' And the saint said 
unto him, ' Have I not already told thee that my might 
filleth every place, and that it is the selfsame power which 
abideth continually in all my martyriums, from [one] end of 
the earth to the other, and W'hich healeth every one who shall 
believe [in me] without doubt or hesitation ? Hast thou 
never heard that w^hich is written, "Everything is possible to 
him that believeth ? " ' i And the man answered and said unto 
Fol. 37?>the saint, 'I do believe, my lord, | that thy power filleth every 
ex place, but having heard concerning the mighty deeds which 
took place in thy martyrium which is in Antioch, I went 
[there] to seek after healing for my body.' The saint said 
unto him, 'As it is with my martyrium which is in Antioch, 
so is it with that which is in Rome, and [so is it with] all the 
churches in the earth which have been built in my name, 
from one end thereof to the other. My strength shall work 
in them to the very end of this age for him that shall believe 
in me. And I will heal [all] diseases, both those which 
are secret and those which are manifest, through the gracious 
gift which God hath given unto me, and unto all the saints. 
Now, therefore, behold I will bestow upon thee the gift of 
health of the body, but thou must pray at the same time for 
the health of thy soul, so that no evil may arise for thee from 
this [cause].' And when Saint Apa Victor had said these 
things to the man he hid himself from him. And the man 
■woke up in the morning, and he found that the diseased 
portion of his inward parts, that is to say, the hard ulcer, had 
burst, and he vomited from his month a very large quantity 
1 Mark ix. 23. 


of pus, and he became straightway just like one who was not 
diseased at all. \ And lie sent abroad tlie report of the things Tol. 38 a 
which Saint Victor had said unto him throug-hout the whole ^^ 
city. And from that day onwards the saint granted the gift 
of healing to every sick person, no matter what the sickness 
from which he was suffering, when he went into his shrine. 
And the man gave great gifts to the shrine of Saint Victor, 
and he went to his house, giving glory to God, In all his 
troubles he besought Saint Victor to be his helper, and he 
fasted and prayed until the day of his death. 

Ye see, O my beloved, how very great and mighty are the 
miracles of this holy man whose festival we are keeping this 
day, and that these mighty deeds are worked in all his 
martyriums for those who believe. As for us, let us believe 
with all our hearts on the mighty works and miracles of this 
holy man, in order that he may make supplication on our 
behalf to God. For whosoever shall disbelieve in the mighty 
works 0? the saint, not only shall they be of no benefit to 
him, j but his unbelief shall be unto him a source of con- Fol. 38 b 
demnation. However, let us not waste words, but let us oc 
return [to our subject] and describe unto you the following 
great miracle, which took place in the shrine of Saint Apa 
Victor, to the glory of God and of His saint. 

There was a man in this city whose name was Anastasius, 
and he was exceedingly rich, and he belonged to a noble 
family. And when this man had become very old in days, 
and was one hundred years old, he became sick of the disease 
which the physicians call elephantiasis. And his whole body 
dried up, and he became leprous, [as white] as the snow, and 
many times he felt shame before the men who looked npon 
him, for his body became covered all over with patches of 
spots like that of a leopard. And he was exceedingly grieved 
in heart over this matter, because he was ashamed to go into 
the Palace, and he did not appear in the market-place because 
of what had come upon him. After these things God put it 


Fol. 39a into his heart to g-o to the martyrium | of Saint Apa Victor, 
O^ and to make supplication unto him so that he might cure him 
of his disease altog'ether. For he used to see people who were 
suffering- from various kinds of disease, and whenever they 
went into his martyrium they obtained healing, and then 
they would depart to their own houses glorifying God. In 
this way then Anastasius rose up in faith, and he went into 
the shrine of Saint Apa Victor with his servants and with 
very many possessions, and he passed two days in the holy 
place making supplication to Saint Victor to be pleased to heal 
him of his leprosy, and he said, ' O Saint Victor, I believe 
with my whole heart that thou art able to heal me of this my 
leprosy. Help me, I pray thee, for I am ashamed, by reason 
of that which hath come upon me, to let men look at me.' 

And whilst he was passing these two days in the mar- 
tyrium, behold [there came in] a man who had phlegm in his 
eyes, and through the great quantity of granulation which 
covered them a white film had appeared in his eyes ; and he 
had ceased to see anything by means of his own sight. All 
the money which he had he had spent on the physicians, 

Fol. 39 h and he remained wholly uncured. j Finally, when he heard 
^*t about the mighty deeds of Saint Victor, he made some men 
to carry him into his martyrium, whilst he was in great pain, 
and they laid him on a bed which was near that of the leper. 
And he made entreaty to the God of Saint Victor, saying, 
' O my lord the general, have mercy upon me, and graciously 
bestow upon me the gift of light for my eyes.' And as con- 
cerning the miracle which took place at that time we shall 
certainly not hold our peace. That night God, Who hearken- 
eth unto every one that crieth out to Him in truth, was 
pleased to heal the two men at the same time through the 
intercession of Saint Victor, who doeth such miracles and 
mighty deeds as these. 

And it came to pass during that night, when the man who 
had the skin disease had eaten with his servants, and had 


lain down to sleep, that Saint Victor had compassion on the 
miserable state of the man with the skin disease and on the 
blind man, and he was pleased to make manifest his miracles. 
And he came to the man wdth the skin disease arrayed in 
great glory, and his face shone brightly, and he said unto 
him, ' Dost thou know who I am ? ' And the man answered, 
' Nay, I do not, my lord.' And the saint said unto him, 
' I am Victor, to whom thou didst make supplication this day. 
I am the father of the martyrium. Now, therefore, if thou 
dost wish to be cleansed from thy skin disease, thou shalt 
rise up early in the morning, and shalt take hold of the 
hand | of this blind man who is sleeping by thy side, and Fol^o . 
thou shalt lead him down to the pool of water which is by ^® 
the door of the martyrium, and ye two shall dip yourselves 
therein three times, in the Name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Then shalt thou see my power ; 
thy skin disease shall cease from thee, and the blind man 
shall see. Only take good heed not to be careless in respect 
of what hath been said unto thee, and thou shalt be made 
whole.' And when Saint Victor had said these things to the 
man wnth the skin disease, he came forth from him. Then 
straightway the man awoke from his dream, and he was in 
a confused and agitated state, and he smelt a very strong 
sweet smell round about his bed, and it was like unto the 
smell of the finest perfumed incense. And he said within 
himself, ' Veiily this man who came unto me was Saint Victor, 
and he came to bestow upon me graciously the gift of being 
made whole ' ; and he rejoiced exceedingly, and blessed God. 
But he shut up the matter in his heart, saying, ' I will tell no 
one at all about the vision ' ; and he waited to see the end of 
the matter. 

And when the light became stronger the man with the 
skin disease said unto the blind man, ' Peradventure thou 
wilt get up, and then we will go down to the pool and wash 
ourselves, for I believe by God and by His holy martyr, [that if 

T t 


we do,] He will graciously bestow upon us healing.' And the 
blind man said to the man with the skin disease, ' Whatso- 
ever thou wishest to do, that do, [but I cannot do this]. 
Behold, thou knowest the pain and tribulation which I endure. 
The truth is that I am afraid to wash, for the physicians 
ordered me not to allow water to touch my head.' Then the 
man with the skin disease said unto the blind man, ' Get up, 

Fol. 40 b let us [g-o and] wash. | God hath the power to remember us, 
n and He will bestow healing- upon us, who now suffer.' And 
the blind man was persuaded by [these] words. And the 
man with the skin disease took hold of his hand in the midst 
of the whole multitude, and they went down to the lake. 
And having fdled a large washing-bowl at the place for draw- 
ing water there, they dipped themselves in it three times, 
saying, ' In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Spirit, and of the holy martyr. Saint Victor.' And 
straightway the man with the skin disease gained relief, and 
his flesh became like unto that of a child. And as for the 
blind man, the white film which was in his eyes burst, and 
fell down into the water, and his sight was completely restored. 
And they cried out, saying, ' One is the God of Saint Victor, 
Who healeth every one by His holy power.' And the multi- 
tude who were gathered together in the martyrium, having 
heard [what had happened], rushed outside at once to see the 
great wonders which had taken place, and they cried out, 
saying, ' Great are the mighty deeds of God and Saint Victor. 
Great is the favour which God hath worked for us, in holding 
us to be worthy to have thy martyrium in our city.' Then 
when they had been told what had happened to them (i.e. the 
sick men), the man who had had the skin disease declared 
to them everything, and told them how Saint Victor had 

Fol. 41 a spoken to him in a dream. And the report | of this miracle 
11^ filled every place, and I myself saw it with my own eyes, 
I, the insignificant one, who am now addressing to you this 


And the man who had had the skin disease, and the blind 
man, both of whom had been healed by Saint Victor, remained 
in his martyrium and ministered there until the day of their 
death, and they g-ave dilig-ent attention to the welfare of their 
souls. And as for the lake wdierein they had washed, very 
many mig-hty works of God continued to take place therein, 
and they do so to this very day. So great a means of healing- 
is it that any man who is sick, w^hether he be sick of the 
palsy, or whether he be possessed of a devil, in short, if he be 
suffering' from any kind of sickness, immediately that he has 
bathed in that lake, he findeth healing- ; and these folk g-o to 
their houses g-lorifying- the God of Saint Victor, What shall 
I say about the thing-s which thou hast performed by thy 
righteous actions ? Who is there among all tlie philosophers 
of the world who is able to pronounce on thee an encomium 
which shall adequately praise thy merits, O thou who didst 
make of thy body a sacrifice, which was living, and was holy, 
and was acceptable, and was pleasing unto God ? Thou didst 
suffer greatly for the name of the Christ, O thou noble man, 
Apa Victor ! Great is the glory which God gave unto thee 
in heaven and upon the earth. Verily the word which is 
written is fulfilled, ' The sufferings of a time are not worthy the 
glory which shall be revealed unto us.'^ Great is the glory 
which God hath given unto thee, O holy general ! So great 
is it that to every man who calleth upon God in thy name | 
when he be in trouble of any kind, there cometh speedily the Fol. 41 b 
help of God. And this continueth to be so even to this day, nfj 
for He delivereth every man who maketh supplication unto Him 
with his whole heart from dangers of every kind. If ye do not 
[believe this], hearken and I will shew you that it is indeed so. 

And it came to pass that when the barbarians, who are 

called Saban, rose up against the country of ' Romania ', now 

they were as many as the sands of the sea, they captured the 

first part (frontier ?) of ' Romania ', and then they made ready 

^ Rom. viii. 18. 


a large fleet of ships to transport them from ' Romania ' to 
our country. And all the people, and all those men who 
were of senatorial rank, and all the common folk of Rome, 
and all those who were in the immediate districts, gathered 
themselves together, and they celebrated the ' Catholic 
Synaxis' in the shrine of Saint Victor, wherein we are at 
this very moment assembled. And the God-loving Emperor 
was there with the soldiers of his army. Now it was the 
festival of Saint Victor, and my Father Innocent also was 
there with his clergy. And when they had begun [to recite] 
the Communion Service with great solemnity and reverence, 
behold, certain letters which had been sent by the hand of the 
captain of the lightly armed skirmishing troops, who was 
called Roumentros, who had been sent by the eparch of the 
frontier of ' Romania ', were delivered to the Emperor, 'and 
they contained the following message : ' Haste thee, make 
ready the army, and come to us quickly, and help us, 
for behold the barbarians have captured the frontier of 
Armenia {sic).' 

And the Emperor was much disturbed ^ but his hope 

was fixed upon God, And when he had read the dispatch, 
straiglatway he wrote to tlae eparch, saying, ' Eear thou not, 
FoL 42 a I will come in f the morning of the morrow, and all the 
11^^ Roman folk with me.' And when the captain {vektarius) 
received the dispatch, he departed. And the Emperor and 
all the people were gathered together into the shrine of Saint 
Victor, together with the Archbishop and all the clergy, and 
they cast themselves down before the altar of sacrifice, 
saying, ' O Saint Victor the general, make supplication to 
God on our behalf, so that He may protect our country, and 
so that the godless barbarians may not have dominion over it.' 
And then they celebrated the great ' Catholic Synaxis ' with 
great fervour (?) until the tenth hour of the day. And the 
miracle that took place at that moment is one the mention 
^ Some words seem to be wanting here. 


of which must not be omitted. And when the service was 
ended, and the Archbishop had pronounced the benediction 
of peace over the people, and they were about to depart to 
their homes, behold, there arrived another great captain 
{yeletarius) w^ho had been sent to the Emperor with another 
dispatch. Now it contained glad tiding-s, and there was 
written therein thus : ' Peace be unto thee, O God-loving- 
Emperor! Be strong-, and of g-ood courag-e, for God hath 
fought for thee. Behold, the godless barbarians who revolted 
against thy sovereignty hath God destroyed with their own 
swords. Each one of them hath risen up against his neigh- 
bour, beginning at the second hour of this day, and they slew 
each other, and there is not one of them left; on the contrary, 
all are dead. Behold, all their harness and trappings and 
their horses j we have sent to thy majesty. Therefore give Foi. 42 h 
thyself no trouble, and do not let thy mind be disturbed, n-x 
O thou honour of the soldiers, for it is God w^ho fighteth on 
our behalf with thee. "Who shall resist us ? ' And when the 
Emperor had taken this letter [in his hand], he read it out to 
the congregation before they departed, xind they rejoiced 
exceedingly, and were verj^ glad, and they knew immediately 
that it was Saint Victor the general who had destroyed the 
barbarians. Now they had begun to make supplication to him 
at the second hour of the day. And they all cried out with 
a loud voice, and they ascribed glory to the God of Saint 
Victor, and the barbarians have never again attempted to 
invade ' Romania ' to this day. 

Ye see, O my beloved, that the power of the holy general 
whose festival we are celebrating this day is great. Let us 
then cease from every work which is evil, and all violence, 
and all irregular behaviour, and all the guileful j deeds which Fol. A'\a 
we are in the habit of committing, and let us all make ^^ 
ourselves sons of his. Verily, O Saint Victor the general, 
thou makest us to rejoice and be glad this day more than 
those who make merry in the place wherein they drink wine, 


and thou hast placed before ns the table of thy holy feast 
which is filled with all good things. And as for us, let us 
reach out for them, let us taste them, so that we may rejoice 
and be glad. Let us remember the sufferings which our 
Lord suffered for us and His holy martyrs, and let us briug 
forth fruit to God according to what is meet, each one accord- 
ing to his pow'cr, one in purity, another in prayer and fasting, 
another in patient endurance, another in long-suffering, another 
in love and in [shewing] love to strangers. In short, let us 
never pass a moment without bearing fruit, so that we may 
become a well-cultivated field of God, and let us spread 
abroad in us the fruits of righteousness. Hearken unto the 

Foi. 43 & wise man Paul | the Apostle, who saith, ' I beseech you, by the 
TIC mercy of God, that ye present your bodies a sacrifice, livings 
holy, [and] acceptable unto God.'^ 

How, and in what way, shall we present our bodies, O Saint 
Victor, unless w^e guard our bodies and our hearts against all 
kinds of deceit, and all kinds of fornication, for it is written, 
' Without purity, no man shall see God.' ^ And let us watch 
our tongues so that they speak not slanderous gossip, and 
blaspheme not, and utter no words of w^antonness and scurrility. 
And thou shalt teach thy hands to pray, and shalt keep them 
from acts of theft and violence, and thou shalt guard thy feet 
from wandering from the door of the house of God. And 
thou shalt w^atch thine eyes so that they lust not, and do not 
give a cause for offence in the part [of the church] where the 
women are. When thou shalt do all these things it shall 
happen that thou art presenting thy body unto God as a 

Fol. 44 a sacrifice, even as did Saint Victor, | who rejected the world and 
IV7 everything which was in it because of his love towards God. 
Hearken unto the Prince of the Apostles, Peter, who saith, 
' I beseech you, O my brethren, as strangers and sojourners to 
abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the things in the 
soul.' ^ Now are we not, O my beloved, mere sojourners upon 
I Rom. xii. 1. ' Compare Matt. v. 8 ; 1 John iii. 2, 8. ^ 1 Pet. ii. 11. 


the earth ? Doth not a man walk like a phantom ? He 
o^athereth together, but he knoweth not for whom he 

Since then we are indeed strang-ers and sojourners upon 
the earth, it is seemly for us to remember our everlasting 
habitation, that is to say, the Kingdom of God, into the 
which, if we keep the commandment which hath been given 
unto us, we shall enter happily. AVe were born not to become 
inheritors of the earth, but to make earth inherit it (i. e. the 
Kingdom) ; for the house of every man is the earth. Inasmuch 
as when we come into the world we weep, so also when we 
depart we weep; | when we come into it we heave a sigh, Fol. iib 
and when we depart we heave a sigh. Inasmuch then as ^^ 
from the very first moment in which man is born into this 
world he weepeth, even so also when he cometh forth from the 
body he weepeth ; he is born with suffering, [and] departeth 
with suffering. For there is nothing w^hich ruleth the life 
of a man except misery and sorrow. Hast thou not heard 
that which is written, ' Let not your heart be heavy through 
satiety, and drunkenness, and the anxieties of life, because 
that day shall come upon you like a snare ; for it shall come 
upon every one who dwelleth upon the face of the earth ? ' ^ 
whether he be king, or governor, or rich man, or poor man. 
No man whatsoever shall escape from that awful necessity, 
which is full of fear. And again, have ye not heard that 
which is written, ' Possessions shall profit nothing in the day 
of wrath ; it is righteousness [only] that delivereth a man 
from death ? ' '^ Set not thine affections on worldly possessions, 
or on the pomp of riches. Bind not thy soul to dominion 
and power, or to gold or silver, for all these things afterwards 
become fetters to thee ; for possessions have no quality which 
will make them to remain in this world, but sins will precede 
us, and will take their stand at the throne of God. Hast 
thou never heard what our Lord spake, ' Watch, for ye know 
» Luke xxi. 34, 35. 2 Prov. x. 2 ; xi. 4. 


neither the day nor the hour ? ' ^ Let ns therefore watch by 
day and by night so that we may not let our bodies be 
without God for one moment. | 

Foi. 45 a And moreover, we do not know when they will seek after 
'^^ us. Let us not bind ourselves to the phantoms of wealth, for 
thou knowest not when it shall be demanded from thee. 
Hast thou not heard what is written, ' A man shall not 
redeem a man, and a brother shall not release a brother ; he 
shall not g-ive [himself] to God in exchangee for him as the 
price of the redemption of his soul ? ' ^ This inforraeth [us] 
that a rig-hteous father cannot obtain the release of a sinful 
son, nor a rich brother obtain the release of a poor brother, 
nor a righteous son obtain the release of a sinful father ; but 
every man shall receive according to what he hath done. 

Now therefore, O my beloved, distribute your riches and 
possessions in alms and oblations to the poor, in order that ye 
may obtain the happiness which shall be without end. Put 
not your confidence in the riches of this world, and do not 
place any reliance on gold or on silver. Hast thou never 
hearkened unto Solomon, who saith, ' I hate all the labour for 
which I had suffered under the sun, because I am obliged to 
leave it to the man who shall come after me ? ' ^ Now the 
meaning of these words is that the senseless man saith in his 
soul, With pain and difficidty I gather together [possessions] 
for my children, in order that they may find means whereby 
to live after my death. O thou fool, where dost thou obtain 

Fol. 45 & the knowledge j that thy son shall live after thee and inherit 
^ ^^y possessions, or that he shall live a very long time and 
spend them all ? Shall not God take care of thy son without 
thy help ? Is it not God Who brought thee up, and shall He 
not also bring up thy son ? In the day on which thou wast 
brought into the world, was not an obolus also made with thee ? 

* Compare Matt. xxiv. 42 ; xxv. 13 ; Mark xiii. 35 ; Luke xxi. 36 ; Acts 
XX. 31. 

^ Compare Ps. xlix. 7. ^ Eccles. ii. 18. 


Now, therefore, hath God graciously given unto thee the 
larg-e amount of wealth which thou hast in order that thou 
mayest rest and enjoy thyself in this world and in the next. 
But Satan hath shut thy heart, and doth not allow thee 
to he generous towards the poor ; because of this thou shalt 
receive great and never-ending punishments — because of 
thine unbelief. For we see very many rich men gathering 
together possessions with great toil and suffering, and mer- 
chants building large houses for themselves, and [collecting] 
possessions and substance in abundance, and gardens, and 
fields, and large numbers of cattle, and great quantities of 
household stuff, and very large sums of money, and they say 
that they are laying up a store for their children. And 
whilst they have such thoughts as these in their minds, their 
children are snatched out of their hands whilst they are 
babies, and strangers reap the benefit of their labours, and 
they themselves depart to the throne of God being naked. 
They have not | sent on one good work before them, neither is Fol. ic> 
there any gift in their hands, and they curse the day in which "^^^ 
they were born into the world. Say not in thy blindness of 
heart, ' When I am about to go forth from the body, I will 
write my will so that my children and my kinsfolk may give 
alms on behalf of my soul.' O thou senseless one, thou very 
great fool, dost thou not know that when thou shalt go forth 
from the body, thou wilt not be like even unto the man who is 
lord of one obolus? and moreover, no man will ever remember 
thee again. Thou wilt not have with thee the money which 
thou hast heaped up. Thou wilt not have with thee the 
granary which is full of grain. Thou wilt not have with 
thee thy vineyards. Thou wilt not have with thee the houses 
which thou hast built. Nay, thou wilt be a stranger unto 
them all. They will have ceased to be thine, and will have 
become things which belong to others. If they wish they 
will give to thee ; if they wish not they will not give to 

u u 


Hast thou never hearkened unto the holy man Job, sayin^-, 
' When I came out of my mother's womb I was naked, and 
I will depart naked.'' Also the Apostle crieth out, saying-, 
' We broug-ht nothing- with us into this world, and we shall 
take nothing [with us when] we depart.'^ And David saith, 
' When their spirit cometh out of them they return to their 
earth.''' O wretched man, how and in what way art thou 
benefited by all these cares and all these anxieties ? Now, 
thou dost know the place where thou wast born, but thou 
dost not know the place where thou wilt die. Thou knowest 
how many years thou hast lived up to this present time, but 
thou hast no knowledge of how many thou hast yet to live. 
Thou knowest in what way thy parents who begat thee died, 
[but thou dost not] know in what manner thou wilt die, 
rol^46 1) Now, therefore, O man, \ take advice, and let my counsel be 
"^I^^"^'^^ pleasing unto thee. Do thou redeem thy sins by charity, and 
thy lawlessness by gifts of alms to the poor, in order that thou 
mayest have enjoyment in the riches which do not come to an 
end. Send on gifts in front of thee before thou dost g-o forth 
from the body, so that thou mayest depart to meet the Christ 
with joy. For when a man is about to meet a king of this 
world, and he would find favour before him, he sends all gifts 
on before him, so that the king may receive his person. How- 
much more is it meet for us to send on before us g-ifts and 
alms to the King- of the Universe, who is surrounded by 
terror and trembling, Solomon said, ' Cast all thy possessions 
before thee. Give alms according as thou hast the power. 
Say thou not, I have nothing to give.'* Remember the poor 
widow woman who cast the two mites into the treasury, and 
the Christ justified her, saying, ' She hath given all her 
means of living,' ^ And again He said, ' Whosoever shall give 
one of these little ones a cup of cold water only in the name 

1 Job i, 21. 2 1 Tim. vi. 7. 3 ps. civ. 29 ; cxlvi, 4. 

* Compare Prov. iii. 27, 28, ^ Luke xxi, 4. 


of a disciple, Amen I say unto you, that he shall in no wise 
lose his wage/ ^ 

Be not thou careless of thy salvation, O man, because of 
the material things of this life, for they will not assist (?) us 
in this world to the [end]. But there is a [worse] evil that 
can be, namely, when we have come forth [from this world], 
we may become as if we had never entered into it.' 1 Remember Fol. 47 a 
thou the hour wherein the sickness of death shall come upon q£j 
thee. Thou shalt cast thyself down on thy bed, and thou 
shalt say, ' I am sick this day.' After a very short interval 
the sickness shall become more severe on thee, and a violent 
fever shall lay hold upon the wretched flesh of thy body, and 
such excruciating pains and sufferings shall seize thee that 
thy normal condition of mind and body shall be disturbed. 
And thy tongue shall shrink to nothing in thy throat, and 
thy words shall dwindle in thy mouth, and thy throat shall 
close up, and no nourishment whatsoever shall be able to pass 
through it. And the light in thine eyes shall become less 
and less, and the sweat shall break out and cover thy face, and 
very great and bitter bile shall fill thy body, and the treat- 
ment of thine eyes by the physician shall cease to be effective, 
for they shall turn round, and become crooked, and little by 
little they shall become blind to the light. And thou shalt 
ask those who come to visit thee, saying, 'What time is it ?' 
for thy perception of things shall cease within thee. For 
darkness and mistiness shall cover over thine eyes, and thy 
face shall change its colour and become greenish-grey, and thy 
hair shall perish, and the veins, and tendons, and sinews of thy 
hands and feet shall dry up, and thy heart and thy soul shall 
lose their strength by imperceptible degrees. And thou 
shalt gaze out of thine eyes and shalt see the Powers with 
frio-htful faces which have come for thee, and they shall make 
haste to carry thee to Him that created thee. And when 

1 Matt. X. 42 ; Mark ix. 41. ^ Rendering doubtful. 



thou slialt see them thou shalt open thy mouth, and thou 
shalt deliver up thy spirit into the hands of him that shall 
come for thee. O what a marvellous thing is this ! O how 
terrible is this necessity, which is more awful than any other 
necessity that is upon the earth ! O how terrible is this 
tribulation, which is the greatest of all tribulations, and which 
is more fearful than death itself! And finally they will take 
Foi. 47 6 thy soul, and will set it before the awful throne of God, \ and 
it shall receive according to what it hath done, whether it be 
good, or whether it be evil. 

O Paul, thou wise man of the Apostles, thy words are 
exceedingly sweet ! For when all the men whom God hath 
created, from Adam, the first man, to the man who is begotten 
this day, shall go forth from the body, their souls shall be 
taken and shall be set before the throne of God, whether 
they be the souls of children months old, or whether they 
be the souls of those who are years old, and they shall do 
homage to the Righteous Judge, and He shall pass sentence 
upon them before they are removed to the places of which 
they are worthy. And again, in the Day of the Resurrection, 
their souls shall rise, having suffered not destruction, and the 
soul of every one shall return to his body, and they shall 
all receive according to what they have done, whether it be 
good, or whether it be evil. And we shall be examined and 
questioned concerning everything which we have done in this 
place of sojourning, even to the slightest word which we have 
uttered in jest. And w^e shall be questioned, moreover, con- 
cerning the thoughts which have passed through our hearts, 
according to that which our Master Craftsman the Christ 
spake, saying, ' Let not any light, silly speech issue from 
your mouths, for ye shall be obliged to give an account 
concerning them in the Day of the Judgement.' ^ Blessed 
shall they be who shall rise up in the Resurrection of Life, 
for they shall reign as kings with the Christ ! Woe be unto 
' Matt. xii. 36. 


tliose who shall be condemned to die a second time because of 
their evil deeds ! When the Righteous Judg-e hath ascended 
the throne, what lie hath brought (?) shall be reckoned up (?), 
The tares shall be burned up in the tire which cannot be 
extinguished, but the wheat shall be gathered together into 
His granary, that is to say, into the kingdom which is in the 
heavens, j 

Now, therefore, let us turn ourselves, and let us repent of FoL48 a 
our sins before inquisition shall be made of us concerning ^'^ 
them. Remember that it is a fearful thing to fall into the 
hands of the living God.^ Shew me what all these pains (?) ^ 
and all these sufi'erings are worth. Are not three cubits of 
earth [the length] of our everlasting abode ? Whom wilt thou 
gather together [therein] ? To whom wilt thou act as an 
usurer ? Whom wilt thou ill-treat ? Shew me who will send 
these things down unto thee in Amente? Remember that 
thou art not like unto thy Lord, but that thou hast been sent 
to live upon the earth for one day only, and that thou art like 
unto a hireling, who is hired daily. And whether thou eatest, 
or whether thou drinkest, or whether thou fastest, or whether 
thou art hungry, or whether thou art thirsty, the sun wall set 
every day, and the period of thy life will become less day by 
day. And when the number of thy days shall be fulfilled, 
there shall not be added to thee a single hour. Man is 
absolutely a thing of naught. He is a man to-day, to-morrow 
he is dust and ashes. Man is a creature who eateth and 
drinketh this day, but to-morrow his mouth is closed. He 
who eateth at this m omenta, and who batheth in the bath, 
and who anointeth himself this day with sweet-smelling 
unguents of the finest quality, is to-morrow rolled into the 
tomb, wherein dust taketh the place to him of sweet-smell- 
ing unguents. He who to-day sleepeth on the roof (or, 
verandah) of his house clothed in garments of byssus is 
to-morrow cast forth into the tomb among the dead animals, 
» Heb. X. 31. * -xoXjuiec is found again on p. 81, 1. 19. 


which surround him with their bodies, and he is left in a state 
of misery. 

O miserable man, eating and drinking- shall not deliver 
thee this day. Why will not the possessions of riches deliver 
Foi. 48 & thee, I and work healing- to a small degree on thee? Why 
•^J^ (w) will not the phantoms of riches deliver thee from these great 
necessities? Hast thou never heard about this foolish rich 
man, who was like thyself, and who said within himself, 
' Thou hast many good things laid up for thee for very many 
years to come ; take thine ease, eat, drink, make merry ? ' ^ 
for he thought that he would pass a very long time upon the 
earth. But the sentence of God came upon him straightway, 
saying, ' Thou fool, thy soul shall be taken away from thee 
this very night, and these things which thou hast prepared, 
unto whom shall they belong ? ' And this is the case of 
every one who gathereth in, and who is not a rich man in 
God. How then, O thou fool, are not thy granaries, which 
are filled full, unable to deliver thee this day ? Why do not 
thy garments made wholly of silk and byssus deliver thee 
this day? Why do not the possessions which thou hast 
gathered together restrain the sentence of God which hath 
come upon thee saying, ' They shall take away thy soul 
this night ' ? Hast thou never heard [the words] which 
David [spake], ' They shall leave their riches unto others, 
and their tombs shall be their houses for ever.' ^ The wise 
man Solomon spake, saying, ' Leave all thy property behind 
thee, for there is neither knowledge nor understanding in 
Amente,'* the place whereunto thou shalt depart ' ; that is 
to say, 'When thou shalt go forth from this world, thou 
wilt not have the power to order anything rightly, nay, those 
things which thou wouldst take with thee are the very 
things on account of which thou shalt be judged.' Shew me 
Fol. 49a therefore, O thou Ibol, what all these pains (?),* | and [all] 

1 1 Luke xii. 19 ff. « Ps. xlix. 10, 11. s Eccles. ix. 10. 

* "SoXiiec is found again on p. 80, 1. 2. 


these sins [are worth], for thou addest sin to sin, and lawless- 
ness to lawlessness, and guile to guile, and strife to strife. 
Dost thou not remember that which is written, ' The judge- 
ment is merciless for the man who hath not shewn mercy,' ^ 
and ' Remember that man is like unto a shadow, and that he 
bringeth his days to a close very speedily ' ? ^ 

Now the whole life of a man is like unto the vapour^ of 
a caldron (?) which maketh itself visible for a little time, and 
afterwards perish eth ; and this is especially true in the case of 
the man who is a sinner. There is no profit whatsoever in 
the life of the man who worketh evil, nor, moreover, shall 
he be found in the place whereto he shall depart, but he 
shall go forth with the sufferings that are sufferings indeed. 
And if the rich man be a sinner, that fact shall be of no 
benefit to him. Hast thou never heard [the words] which 
Solomon [spake], saying, ' He who hath come forth in vanity, 
shall also depart again in vanity ; he who hath come forth in 
grief, shall depart again in grief,' ^ even as it is written, 
' There shall be no joy to the wicked man, saith the Lord.' "" 
And again, ' The hope of the wicked man shall perish.' ^ And 
again, ' The wicked man shall be like unto the dust which the 
wind driveth along before it on the face of the ground.' "^ 

Shew me now, O sinner, what kind of pleasure is it which 
cometh to thee during thy whole life ? If thou sayest, ' I have 
been a rich man all my life, and I have passed my time as one, 
and I have enjoyed myself thoroughly well,' then I shall say 
unto thee very gravely, ' What kind of pleasure was it that 
came to thee during all the time wherein thou wast living in 
sin ? ' If thou art rich in gold and in silver, what advantage 
hast thou therein, for thou wast produced from the earth? 
Verily, such a man eateth and drinketh to-day, but to- 
morrow he is carried off in the midst of his riches, and his 

1 Jas. ii. 13. 2 ps, cxliv. 4. s Read n^goA (?). 

* Eccles. vi. 4. ^ Isa. xlviii. 22. « Prov. xi. 7, 

■^ Compare Job xxi. 18 ; Ps. i. 4 ; Hos. xiii. 3. 


mouth is closed, and from this time onwards he will never 
eat ag-ain. | 
Fol. 49 b Shew me, O sinful man, what kind of rest it is which thou 
•^I^ findest. Thou dost occupy thyself all thy time in lending- 
money at usury, and in trafficking in merchandise. Thou art 
filled with anxious care by day and by night, even as is the 
man who lacketh bread, and there is nothing about thee 
which alfordeth thee comfort (or, consolation) ; on the con- 
trary, thy whole life is one long grief. Thou buildest houses, 
and stalls for sheep and cattle, and baths, thou plantest vine- 
yards, thou becomest a merchant, and sailest the seas with 
thy wares, and yet thou art at all times like unto the man 
who is in his death agony. Thou dost oppress the poor, and 
dost deceive the stranger, and dost rob the houses of widows, 
and amusesfc thyself by day and by night, and yet the bread 
which thou eatest is like that of every other man. And whilst 
thou art occupied in doing these things the period of thy life 
which is appointed unto thee cometh to an end, and thou art 
rejected, like a sour grape, and they bear thee away. And 
the possessions which thou hast heaped together shall remain 
on this earth, and the sins which thou hast committed shall 
go before thee to the throne of God. And the images shall 
provide the proofs of thy folly, and the houses which thou 
hast built others shall dw^ell in. And as for thy soul, because 
of thy lawless behaviour they shall carry it away into the 
outer darkness. From the vineyards which thou hast planted 
others shall gather in the grapes, and thou thyself in Amentc 
shalt eagerly desire that the juice thereof be dropped upon 
thy tongue to cool it, even like thy brother Nineveh (?). 

Shew me now, O thou man who art merciless and a sinner, 
what advantage there was to thee in thy being born into the 
w^orld, whether in thy life, or whether in thy death, unless it 
was the punishments which thou didst heap up on account of 
thy sins ? In thy lifetime thou didst amuse thyself by day 
and by night, and thou wast weary because of the multitude 


of thy possessions, and at thy death thoxi didst depart to the 
punishment which is never-ending-, in exchang-e for thy 
wickedness. Moreover, | if the sinner be a poor man, thou Fol. 50 a 
wilt find that he wovketh both by day and by night because '^{^ 
of the insistence of his poverty. And thou wilt find his son 
hungry and naked, and his wife sick and afilicted with the 
suffering of infirmity, and thou wilt find them quarrelling 
and cursing each other, and there is no peace at all between 
them. They are occupied by day and by night, they live in 
tribulation with their children. And the man longeth for 
death a thousand times over because of the suffering which is 
inside him. He seeth the poverty and suffering of his wife, 
and the misery of his children, and he committeth sin yet 
more and more, and he committeth thefts, and sweareth false 
oaths, even as it is written, 'Poverty humbleth a mau.'^ And 
not only doth it reduce him to humility, but it maketh him 
to commit fraudulent acts, and works which God hateth, for 
he wisheth to take home something to his wife and his 
children. In this manner he never ceaseth to be absorbed 
with the cares of this life all his days. He addeth sin to sin, 
and he spendeth his life in doing this until the appointed 
span of his life cometh to an end. Then he is carried away 
suddenly, heavily laden with the load of his sins, and he 
cometh forth into poverty, a poverty which is never-ending, 
and into great suffering. Shew me now what kind of 
benefit it is to a man of this kind to be born into the world, 
for there is nothing in it but suffering, and wretchedness, and 
sorrow. It was concerning such a man that were written 
the words, ' He who hath come in emptiness (or, vanity) shall 
depart in emptiness (or, vanity), and his name shall be pro- 
claimed in the darkness,' ^ whether he be rich or poor. Woe 
be unto those who are born into the world, for the deceitful 
deeds (?) which they have done in the world shall be a 
punishment for them. What comfort (or, consolation) shall 
^ Compare Prov. x. 15. * Eccles. vi. 4. 

X X 


there be to the man who shall die in his sins ? There is 

nothing for him except suffering" and sorrow in this world 

Fol. 50 6 and in the next, j Hast thou not heard what is written in the 

^X [Book of] Isaiah the prophet, ' The sinner that shall live for 

one hundred years shall be accursed ? ' ^ 

But tell me, O thou man of sin, when it was that thou 
didst enjoy thyself. Didst thon, peradventure, enjoy thyself 
in thy mother's womb ? If so, what kind of enjoyment hadst 
tbou? Thou wast shut up in the darkness and in the 
humour of her body, and thou didst not know when it was 
day, or when it was night. Didst thou, peradventure, enjoy 
thyself when thou earnest forth from thy mother's womb ? 
If thou didst, what kind of enjoyment hadst thou ? For 
from the moment wherein thou wast brought forth thou didst 
cry and wail. Hadst thou been comfortable thou wouldst not 
have wept, for wee'ping belongeth to suffering and pain. 
Didst tho\i, peradventure, enjoy thyself when thou wast 
being suckled at the breasts of thy mother ? If thou didst, 
what kind of enjoyment was it ? Thou didst weep at all 
times, and thou hadst no heart. Didst thou, peradventure, 
enjoy thyself when thou wast a small child ? If thou didst, 
what kind of enjoyment was it ? Thy face was cast down at 
all times to the earth, thou didst crawl about on thy hands 
and feet, thy mouth was always wet with the saliva which 
trickled from it, and when a beast might have attacked thee 
and killed thee thou wast ignorant of it. Didst thou, perad- 
venture, rejoice when thy Jegs gained firmness, and thou 
couldst walk? If thou didst, what kind of enjoyment was 
it ? Thy parents taught thee [first], and then they sent 
thee to the master craftsman that he might teach thee a 
trade whereby thou mightest earn a living. Didst thou, 
peradventure, rejoice when thou didst grow up and arrive at 
man's estate ? If thou didst, what kind of enjoyment was it ? 
The lust of early manhood which was in thee was fighting 

1 Isa. Ixv. 20. 


ag-ainst thee, and never for one moment did it cease to g-oad 
thee. Didst thou, peradventure, enjoy thyself when thou 
didst take a wife ? Nay, nay, thou couldst not enjoy thyself, 
for thou didst burden thyself with heavy cares. Didst thou, 
peradventure, enjoy thyself when thou didst beg-et children ? 
If thou didst, j what kind of enjoyment was it? Thou didst Fol. 51 
load thyself with cares both by day and by nig-ht. For the 4** 
man wdio hath married a wife and hath begotten children 
hath never a moment's peace ; on the contrary, his head is 
always burdened with cares, especially if he be a poor man, 
for then his tribulations are doubled.^ 

Didst thou, peradventure, enjoy thyself when thou didst 
become an old man ? If thou didst, what kind of enjoyment 
was it ? Thy bones became broken, the light of thine eyes 
was extinguished, thy teeth became loose and incapable of 
chewing food, thy heart ceased to have perception and to 
understand a word of wisdom, thy nerves, sinew^s, and tendons 
of the body failed, and ceased to be able to work without 
difficulty. Thy mouth lost its shape and was unable to utter 
words distinctly, thy voice became feeble, and the ears lost 
their power to hear. All these things came upon thee in 
thine old age, but more especially there came great* tribulation 
of heart, because thou wast drawing nigh to the grave, and 
thou knewest not how long men would enquire after thee. 
Wilt thou, peradventure, rejoice when the span of life that 
hath been allotted to thee hath come to an end, when thou 
must go before God ? What kind of enjoyment wilt thou 
have when that moment cometh ? Thou wilt cast thyself 
down upon [thy] bed in thy tribulation of heart, a great 
wave of heat will envelop thee, and the attack of sickness 
will become more violent, and thou wilt heave sighs over thy 
sins, because thou hast no g-ood deeds to thy credit. Thou 
wilt weep for thy little children who shall become orphans, 

^ With this paragraph compare Athanasius ' On the Soul and Body ' 
(Budge, Coptic Ilotnilies, pp. 264, 265). 


and thou wilt be greatly disturbed because of the calamity 
that hath come upon thee. Thou wilt look at the Powers 
with terrifying- faces which have come after thee, and thou 
wilt sig-h over the end of thy life, because it hath drawn nig-h 
so speedily. Peradventure thou wilt rejoice, O man, when 
thou standest before the throne of God ? What kind of 
enjoyment wilt thou have [there] being- laden w4th thy load 
Fol. 51 b of sins I and having- not one g-ood deed before thee ? 
^^ And the aveng-ing- ang-els (or, executioners) shall seize 
thy soul, the ilames of fire shooting- out from their eyes, and 
shall cast thee down, and shall g-nash their teeth at thee ; 
and thy sins shall follow thee closely, and shall be thy 
accusers. Whither wilt thou turn thy face, O wretched 
man ? What manner of place wilt thou look for in order to 
find rest therein ? Thou shalt find it neither on the rig-ht 
hand nor on the left. Behold the poor whom thou hast 
wrong-ed ! Behold those who were in misery, and the strangers, 
whom thou didst defraud and eat up what goods they had ! 
Behold the false oaths ! Behold the slanderings ! Behold 
the hatred ! Behold the envy ! Behold the contentions ! Be- 
hold the impurities ! Behold the pollutions ! Behold the 
fornications ! Behold the murders, and all the rest of the 
evil deeds which thovi hast committed ! Then, at that moment, 
the Judge shall cry out, ' Cast him into the outer darkness, 
where there is weeping and gnashing of teeth.' ^ 

This is the end of all the men wdio are sinners, and who 
have not repented of their sins before their deaths. Behold, 
I have made the matter quite clear to you, and have shewn 
yoii that there is no profit in the life of man who is born 
into this world. If thou wishest for salvation, and wouldst 
inherit life, haste thee and redeem thy sins by means of acts 
of charity and by works of compassion to the poor, so that 
thou mayest enjoy thyself in the world wherein there are 
joy and gladness. And even if thou hast committed every 
1 Matt. xiii. 42 ; xxv. 30. 


kind of sin, turn thou back and repent, and God shall forg-ive 
thee, for He is compassionate, and He loveth mankind, and 
sheweth pity for the wickednesses of those who return unto 
Him. I For He saith, 'I do not desire the death of theFol.52a 
sinner, hut rather that he should turn back from his evil P 
way, and repent and live.'^ And ag-ain [He saith], 'If the 
transgressor hath turned back from his wickedness, and doeth 
righteousness, I will no longer remember the wickednesses 
which he hath committed, but he shall live through the 
righteousness which he hath done.' ^ [And He saith], ' Turn 
ye back to Me, O ye children who have gone afar off, and 
I will heal you of your wounds.' ^ [And] He saith by His 
mouth which is full of life, 'I have not come to invite the 
righteous, but the sinners to repentance.' ^ And again, ' Come 
unto Me every one who is suffering, and is laden, and I will 
give rest to you.' ^ 

Thus thou mayest see, O man, the love for man which God 
[sheweth] towards us. Finally, waste not day after day, 
month after month, and year after year, for the span of life 
which hath been allotted to thee is coming to an end, and 
thou must depart, laden with the load of thy sins, and thou 
wilt curse the day wherein thou wast born. I liave declared 
all these things out of love for you, and because of the verse 
which is written, ' Man is born unto trouble.' ^ Now it was 
because the prophet thought that there was no profit in a 
man's life, but only suffering and misery, that he said, ' Man 
is born unto trouble, and his days pass quickly.' 

Now as concerning the righteous, their whole life is joy 
and gladness, and since they have been born unto blessedness, 
they shall also depart to the blessedness which is perfect. 
Verily, happy and blessed is the righteous man who is born 
into the world ! In very truth this is the man unto whom 

1 Ezek. xviii. 23 ; xxxiii. 11. 2 Ezek. xviii. 27. 

s Jer. iii. 22 ; xxx. 17. ■* Matt. ix. 13 ; Mark ii. 17 ; Luke v. 32. 

» Matt. xi. 28. « Job v. 7. 


the building which he hath made in [this] world shall be 
Fol. 52 6for profit. Blessed is the man who is rig-hteous j and 
P^ merciful, for he shall eat of the g-ood thing-s of the earth, 
and he shall enjoy refreshing- in the king-dora that is in 
the heavens with the Patriarchs Abraham, and Isaac, and 
Jacob, and Job, and the other believing- men. And blessed 
is the poor man who giveth thanks, and who is meek and 
gentle, for he shall go forth from the poverty of this world, 
and shall receive riches which are never-ending. In very 
truth this is the man whose sorrows shall come to an end, 
and who shall inherit the rest that shall never end, even 
as it is written, ' Blessed are the poor in spirit, for to them 
belongeth the kingdom which is in the heavens.' ^ And 
again, ' Blessed is the man whom Thou shalt receive to Thy- 
self, O Lord.' 2 And again, 'Better is one day inside Thy 
courts than one thousand [passed] outside them.'^ 

Behold now, we say these things unto you, O my beloved, 
for the admonition of the soul, and I have made my discourse 
somewhat lengthy. I know, however, that the tears which 
have come forth from your eyes shall become unto you a 
fountain of salvation, which shall cleanse your bodies on the 
day of the great festival of Saint Victor the General, whose 
festival we are celebrating this day. Believe me, O ye God- 
loving congregation, I have no wish to set in motion this 
word which is full of tribulation, during this great festival 
this day, and I would not introduce sadness into the festival 
of Saint Victor, the most glorious of all martyrs, had it not 
been that my mind was carried away by my thoughts, and it 
seemed to me as if I saw the General standing before me. 
And he raised up gladness in my heart and in my mind, in 
his love towards us, and he spake unto me, saying, ' O man, 
speak unto this congregation for the salvation of their souls. 
Fol. 53 a Thou shalt bring them into [ the haven of salvation on the 
pfe day of my commemoration, a,nd they shall repent them of their 
1 Matt. V. 3. 2 Ps ixv. 4. s ps_ ixxxiv. 10. 


sins. This result will afford me far greater happiness than 
ten thousand encomiums. And I do not wish [to receive] the 
honour which belong-eth to this world, for my justification is 
in the heavens, before my Lord and my King-, the Christ.' 

And when I had heard these [words] from Saint Victor, 
[and saw] the care which he took for all those who are heavy 
laden, and that he was laying aside his own honour for the 
sake of the salvation and well-beitig of our souls and our 
bodies, I at length turned my tongue towards you, O my 
sons and my daughters, and I spake these few words to you 
for the welfare of your souls. Now, therefore, let us send on 
before us the things which we find for the benefit of our 
souls in the day of need, so that Saint Victor, whose festival 
we are celebrating this day, may make supplication on our 
behalf before the Christ, the True Shepherd, that He may 
guide our souls into the pasture that pleaseth Him, according 
to that which is written, ' His counsel is more to be chosen 
than gold, and the precious stone of very great price.' ^ 
' Let us pay good heed to the things that we hear, lest we 
fall away,' ^ according to the word of Paul, the wise man. Let 
us free ourselves from our sins, before they be required of us. 

And if, O man, thou hast sinned through thoughtlessness, 
turn thee, repent, and God shall forgive thee. And again, 
if thou hast not committed sin, take good heed to thyself 
that the Devil be not envious of thee, for he is a deceitful 
villain, and he hateth the race of man. Thou hearest what is 
written in the Catholic [Epistle], ' Be sober, watch ; for your 
adversary the Devil [ goeth round about roaring like a lion, Fol. 53 b 
seeking to swallow up your soul.' ^ And again, Paul saith, P^ 
' Our strife is not against blood and flesh, but against princi- 
palities and powers, and against the governors of the world 
in darkness, and against spirit beings of evil beneath the 
heavens.' * And again, our Saviour commanded us, saying, 

» Ps. xix. 10 ; Prov. viii. 10, 11, 19. « Heb. ii. 1. 

3 1 Pet. V. 8. * Eph. vi. 12. 


' If the master of the house knew at what hour the thief was 
comings he would keep watch, and would not permit him to 
break into his house ; even so do ye yourselves watch, for 
ye know not in what hour the thief will come.' ^ 

Now ye know well, O my beloved, that it is right for a man 
to keep watch by day and by night, so that the Devil may not 
be envious of him, and may not destroy his righteousness. 
Do not make a pretence and say, ' I have committed many 
sins, and God will never forgive me, even if I do repent.' 
Take heed to thyself and do not talk in this way. Never let 
sin gain dominion over thee. And even if thou hast com- 
mitted a multitude of sins, turn thee, repent, and God shall 
forgive thee, and He will number thee with those who have 
never committed sin at all. For as thou findest the grapes 
full of sourness which come from an [uncultivated] vine, but 
when the vine hath been digged about, and water poured upon 
its roots, the grapes, which only a very little time before had 
been sour (now their sourness disappeareth so completely that 
thou canst not possibly imagine whither it hath gone), 
become sweet to the taste, exactly so it is in the case of the 
sin which hath been blotted out by repentance, and the 
righteousness which is performed by the penitent man 
continueth to be sweet. 
Fol. 54 a Ye see, O my beloved, | how Saint Victor rejoiceth with us 
P*^ on this great festival, which we celebrate this day, and how 
he hath prepared for us the table of the Spirit. Verily, this 
holy' encomium is a healing medicine for us. The under- 
standing of the Holy Scriptures is a consolation to us. This 
encomium is a healer of every one, for it strengtheneth those 
who do stand, and it raiseth up those who have fallen. And 
as for us, let us keep carefully the things which we have 
heard, and we shall find salvation. We must never let go of 
our understanding (or, courage), and persist in committing 
sins which will lead us into a state of terror, and make us 
* Matt. xxiv. 42, 43 ; Mark xiii. 35 ; Luke xxi. 36. 


enter into sorrow and shame. But within a very little I also 
had fallen into a pit, and had forg-otten the mig-hty deeds 
and miracles of Saint Victor, whose festival we are celebrating- 
this day ; for the consideration of our own g-reat carelessness 
carried iis away into such sorrow of heart that we forg-ot the 
g-lorious General Victor. And, moreover, my tong-ue halteth to 
such a deg-ree that I am not able to declare one of his ten 
thousand virtues. But like a man who setteth out boldly to 
cross over a g-reat sea, or a very wide stream, and whom 
before the end of his journey thou findest to be overwhelmed 
and being- drawn down into the boiling- and rag-ing- waters of 
the torrent — even so am I in respect of the splendid deeds of 
that General Victor, For I began to speak to you concerning 
the mighty deeds and miracles which he hath wrought in the 
first part of [this] Encomium, but later on my understanding 
and my thought were carried away and made me to talk to 
you about the salvation of your souls on [the day of] his 
great festival. And we know that Saint Victor will rejoice 
over the words of admonition which we are speaking into 
instructed ears in this Encomium, especially when he hath 
seen the very large number of people [here] who are stricken 
with sorrow, and who are weeping at the words of admonition 
which we are uttering. | 

I am afraid, however, that I am causing some offence to Fol^i h 
my congregation on this great festival to-day. I will there- P^ 
fore change the course of my remarks so that I may narrate 
unto you a few of the mighty deeds which have taken place 
in his martyrium, the which I have seen with my own eyes, 
and which will glorify God, Who glorifieth those who glorify 
Him. Now I earnestly desire to declare a few of his splendid 
deeds, but I find myself in a difficulty because my tongue is 
incapable of paying unto him the honour of which he is 
worthy. And, moreover, since certain of our inspired Fathers 
and Bishops who have lived before my time, that is to say, 
Eusebius, and Julius, and Innocent, who were teachers in 


very truth and were inspired by God, undertook to declare 
thy honour and the miracles which thou didst perform in thy 
martyrium, and were unable to proclaim thy powers and the 
signs [wrought by thee], how much less shall I, a humble 
msLU, who am simple and foolish withal, be able to do so? 
How can I possibly pass over the sea of thy splendid deeds ? 
For this reason I lay my fing-er on my mouth: I do not 
know how to declare thy gift of healing, and especially 
because through thy holy gift the disease which spreadeth 
over my legs and feet from time to time thou hast made to 
decrease in my body. But great is the grace w^hich God 
giveth unto thee, and He hath permitted these manifestations 
of healing to be permanent in thy martyrium, that is to say, 
the dumb speak, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and 
thou easiest out devils and raisest the dead through the 
mighty gift w^hich God hath permitted to be permanent in 
thy martyrium. And not only in the place wherein thy body 
Fol. 55 a is are signs of this kind taking place, | but in every shrine 
P*-" throughout the world which shall be called after thy name 
shall signs of this kind be performed perpetually, in order that 
ye may know that what I am saying to you is true. Hearken 
ye now, and I will narrate unto you the following great 
miracle to the glory of God and Saint Victor. 

There was a certain man in this city who owned very great 
possessions, and large flocks and hei'ds, and sheep pastures 
and vineyards. And this man was exceedingly good and kind 
to the poor, and he had such a firm belief in Saint Victor 
that every year he used to give a large quantity of wine to 
the shrine [of the saint] for use sacramentally, and for sending 
out as gifts to those who were suffering from illnesses, and to 
those who needed it, for the salvation of their souls. And 
his offering remained always in the shrine of the holy man 
during the whole course of his life. And the Good God, at 
the request of Saint Victor, blessed the man, and he became 
rich, and he waxed exceedingly prosperous. And the blessing 


of God shone on his house, and on his g-ardens, and on his 
vineyards, and on his meadows, and his fields and his posses- 
sions increased exceeding-iy, and there was no couniing- the 
number of the blessings which the Lord set apart for him. 
And the man increased his alms and oblations, which he used 
to g-ive to God in the name of Saint Victor, j And his wealth Fol. r,5t 
still continued to increase greatly, and his flocks and herds Ps 
were exceedingly choice and fine, and his shoe]) and cattle 
were innumerable ; and he did not cease to watch over these 
things until he became an old man. And at length he fell 
ill of the sickness of which he died. And ho called his son 
and said unto him, 'My son, behold I am going- the way 
of all the earth. Do thou be zealous in giving gifts to the 
poor, and to every one who is in need, even as thou hast 
seen that I have been in the habit of doing, and do thou take 
especial care in respect of the offering to my Lord Saint 
Victor. Thou shalt not diminish aught therefrom, nay, thou 
shaft add to it ; for it is he who hath blessed us, and hath 
given to us these great riches, and this multitude of posses- 
sions. And let thy charities and gifts be multiplied, for 
they shall open unto thee the treasure-houses of the kingdom 
which is in the heavens.' And his son answered and said, 
' Everyt\\ing th'at thovr sayest I will do ' ; therevipon the man 
sank back fainting and died, and was gathered to his fathers. 

And his son took possession of his wcalili and goods of 
all kinds, but his heart was not perfect with God as was 
his father's, even as it is written concerning Solomon,^ and 
he was not charitable towards the poor. And finally he 
treated with contempt his father's will and testament, and 
he did not observe the commands which he had given to 
him. He diminished the charities and g-ifts which his fiither 
used to give, he ate and drank delicately, and he put away 
from him the fear of God and the precepts of his father. And 
when the season of the vintage arrived, the steward of [ Saint Fol. 56 a 

' 1 Kings xi. 1-10. P** 


V^ictor sent certain of the clcrg-y to him to receive the offering- 
of first-fruits, according- to the custom of his father, the son 
would not give them but said [to himself], 'Verily my father 
hated the things which belonged to him,' and he spake 
out loud with evil words, saying, ' It is not Saint Victor who 
drinketh the wine, but it is the clergy who drink it ; more- 
over, every time they wish to communicate I will send unto 
them offerings and first-fruits that they may communicate. 
I shall certainly not give away this large quantity of wine, 
but I will 2>ut it aside, and will devote it to the needs of the 
community and to those of my own workmen.' In this way 
did he foolishly withdraw the offering from the saint, and he 
did not remember that which is written, ' Charity seeketh not 
its own.'^ So he gathered in the grape harvest according 
to his father's custom, and he discovered that the wine was so 
great in quantity that he could not measure it. And he had 
it carried into storehouses, saying, ' I will keep it until the 
time when the merchants of Palestine come [to visit] my 
father this year, and I will give it to them, and will take 
in exchange from them much goods,' And what did Saint 
Victor do unto him that had neglected to give him his 
offering through love of possessions ? Quite suddenly he 
made the wine which, only a very little time before, had 
been very choice, to change, and it bred w'orms, and it became 
putrid and sour. And all the man's affairs went backward, 
but he did not know^ that it was the hand of God that was 
upon him because of his contemptuous treatment of Ilim, 

And it came to pass that on a certain day the merchants 
arrived, and they brought him a large quantity of gold where- 
with they wished to buy some of his wine ; [and when they 
had tasted the wine] they found that it was very bad indeed, 
and very thin in quality, and that it had bred worms, and 
they marvelled exceedingly. And afterwards they opened 
[other skins] in the doorway of the wine storehouse, and they 
1 1 Cor. xiii. 1 ff. 


found that the wine in them was worse than that which 
tliey had tasted before ; j in short, they tried all the wine, Fol. 50 b 
and they found that it was quite worthless. And they said p« 
unto him, ' Verily we marvel at this wine, and wonder what 
hath happened to it since thy father hath become blessed. 
Perhaps it is that thou hast neglected it ; in any case we 
know not w^hat hath happened to it.' And thus saying the 
merchants took the gold from him again^ and returned to 
their own coimtry. And the man was very sad indeed, and 
grieved exceedingly. And after some days the man became 
conscious of the sin which he had committed, and that it was 
Saint Victor who had destroyed his property because he had 
neglected to supply his holy offering. And he was saying, 
' Woe is me, because I did not listen to the w^ords of my 
fiither, and because I allowed avariciousness to blind my eyes. 
I wished to bring the offering of the martyr into his hand, 
and behold, he hath destroyed all the possessions which 
were in mine. What shall I do from this time onw^ards ? 
I know not.' 

And during that night Saint Victor came unto the man in 
glory unspeakable, and he said unto him in a very threaten- 
ing manner, ' Since the love of money hath shut thine eyes, 
and thou hast stolen the offering which thy father used to 
give unto God in my name, behold I, even I, destroyed all 
the produce of thy vineyard, and I made thy wine to become 
full of worms and putrid. And I will destroy thy vineyard 
also, and it shall not yield thee its fruit because of thy 
audacity. And as for thee thyself, I have come to bring 
upon thee a great grief, and I would destroy thee, and thou 
shouldst die if it were not that I keep in remembrance | the Fol. 57 a 
righteousness of thy father. And assuredly because thou P* 
didst neglect to give the offering to my shrine, I myself 
made all thy wine to perish.' 

And the man was greatly moved, and he said, ' My lord, 
who art thou that thou art surrounded by such exceedingly 


great glory ? ' And he answered and said, ' I am Victor the 
General. I am he who blessed the possessions of thy father. 
I miiltiplied for him his corn and wine. I doubled for him 
his flocks and herds, and his possessions and his goods, 
because of the alms and oblations which he gave to the 
poor, and the offerings which he made unto God in my name. 
Thou, however, inasmuch as thou hast not obeyed thy father, 
and hast not remembered the fear of God, but hast been 
zealous in the stealing of the oflering from my martyrium, 
1 myself have punished thee, and have destroyed thy labours. 
And in thee hath been fulfilled that which is written, saying, 
"A city is founded by the compassion of a mighty man, and 
it is uprooted through the folly of the fool." ' ^ 

And when the man had heard these words he cast himself 
down upon his face, saying, ' Forgive me, O my lord, thou holy 
martyr. I have sinned beyond the measure of all mankind's 
capacity of sinning, but count not up my sins, according to 
my folly, against me. And I will become thy servant, and 
will fear thee, even as did my father, until the day of my 
death. And I promise thy holy splendour that, if thou wilt 
shew compassion unto me, and wilt forgive me my impudent 
deeds, | I will give the one half of my substance and of my 
flocks and herds to thy shrine this year, and the other half 
[I will give] to the community and to the maintenance of 
those who work [on my estate]. And besides these I will add 
to the charitable gifts which my father used to make to the 
poor.' And the saint said unto him, ' God hath removed thy 
sin, and this shall be unto thee a sign that lie hath done so. 
When thou risest up to-morrow morning open the door of 
thy wine-cellars and taste thy wine, and thou shalt find that 
it hath turned to a proper, settled condition. Thus shalt 
thou know that God is able to do everything, and that it is 
the blessing of God which maketh men rich ; but what God 
truly loveth in a man is for him to choose a right course of 
1 Prov, xi. 10-11. 


action. God is not in need of thy gifts and charities and 
of thy offering-s, but He doth desire that a right course of 
action should be displayed by thee in respect of Him. Hast 
thou never heard that which is written, " He who sheweth 
mercy unto the poor lendeth unto the Lord," ^ and " Pay thy 
vows to God, and let every one who is round about Him take 
a gift unto Him ? " ^ Now, therefore, take heed to thyself 
and do the things which have come forth from thy month. 
And I will make supplication unto God on thy behalf that 
He may make thy riches to be as great as those of thy father. 
And when thou shalt go forth from the body thy soul shall 
not be set apart for punishment, because I will carry it as a 
gracious thing into the presence of God, and He will give 
imto it the good things of the kingdom which is in the 
heavens. Hast thou never heard what is written, " The 
supplication of the righteous man is exceedingly mighty^ 
and effecteth [much] ?" ^ And dost thou not know that the 
martyrs j endured all [their] sufferings without reward ? Fol. 58 a 
Now, therefore, O my son, watch thyself well from this day pife 
forward. And farewell ! ' 

And when the saint had said these words unto the man 
he ceased to see him. And straightway he woke up in his 
dream, and was very much moved, and he told the things 
which he had seen to his people, and they marvelled. And 
when the morning had come he opened the door of his wine- 
cellar, and he found that his wine was exceedingly excellent, 
and he was disturbed in his mind. And he proclaimed the 
mighty deeds of Saint Victor throughout the whole city. 
And he summoned the steward of the saint to him, and 
he gave unto him the half of his produce and of his wine, 
which he was to expend in the service of the shrine, and 
on the poor and on strangers, even according as he had 

' Prov. xix. 17. 

" Ps. 1. U ; Ixxvi. 11 ; Nah. i. 15 ; Deut. xxiii. 21; Job xxii. 27. 

8 Jas. V. 10. 


vowed to the saint. And from that day onward he became 
a very zealous man, and he was exceedingly anxious about 
the salvation of his soul. 

Thus ye see, O my beloved, that the mig-hty deeds of Saint 
Victor, whose festival we are celebrating this day, are truly 
great, and that ray halting tongue is incapable of declaring one 
in ten thousand of his virtues and honours, and of the miracles 
which he hath worked. Let us celebrate his festival this day 
in purity of heart and in purity of body. And he is sufficiently 
strong to pray for us to the Lord, to forgive us our sins ; for 
lie is gracious and merciful, and he is nigh unto God at 
all times. Let us withdraw ourselves from every evil thing, 
and from every kind of fornication. And let us not continue 
in our sins, so that our visitation may not come to an end. 
llemember that the world shall pass away and the desirable 
things thereof, but he who performeth the will of God shall 
live for ever.^ Therefore let us not stablish ourselves upon 
the hope which is vain, for the Apostle saith, ' The hope which 
F ol- 58 b is seen is not hope,' ^ | that is to say, the riches of this world 
P*^ which shall pass away like the snow (or, frost). Be not 
a man of violence, for no violent man shall inherit the 
kingdom of God. Be not a man of strife, for it is said that 
there is no profit in any man of strife. Be not a lover of 
money, for the root of all evil is the love of money. Be not 
a fornicator, for him who shall defile the temple of God will 
(rod destroy. Be not a liar, for God shall destroy every man 
who uttereth lies. Be not a drunkard, for no drunkard shall 
inherit the kingdom of God. Be not a man of lust, for 
it is said, ' Whosoever shall look at a woman to desire her 
hath already committed adultery with her in his heart.' ^ Be 
not an adulterer, for the adulterer destroyeth his soul. Be not 
a lover of pleasure, for it is written, ' They loved pleasure 
more than they loved God.'* Be not a babbling gossip, 

^ 1 John ii. 17. * Rom. viii. 24. 

3 Matt. V. 28. * John xii. 43 (?). 


for a gag of fire shall be thrust into the mouth of the 
babbler. Be not a hater of [thy] brother, for he who 
hateth his brother is a murderer. Be not a man with a 
double tongue, for double-tonguedness is like unto a two- 
edged sword. 

If thou wilt observe these things in thine own person, 
thou shalt be a servant of the Lord, and Saint Victor shall 
rejoice over the celebration of his festival. Let us stretch 
out our hands to the poor in charity and compassion, for it is 
written, 'Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.' ^ 
Let us visit the sick and those who are shut up in confinement, 
in order that God in His compassion may visit us. Let us 
put clothing on the naked, | in order that we may escape Fol. 59 < 
from the trouble and the gnashing of teeth. Let us receive P*'^ 
into our houses the poor, who have no houses, on the festival of 
Saint Victor, so that he may remember us before God, Who 
shall take us into His kingdom which is in the heavens. 
Let us not permit to remain in our hearts any restraint in 
respect of any man, on the festival of Saint Victor, in order 
that God and His angel may be in our midst when we are 
celebrating his festival, lest he condemn us as enemies. On 
the contrary, let us break asunder every bond of violence, 
and every bond of enmity, and every bond of wickedness 
in respect of each other, in order that God and His holy 
angel shall be at peace with us. 

And here, at this point, we must give pause to our discourse, 
because the time is come when we must perform the service 
of the Holy Oifering. It is true that our discourse hath run 
to an inordinate length, but [the people] were thirsty for 
the waters of the word of G od, and for [the narrative of] the 
mighty deeds of the saint. And it shall happen for us that 
Saint Victor, whose festival we celebrate this day, shall make 
entreaty to God on our behalf, that He may forgive us out 
sins, and may bless the God-loving Emperor, and all the 

J Matt. V. 7. 

z z 


orthodox people, throug-h Jesus the Christ, our Lord, to 
Whom be glory, and to His Good Father; and to the Holy, 
and vivifying, and consubstantial Spirit, now and always^ 
for ever and ever and world without end. Bless us ! Anaen. 

So be it 1 



This book [was copied through] the zeal and care of 
the most God-loving- deacon Pourot (?). He undertook the 
preparation thereof, and he presented it to the church of 
Saint Victor of Tebo, that is of ApoUinopolis, according to 
the speech of the Alexandrians. May God preserve for life 
and health (or, salvation) the God-loving- brother . . , . 
Pourot, and make him to be worthy of the joy of the kingdom 
which is in the heavens. May he live to the full the angelic 
life which he hath assumed, even as did our fathers, the 
ancestors [of our] community, and may he [pour out] his 
blessing upon us, and upon all the saints likewise ! Amen. 

May the Lord Jesus the Christ, Who is in very truth our 
Veritable God, preserve for life and salvation the most God- 
fearing arch-presbyter Apa Abraham, the president and 
director of the Monastery of Saint Mercurius of Tebo, and 
may he [pour out] his blessing upon us. May the Lord pre- 
serve for life and salvation all the fathers and sons of the 
monastery, and make us worthy of their blessing. May He 
incline (?) their hearts to pray for me before om- King, the 
Christ. May He forgive me my sins, which are many, and 
may He shew mercy unto me in the day of my visitation, to 
me Joseph^ the least of all men and the most miserable, the 
son of the blessed Sisinnios, the Archdeacon of the Catholic 
Church of Saint John the Baptist in the city of Sne. May 
the Lord give peace unto him, and to Zokrator, the least of all 
men, the deacon, the son of Joseph the deacon. Pray for me 

Written on the eighteenth day of the month Parmouti, 
in the six hundred and sixty-seventh year of Diocletian 
(a.d. 951). 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 6783) 



There is implanted in a holy man the earnest desire to 
learn, which is partly natural and partly voluntary, and these 
qualities are equally clearly distinguished. The holy man 
setteth np virtue, and he wisheth to instruct his neighbours 
by the [examples of] others who have lived from the earliest 
times, and who have given thanks to Him that hath done 
good unto us all from the beginning, that is to say, to our 
God and our Lord Jesus the Christ, those whom He hath 

I mean that not all have given 

thanks. We are those [unto whom] He doeth [good]. And 
Fol. 1 b there are very many | admonitions (or, teachings), and acts 
n of valiant and blessed men which have come down to us in 
the Holy Scriptures, which are like unto images that have 
souls in them, and which will make those who wish to follow 
them resemble [them] in their glorious integrity, and prevent 
them from becoming feeble in the performance of their 
mighty deeds. The men about whom I shall now write to 
you are men who maintained their virtuous deeds in our own 


time, and who did not slacken in their integrity and valiant 
behaviour. And the men of old, whose histories have been 
written in the Holy Scriptm-es in order that those who hear 
them may love what is good, and may turn themselves to 
the strength of their virtue, spake, saying, 'Now, in these 
latter times, there is none who aeteth uprightly.'^ As for me, 
I say that so far as the man W'ho wisheth to do what is good 
is concerned, neither the labour [involved in obtaining] the 
fruits, nor a life which is fully [occupied] in business adairs, 
need hinder the life which is devoted to the performance of 
good works. If there be any man who wisheth to follow first 
of all I the word of nature and the instruction of the holyFol. 2 a 
men, of w^hom we are going to speak, let him seek after ^ 
the refreshing (or, rest) which existeth in the way of a course 
of life filled with virtue, after the manner of those about 
whom it is my intention now to speak. And we will describe 
to you the beginning of their lives, and the reason for the 
honourableness of their paths, and we will make these things 
manifest so far as the power to do so lieth in us. And as for 
you, O ye blessed men and worshippers of Christ, do ye 
hearken unto them with all your will, in good faith, and 
without unbelief and captious doubt in your minds. 

And there was in the kingdom of the Emperor Trajan, 
wherein the worship of idols had spread and prevailed, a cer- 
tain general whose name was Plaketas (Placidus). He was near 
of kin to the king, and he belonged to a very great and noble 
family, according to [the opinion] of this w^orld, and he was 
exceedingly rich. And he exceeded all the other nobles of the 
palace in his possessions, [in] gold, and [in] silver, and he 
had troops of slaves, and riches of all kinds in very great 
abundance ; j and by race he was a Greek. And he was FoI. 2 b 
adorned with all the works of righteousness. Those who ^ 
were in distress he relieved. He helped those who were 
suffering oppression, and those who were naked he clothed, 

^ Ps. xiv. 1. 


and he provided food for those who were hungry, and he 
redeemed, at his own expense, very many of those who had 
been condemned to death. In short, he was the steward of 
every one who was in need, so far as the wants of the body 
were concerned, and he was a second Cornelius ^ at that time. 
And he had a wife who was herself a worshipper of idols, 
but she was adorned with every excellent quality and virtue 
in exactly the same deg-ree [as her husband] ; and two sons 
were born to them, and these they brought up to walk in the 
same good path as their parents. And the man was exceed- 
ingly well known because of the good works which he was in 
the habit of doing, and he was so celebrated for his personal 
strength and valour that the Barbarians were afraid at the 
mere mention of his name. For he was a fine fighter, and he 
Fol.Sahad gained great renown | in battles of all kinds, but his 

^ whole desire was to hunt and slay wild animals, and for this 
he was greatly esteemed. But the Good God, Who loveth 
every man who is worthy of Him in every place, did not 
forget the good deeds of this man, neither did He wish to 
destroy his good disposition, but even as it is written, ' Every 
heathen who feareth God, and who worketh righteousness, 
shall be accepted by Him,'^ His bowels of compassion yearned 
towards him, and He was merciful towards him to such a 
degree that God willed to save his life, and He did so in the 
way and by the means which I will here declare unto you. 

And it came to pass that on a certain day the man went 
out, according to his custom, to hunt wild beasts in the 
mountain, he and his soldiers, and all his slaves were with 
him. And there appeared unto him a herd of deer that 
were feeding, and he ordered the company who were with 
him to give chase to them, and all the soldiers gave all 
their energies to catching the beasts. And one of them j 
Foi. 3 b appeared from out of the herd, and he was a very fine animal 

c and stood higher than all of them, and he broke away from 
1 See Acts x. 1-31. 2 Acts x. 85. 


the herd, and took to flig'ht, and he ran for safety into a 
thicket on the mountain, which was very dense, and very 
difficult for the hunters to penetrate. And when Plakotas 
had seen him he wished to take him in a snare. And he 
took with him certain soldiers, and hid away all the others, 
and he gave chase to the animal. Now the soldiers who had 
gone with him became exhausted, and they gave up the chase, 
and Plaketas rode into the thicket alone in pursuit of the 
beast. And by the good Providence of God neither he nor 
the horse on which he was riding became exhausted in that 
dense thicket. And when he had persevered for some time 
in his pursuit, and was a very long way off from his com- 
panions, then the beast stood still upon a very high mountain. 
And when the general had approached him, there being no 
men with him, he stood still and looked round aboxit on every 
side, and he wondered by what means he could take him 
in a snare. And God, the Lover of mankind, ] Who effecteth Fol. 4 a 
the salvation of man in very many ways, snared this [general] \ 
in His net, even as was snared Cornelius through Peter, and 
even as was Paul unto whom He appeared when he was perse- 
cuting Him. And when a considerable time had passed, during 
which Plaketas had been looking at the stag, and marvelling 
at its great size and very tine appearance, and thinking oiit 
the means whereby he might capture it, the Lord gave him 
the following sign ; and He made him able to see it, and 
it appeared unto him in the following form. There was a 
figure of a cross between the stag's horns, and it shone more 
brightly than the sun, and there was, moreover, between his 
horns a similitude like unto the body wherein God arrayed 
Himself in the womb of the Virgin ; now He clothed Himself 
in this body for our salvation. And He cried out to Plaketas 
from the animal with the voice of a man, saying, ' O Plaketas, 
why dost thou hunt Me ? For it is for thine own sake that 
I have appeared unto thee in the form of this animal. | I Fol. 4 h 
am Jesus, He Whom thou servest, without knowing it. ** 


Thy kind and charitable deeds which thou doest have come 
before Me. Therefore I have Myself appeared unto thee, 
and I have snared thee by means of this animal that is 
without reasoning- power. And I have netted thee with the 
nets of My Godhead. It is not just to allow those who love 
Me by their g-ood deeds to act as slaves to unclean demons, 
and idols which are dead, and dumb, and which are without 
feeling'. For this reason did I come upon the earth in the 
form wherein thou now seest Me, for I wish to deliver (or, 
save) the race of man.' 

And when Plaketas heard these thing's he was terrified, 
and he fell down upon the g-round. And when a long* time 
had passed he rose up, wishing* to understand with exactness 
the miracle which had taken place. And he said, ' What 
then is this sight which I have seen ? And what manner of 
voice is this which I have heard ? Make Thyself manifest to 
Fol.5a me, O Thou Who speakest with me, and I will j believe in 
^ Thee.' And the Lord said unto him, ' Take heed, O Plaketas. 
I am Jesus the Christ, the Son of the livino- God, Who 
created the heavens and the earth, when nothing existed, and 
I created all substance of which things are made, and every- 
thing else. I am He Who made the light to appear, and I 
separated it from the darkness. I am He Who created the 
sun and made it to shine by day, and I appointed the moon 
and the stars to shine by night. I am He Who ordained 
times, and seasons, and days. I am He Who fashioned 
man from the earth. I appeared for him in the flesh which 
I took upon Myself for the sake of the salvation of men. I am 
He Whom they crucified, and I died, and I rose upon the 
third day from the dead.' 

When Plaketas heard these words he fell down upon his 
face and cried out, saying, «I believe, Lord, that Thou art 
He Who hath created everything, and that Thou art He Who 
turneth back those who go astray, and those who have gone 
astray, and that Thou art He Who giveth life unto those who axe 


dead.' And the Lord answered and said, ' If thou believest, 
go, make thy way to the hig-h priest of the [ Christians, Fol. 5 & 
and demand from him the freely-given gift of baptism.* s 
And Plaketas answered and said unto Him, 'Lord, command 
me to relate these words to my wife and children, so that they 
also may believe in Thee.' And the Lord said unto him, 
' Repeat them. And ye shall be purified from every unclean 
thing. When ye have received the seal of baptism thou shalt 
return hither, and I will appear unto thee, and I will declare 
unto thee the mystery of salvation.' 

And Plaketas came down from the mountain, and went into 
his house. And when the evening had come he began to speak 
and tell his wife and sons about the things which he had 
seen in the vision, and how the Lord had appeared unto him. 
And his wife cried out and said unto him, ' Lord, my brother, 
thou hast seen God Whom they crucified, Whom the Chris- 
tians worship. For He is the only true God, and it is He 
Who delivereth those who put their hopes in Him.' And 
she cried out vehemently, saying, ' Have mercy upon me, O 
Lord Jesus the Christ, and upon my two sons also.' And 
she said unto her husband, ' In the night which hath passed 
I myself also | saw Him, and He said unto me, To-morrow Fol. e,a 
do thou, and thy husband, and your sons come to Me. And i*^ 
I recognized that He was the God, Jesus the Christ, the 
God of the Galileans. It is He Who willed to appear unto 
thee in this miraculous manner with the animal in order that 
thou mayest rely upon His strength, and believe in Him. 
Therefore come this very night, and let us go and receive 
baptism from the high priest of the Christians, even as thou 
wast commanded, for by this do those who believe in Him 
become members of His household.' And Plaketas answered, 
saying, ' This is what He Who appeared unto me commanded.' 

And in the middle of that night they took their two sons 
secretly, and a few of their slaves, and they went to the 
high priest of the Christians, and told him all the dream, 

3 A 


and tliey confessed their belief in the Lord Jesus the Christ, 
and the}" entreated him to g-ive them the seal of the Christ 
by baptism. And the hig-h priest rejoiced, and ascribed glory 

Tol. 6 b to God Who wisheth all men to have life, | and to come to 
i^! the knowledg-e of the trutli. And the hig-h priest took them, 
and catechized them, and gave into their hands the Holy 
Mysteries of the Faith, and he baptized them in the Name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. And to 
Plaketas he gave the name of Eustathius, and to his wife 
Theopiste ; his elder son he called Agapius, and the younger 
Theopistus ; and he g-ave them the Glorious Body and Blood 
of the Christ, and dismissed them, saying, ' May God, the 
Christ, be with you, and may He graciously grant unto you 
His kingdom for ever. And know that the hand of the Lord 
is with you, and I earnestly beseech you that when ye shall 
be in Paradise ye remember the soul of John, the least of all 
men and the most miserable,' 

And when the morning had come Eustathius took horses, 
and he departed to the mountain, and went towards the 
spot wherein he had seen the vision. And he dismissed his 

Foi. 7 a soldiers, and sent them away to hunt the wild animals, ] and 
i*? he remained where he was alone for a short time ; then he 
moved on, and went nearer and nearer to the place where 
he had seen the figure at first. And he cast himself down 
npon his face, and he cried out, saying", ' Lord, I know that 
Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God, and I believe in 
Thee and in Thy Good Father, and in the Holy Spirit. And 
now I beseech Thee, if I be worthy of the holy grace of Thy 
Godhead, declare unto me the things which Thou hast to say 
unto me.' And straightway the Lord answered and said 
unto him, ' Blessed art thou, O Plaketas, because thou hast 
received the washing' of grace, and hast arrayed thyself in 
the indestructible garment which abideth for ever. Now, 
therefore, do thou make manifest the work of thy faith. Since 
the Devil is envious of thee thou must cast him behind thee ; 


and he will be zealous in setting- snares of every kind for 
thee, and he will contend ag-ainst thee. For thou must of 
necessity endure manifold temptations, j If thou endurest Fol- '' ''' 
them in patience thou shalt receive the crown of victory. ^'^ 
Behold, thou shalt rise very much higher in the works (or, 
affairs) of [this] life, and in the riches which are temporal. 
And, moreover, thou shalt become rich in spiritual excellence. 
Now be not weak, neither be thou overcome by the glory of 
this world, which thou didst possess originally ; but as thou 
didst shew thyself to be a mighty man among men, and as 
thou didst wage war, and didst strive zealously to serve 
a king who is mortal, even so do thou strive zealously to 
prove thyself to be a mighty man against the Devil, and do 
thou keep fast hold on the faith for Me, for I am the 
Immortal King. For needs must that thou shouldst become 
a second Job, in these times, who shall vanquish the Devil in 
temptation. Take good heed to thyself lest the reasoning of 
blasphemy ascend in thine heart, and when thou shalt be in 
a state of humility I will come unto thee in order that I may 
re-establish thee in thy former glory.' 

And when the Lord had said these things unto him He 
departed into heaven, and the Lord spake unto him, saying, 
' Eustathius, there shall be unto thee as great a temptation as 
thou canst wish in that which thou shalt have [ in the last Fol. 8™ 
days.' And Eustathius said unto Him, ' If this be the last it 
of my days, I now beseech Thee, O my Lord, supposing that 
I am not able to bear the things which Thou hast appointed 
me, to remove them, and not to let them come upon me, and 
command that our temptation return unto Thee. But give us 
strength, O Lord, Thou God of mighty deeds, for Thou art He 
in Whom we trust.' And the Lord said unto him, ' Fight, 
O Eustathius, and My grace shall watch over what is in [thy] 
heart.-" And Saint Eustathius came down from the mountain, 
and he went into his house, and told his wife the things 
which God had said unto him. And they knelt down 


tog-ether on their knees, and they prayed, sayings, ' Let Thy 
will be done.' 

And it came to pass^ after a few days, that a pestilence 
broke out in the house of Eustathius, and all his slaves died. 
And when this had happened, Eustathius perceived that there 
had actually come upon him the temptation (or, trial) which, 
according- to the indications that had already been g-iven to 
him, was to come n[)Oii him, and he welcomed it as such, and 
Fol. 8 2> he rejoiced, and exhorted | his wife not to lose courage. And 

iC" after a little time all his horses, and cattle, and sheep died, 
and this temptation also he received with joy. And after 
these things he left his house, he, and his wife, and his sons, 
who knew nothing [of the reason], and he departed to another 
place. And when the doers of iniquity knew that they had 
departed, they went by night and plundered his house, and 
they stripped it bare, leaving nothing whatsoever behind 
them, neither gold, nor silver, nor raiment. After all these 
losses, and all these sorrows, they became quite destitute, for 
they had lost all their substance, and everything which they 
had. And all these things happened through the crafty 
designs of the Adversary. 

And it came to pass in those days that all the people were 
celebrating a festival, and they were rejoicing greatly because 
they had conquered the Persians, and the Emperor was cele- 
brating the festival with them with great heartiness, but 
Eustathius felt that it was not seemly for him to join them 
in celebrating the festival. As, however, he w^as a great 
Foi. 9 a general [ among the nobles of Rome, the Emperor enquired 

1"^ for him, but did not find him. And when the Emperor 
learned that in one honr nothing had been left to him of all 
his possessions, and that neither he nor those who were with 
him had anything left, he and all the nobles with him were 
exceedingly sorry on his account, and they marvelled at what 
had happened to him. 

Then his wife said unto him, ' How lono- shall we sit 


here in this place ? Rise up, and let us take our sons who 
are left unto us, and let us depart and leave this country, 
because we have become the laughing'-stock of those who 
know us.' And that nig-ht they took their sons and departed, 
and they set out for Eg-ypt. And when they had been 
travelling for a day or tw^o they arrived at the sea, and they 
found a ship anchored at the quay, and they made enquiries 
about embarking in the ship. And the captain of the ship 
was a savage and brutal man. And when they had embarked 
in the ship they put to sea, and the captain of the ship 
looked upon the wife of Eustathius, and he saw that her face 
was beautiful, and he loved her. | And when the captain Fol. 9 fc 
arrived at the shore of the sea he asked Eustathius for his *« 
passage money, but he had it not to give to him ; and he seized 
the wife of Eustathius in place of the passage money, for he 
had already determined that he would not let her go with her 
husband. And when Eustathius persevered in arguing the 
matter with him, and in making supplication to him, the 
captain made a sign to the sailors to lay hold upon him, and 
to throw him into the sea. And when Eustathius knew of 
their evil intentions he very unwillingly left his wife behind, 
and taking his two sons departed with them weeping, and he 
made lamentation, saying, ' Woe is me, O my sons, for your 
mother hath been seized by a barbarian.' 

And he went away heaving sighs and shedding tears, and 
he came to a river of water, and owing to the heavy rain 
which had fallen into it he was unable to swim across it with 
both his sons at the same time. And he took the one son on 
his neck, and leaving the other on this side of the river he 
swam across the water, and left on the other side the son 
whom he had been carrying, and then turned back [to fetch] 
the other. And it came to pass that whilst j he was in the Fol. 10 « 
middle of the river he lifted up his eyes, and saw that a lion le 
had seized his son, and that he was dragging him along the 
ground and going away with him. And his father Eustathius 


was in despair about him ; but lie recovered himself at length, 
feeling that there was hope for him, for he still had the other 
son left to him. And again he looked, and saw that the 
other son was being carried off by a wolf And [when] he 
perceived that both his sons had been carried away into 
captivity by wild beasts he tore out the hair of his head, and 
wept abundantly with exceedingly great bitterness, and he 
was about to cast himself into the flood. But the loving care 
of God gave strength to his heart, so that it might make him 
to know what was to happen to him. Therefore he did not 
do this (i.e. drown himself), but he swam across the river in 
order to depart into the desert. 

And when certain shepherds saw the [one] child in the 
jaws of the lion, and that he was uninjured, they said with 
right understanding, ' The Providence of God is disposed 
to protect this boy, and to help him, and it will deliver him 
from the wild beast.' And they gave chase to the lion with 
their horses, and the lion was afraid. And by the dispensation 
of God the lion dropped the child from his mouth, and fled, | 
Fol. 10 h and the shepherds picked up the child, and they reared it as 
K a son to them on the east of the river. And as for the other 
son which the wolf had carried off' the good Providence of 
God preserved him also unharmed. For when certain men 
who were ploughing the land saw him [being carried off] 
they gave chase to the wolf, and took him from the beast ; 
and the child had received no injury whatsoever. And the 
ploughmen and the shepherds were living together in the 
same village, and they took the two little children, and reared 
them as their own. 

Now Eustathius had no knowledge whatsoever of what had 
happened ; but he walked on his way, and he wept, and kept 
repeating these words, ' Woe is me ! I was at one time 
flourishing like a tree, but now I am dried up and withered. 
Woe is me! I had at one time large room, but now I 
am like unto a captive. Woe is me ! I, who at one time 


had legions of soldiers at my feet, am now left utterly to 
myself, and neither my wife nor my children are permitted 
to be with me. But do not, O Lord, cast me away, and 
be not Thou forgetful of my tears. O Lord, Thou didst say 
unto j me, "Needs must that thou shalt be tempted as was Fol. lia 
Job." And behold, do Thou look upon my sufferings which Kiiv 
have become exceedingly severe. For even if the possessions 
which he had w^ere all carried away, there still remained to 
him the dung-hill whereon he could seat himself, whereas 
I am a miserable sojourner in a strange land, and am burdened 
with all this mass of misery. And again. Job had his children 
to console him, and to help him to bear his sufferings, whereas 
in my case the wild beasts have carried off my children, who 
should be my consolation. And even if his branches, I mean 
his children, were lopped off, he still had left to him the root, 
that is to say, his wife, who would live in the house with him, 
even though she did not serve him as a wife in the [true sense 
of] the word. But as for me, miserable man that I am, my root 
is cut off on all sides, and I cannot see a single ray of light 
from the lamp of my race. Moreover, I am like a tree in the 
desert, which is being ever shaken by the winds of the Devil. 
Do not, Lord, do not afflict Thy servant, [and drive him] 
to j utter many words, for if I spake the things which 1 Fol. 1 1 1> 
ought not to speak, I should be grieved in heart. Do Thou, i^5 
therefore, O Lord, set a guard upon my mouth, and a strong 
seal upon my lips, so that my heart may not incline towards 
the words w^hich are evil, and Thou mayest not cast me away 
from before Thy face. And give Thou me rest, O Lord ! ' 

And as he was saying these things, and was heaving sighs 
and weeping, he came to a village, which was called Bassos, 
and he went into it, and worked there, and procured his daily 
bread therein. And when he had lived there a long time 
the owners of the village entreated him to go and become 
watchman of the fruit crops in the orchard there, and he 
fulfilled this work for a period of ten years, and received his 


wages for the same. And Ms sons were being- fed and brought 
up in the village which we have already mentioned, and 
they did not know that they were brethren. And the captain 
of the ship who had Ciirried off the wife of Eustathius took 
her to his own country, and the great shadow of God over- 
shadowed her so completely that the barbarian was never able 
to touch her all that time. For what this woman had entreated 

F(A. 12 a God to grant her was that a pagan | man should not touch her 
»^ at all. 

And it came to pass that after her barbarian husband was 
dead the woman remained in that country. And after [many] 
days those pagan people among whom the wife of Eustathius 
was living rose up (or, rebelled), and advanced to seize the 
country of the Romans. And the Emperor Trajan was greatly 
troubled because of the war with these pagan peoples, and he 
remembered Plaketas, more especially because of his bravery 
and his numerous defeats of the alien peoples. And the 
remembrance of Eustathius kept stirring within him, and he 
was troubled about the change which had come upon him in 
his affairs. Then he prepared himself and the soldiers who 
were in his kingdom for the war. And he grieved exceedingly 
for Plaketas, and he spake, saying, ' Him who shall give me 
such indication as will help me to find him, upon him will I 
bestow a great honour and a yearly wage, and I will make 

Fol. 12 & him exceedingly [ rich.' 
H-x And two of his soldiers — now the name of one of them was 

Antiochus, and that of the other Aeacius, and they had been 
servants of Eustathius, and untiring in their ministrations to 
him in times past when he was living with them— departed 
to seek after him, and they searched the whole kingdom 
through very thoroughly until they arrived at the village 
wherein Eustathius was. And as they were going along in. 
the place wherein Eustathius was keeping watch he saw 
them from a distance, and he recognized them by their pecu- 
liar carriage, and by their gait. And he remembered his 


former manner of life, and he beg-an to feel sorrowful in 
heart, and he prayed, saying-, ' O Lord God, Thou merciful 
One, Who deliverest every one who putteth his hope in Thee, 
siace I have seen those who formerly walked with me shall 
not I have hope ? Now, therefore, give the command, and 
look upon me and upon Thy servant, that is to say, my wife. 
For I know well that because of my own evil works my 
children have become food for wild beasts, but I entreat Thee 
to permit me to look upon [them] again in the Resurrection.' j 

And whilst Eustathius was saying these words he heard a Fol. 13 a 
voice which spake unto him, saying, 'Be of good cheer, O ^^ 
Eustathius, at this time, for thou shalt again have the position 
which thou hadst formerly, and thou shalt receive thy wife 
and thy children. In the resurrection of the dead thou shalt 
see the good things which are for ever. Do not deny Me, and 
thou shalt find a rest which is endless, and thy name shall 
increase from generation to generation.' And when he had 
heard these words Eustathius w^as afraid, and he walked down 
from the place where he was, and he stood up close to where 
the two soldiers w^ere on the road in front of them, and he 
knew them without any doubt, but they did not know him. 
They said unto him, ' Hail, good neighbour ! ' And he said 
unto them, ' Peace be unto you, O my brethren ! ' They said 
unto him, 'Dost thou know in this place a man who is a 
stranger, and is called Plaketas, and his wife, and his children ? 
If thou canst shew us this man we will give unto thee very 
much money.' And Eustathius said unto them, ' For what 
purpose art thou enquiring after him ?' And they said unto 
him, ' He w^as a fellow soldier, and behold, we have been wish- 
ing to meet him for many years past.' And he said unto 
them, 'I know not the man. Rest ye, however, | with me, Fol. 13 6 
for the day is far spent ; rest ye yourselves with me in this Re- 
place which I inhabit. For I myself am a stranger.' 

And he took them into his house, and then departed to 
buy some wine to give them to drink. And he said unto the 

3 B 


master of the house wherein he lodo-ed, ' I know these men. 
They have come to me here that I may supply them with 
food and wine ; and they would rest (i. e. lodg-e) with me in 
this place. [Give me food and wine] and I will repay thee the 
price of the same at the time when my wag-es [are paid] '; and 
the man ^ave unto him joyfully everything- which he needed. 
And Eustathius remained and ministered unto them, and he 
could hardly contain himself when he remembered his former 
life ; nevertheless he kept a strong- hold upon himself, and 
did not weep, but he went out [of the house] and wept. And 
he washed his face, and went into [the house again], and 
served them. And they looked at him, and little by little 
they began to recognize him, and they spake unto each other, [ 

Fol. lia saying-, 'This man is like unto the man whom we are seeking-*; 
^^\ and the one said unto the other, 'Yea, he is like him. I know 
that there was a scar on his neck which was caused by a 
wound which he received in it a long- time ago during the war 
with the Masekates. Let us watch him carefully so that we 
may see whether he hath the scar or not. If he hath the 
scar on his neck then he is the man.' And having watched 
for the sig-n very carefully they saw the mark of the wound 
on his neck, and straig-htway they rushed to him, and they 
kissed him, and they asked him, saying, 'Art thou not the 
man Plaketas who was formerly a g-reat general ? ' And he 
denied it, saying-, ' Certainly not ' ; and he kept a strong hold 
upon himself so that he might not weep. And when they 
had pointed out to him the scar of the wound on his neck, 
they took an oath to him, saying, ' Thou art Plaketas, the 
general'; and they asked him concerning his wife and his 
children. And he said unto them, 'They are dead.' 

FoLJ^4 6 And whilst he was | talking to them about these matters 

^^ they lifted up their faces with a great cry, and they wept so 

loudly that all the people who were in the village heard them; 

and whilst they were uttering these loud cries the people of 

the village came to see what had happened, and they were 


afraid and were greatly moved. And the soldiers quieted 
their uproar, and described to them the power and honour 
which the man had enjoyed formerly. And when the men of 
the village had heard these things they heaved sighs, and 
said, ' Great is the honour of this man who hath become 
a hireling unto us.' Then the soldiers reported the matter to 
the Emperor. And they arrayed Eustathius in good apparel, 
being such things as they had with them, and they took him 
and set out on their road. And every one who was in the 
village walked with him to set him on his way, and [--vhen] 
he had supplicated them he sent them away. 

And whilst he was travelling along the road with the 
soldiers he described unto them the things which he had 
seen [in the thicket], and how he had seen the Christ, and 
also how he had been named Eustathius, and he told them 
about all the things which had happened ( unto him. And Fol. 15 « 
when they had fulfilled fifteen days in marching on the road ^^ 
they came to the place where the Emperor Trajan was, and 
they shewed unto him in what manner they had discovered 
Plaketas. And Trajan the Emperor came forth to meet him, 
and he kissed him, and he wept many tears, and he enquired 
of him what his reason was for his departure. And Eustathius 
related to Trajan and all the nobles what had happened 
unto him, and the history of his wife and his children, and in 
what way the captain of the ship had carried away his wife 
by force, and how his children had been carried off by wild 
beasts, and he described to them their tribulations. And 
there was very great joy indeed in [the hearts of the Emperor 
and his nobles] because they had found Eustathius alive. 
And the Emperor comforted him, and made him a general 
as he had been aforetime. 

And when Eustathius had inspected the army he knew 
that it was not sufficiently strong to jfight in battle against 
the Barbarians, and he shewed the Emperor that this was so. 
And Trajan the Emperor commanded his officers to enlist 


recruits, and he wrote an epistle to every city wlierein he 
ordered the people thereof to enlist men, and to train them, j 

Fol. 15 h and to make them fit to be used as soldiers. And it came to 
<V. pass that when [the envoys] had entered the villag-e wherein 
were the sons of Eustathius they took the two young men 
and made recruits of them. And the men who were in that 
place bore testimony concerning them, and said that they 
were vigorous in respect of their strength, and goodly in 
their appearance. And when Eustathius had gathered 
together all the recruits, and had assigned to them their 
positions, he perceived that the two young men were the 
most goodly of them all. And he appointed them to serve him 
personally, because he knew that they were of noble birth by 
their manners and habits, and in his good nature he set them 
apart to minister unto himself. And their own natural dis- 
position drew them more and more day by day to make 
him love them, and he gave orders that they were to eat 
with him at his table. 

And after these things he took command of the army 
according to his w^ont, and he departed to the war and to the 
country of the Barbarians, which he had taken before that 

Fol. 16 a day, and in which he had set free | those who had been kept 
Xd^ in captivity therein. And he crossed the river which is 
called Hydaspes,^ and went up over the mountains, and 
penetrated far into the country of the Barbarians, and he 
vanquished the foreigners also, and spoiled the whole country. 
And Eustathius took counsel with some of the pagans, 
and it seemed good to the Providence of God to make 
him to enter the place where his wife was. Now this woman 
had, from the very first, been preserved, even as I have 
already said, through the care of God, from the violence 
of the captain of the ship [and of other] masters. And when 
this foreigner died she went away by herself, and she took 

1 It is hardly likely that the Indian river Hydaspes in the Panjab is 
here referred to. 


up her abode in the g-arden of one of the people with whom 
she lodged, and she made a booth wherein she might live by 
herself. And when the g-eneral had taken that town, and 
had spoiled it, he pitched his camp there for a period of 
three days, and rested there with his army, because that 
place was very suitable for encamping in. j And it came to Fol. it')i< 
pass that the two young men took up their abode in that \fe 
garden wherein the booth of their mother was situated. And 
as it was the season of noon they sat down and discussed 
together the affairs of their childhood, but they did not know 
that their mother was in that place, nor did they know what 
had happened to them. 

And their mother was sitting listening to what they were 
saying. And the elder brother said unto the younger brother, 
' As concerning the time of my childhood I cannot remember 
anything at all except that my father was a general, and that 
my mother was a very beautiful woman, and that they had 
two children. One of them was younger than myself, and 
his hair was red, and his face was handsome. And they took 
us, and they came forth from our house one night, and they 
embarked with us in a ship wherein we sailed I know not 
whither. And when we arrived at the shore on the ship 
my mother remained by herself on the ship, though for what 
purpose I know not. | As for us our father took the two Fol. 17 a 
of us away, and he went on his way weeping. And having ?Vi? 
come to a river he swam across it with my little brother, 
and me he left on the bank of the stream. And when he 
would have returned to carry me over a lion sprang upon me 
and seized me with his jaws, and went off with me into the 
desert. Now certain shepherds who were pasturing their 
flocks in that place snatched me from the lion, and they 
brought me up there. This I do know, but I do not know 
what happened to my little brother and to my father.' 

When the younger brother heard these things from his 
elder brother he leaped up and wept, and he said, ' Thou art 


my brother. For from what thou hast said I know that 
thou art my lord brother, because I myself was broug-ht by 
the shepherds who told me that I had been snatched away 
from the claws of the wolf; and he embraced him, and they 
kissed each other. And as their mother was listening- to 
these thing's she knew that the two young- men were her 
sons by what they had said about her voyage on the ship. 

Fol. 17b And she said within herself, j 'I wonder can these young- 
A.*:*. men be my sons or not ? Can my sons possibly have their 
forms ? ' And she was exceedingly sorrowful, and her bowels 
were g-reatly moved when she saw the young men embracing 
each other and weeping. And she continued to gaze upon 
them, and she said, ' These assuredly ai'c my sons, more 
especially because they said that their father was a general, 
and that their mother remained on the ship.' 

And on the morrow she went to the general and spake 
unto him, saying, ' I beseech thee [to hear me], O my lord ; 
I am a woman from the country of the Romans, and I was 
carried away captive, and they brought me to this place. 
I therefore entreat thee to take me back to my native land.' 
And whilst she was saying these things she began to recognize 
in him her husband through the various characteristic marks 
which she knew to be in him ; and when she had recognized 
him she was afraid to question him. And when she was 
unable any longer to contain herself she cast herself down 
[before] him, saying, ' I beseech thee, O my lord, be not angry 
with me, for I wish thee to make known unto me what 

Fol. 18 a thy rank in life was formerly. Now I think that | thou 
\e wast Plaketas, the general, who changed his name, and who 
was called Eustathius, after thou hadst been baptized in the 
Name of the Christ Jesus, Who did appear unto thee with 
an animal that was without reasoning power, and thou didst 
believe on Him. And when thou hadst fallen into the trials 
which the Lord had previously indicated to thee thou didst 
take thy wife, that is to say, myself, and thy two sons, that is 


to say, Agapius and Theopistus, and didst set out for Egypt. 
And when we had come to the sea we embarked in a ship, 
and we set sail, and made our passage, and when we had 
arrived thou didst punish me through the savage captain 
of the ship, who seized me and carried me off to his native 
land. But, as the Lord Jesus the Christ is my witness, 
neither that man nor any other hath defiled my body, but 
X have guarded my chastity until this day. If now thou art 
Enstathius, as I know thou must be judging by the marks 
which I can describe unto thee, I conjure thee by the might 
of the Christ to declare thyself, and not to hide from me 
anything whatsoever.' j 

And when Eustathius had heard these things he marvelled Fol. 18 6 
exceedingly. And when he had looked into her face, and Xc 
recognized her, a mighty joy came upon him. And he rose 
up straightway, and embraced her, and said unto her, ' I am 
Eustathius of whom thou speakest.' And they kissed each 
other with a spiritual kiss, and they shed tears in great 
abundance, and they glorified God Who at all times doeth 
good things for His servants, and bringeth them out of all 
tribulation. And his wife said unto him, 'Where are my 
sons?' And he said unto her, and he wept as he said it, 
'The wild beasts carried them off'; and he told her what 
had happened unto them [when they were] with him. And 
she said unto him, ' Let us give thanks unto the Lord, for 
even as He hath given us each to the other, so will He 
speedily give unto us our sons.' And Eustathius said unto her, 
' I tell thee again that the wild beasts carried them off.' And 
she answered and said, ' W^hilst I was sitting in the garden 
yesterday I heard two young men talking together about the 
events which happened in their early childhood, and they 
related things which concerned their early years. And I 
knew that they were my sons, | but they would never have Fol. 19 a 
recognized one another had it not been that the words which 7V.7 
the elder brother spake supplied the clue that enabled the 


younger brother to recog-nize him. If thou hast not up to 
the present known this, then know well that it was the 
loving-kindness of God that hath given us to each other. Do 
thou thyself call the young raen^ and ask them questions, and 
let them inform thee.' 

And the general called the two young men, and asked them, 
saying, ' Whose sons are ye ? And what was it that hap- 
pened to you in your childhood ?' And they declared unto him 
the things which had happened to them, and immediately he 
recognized that they w^ere in truth his sons, and he embraced 
them with fervour, and he kissed them. And Eustathius and 
his wife cast themselves on the necks of their sons, and they 
wept long and gave thanks unto God for the marvellous 
manner in which they had met one another again. And the 
rumour of that which had befallen them reached all the 
multitude of the city, and all the people gathered together in 
one place, and they marvelled and rejoiced because Eustathius 
and his wife and sons had met together once more, but more 
especially for the victory over the Barbarians. And they made 
a great feast that day because they had met together [again], | 
Ff.i. 19?) and on the following day they invoked God, and sent forth 
\h cries of thanksgiving unto Him for His great lovingkindness 
to man. And when they had carried out the spoliation of the 
Barbarians they returned with great gladness, and brought 
with them a very large amount of spoil and a multitude of 

And it came to pass that when Eustathius was returning 
from the war the Emperor Trajan died, and there came in his 
room another Emperor whose name was Adrian (Hadrian), who 
was an exceedingly irreligious man, and was more wicked than 
all the other kings who had reigned before him. And when 
Eustathius was returning from the war the Emperor went out 
to meet him, according to the custom of the Roman Emperors, 
and he brought out with him all his nobles, because of the 
[long] list of all the places which he (Eustathius) had taken. 


And he, because of his valour, whereof he was conscious, 
and because of his meeting with his wife and sons, was filled 
to the uttermost with his joy. And when he had come into 
the city the Emperor went and entered into the temple of 
Apollo, but Eustathius did not go in with him, and remained 
outside. And the Emperor called him, and asked him why | 
he did not come into the temple of Apollo, [saying-], 'Thou Foi 20 a 
must pour out a libation to the gods in return for thy victory, Ae 
and because thou hast returned from the war, and thou must 
offer up sacrifices of thanksgiving to them, especially as thou 
hast found thy wife and thy sons.' And Eustathius said 
unto the Emperor, ' I will certainly offer up offerings to my 
King, the Christ Jesus, together with our supplications and 
our prayers, and our manifold entreaties, because He hath had 
pity on our wretched state, and hath brought us out of 
captivity. He it is Who hath given to me my wife and my 
sons, and hath helped me according to what He spake to me 
before I received baptism in His Name. Now, therefore, 
I know no other god besides Him. For He is the God Who 
hath created the heaven and the earth, and it is He alone 
Who hath done these great marvels.' 

Then the Emperor was wroth when he heard these things 
from Eustathius, and he made him to withdraw from him 
as if he had been a pagan, he and his wife and his sons, 
and he spake unto them words of terror and threats of 
destruction. And the saints neither regarded | them norFol. 20 6 
were they frightened at all. And when the Emperor saw **• 
their unconcern and their faith in the Christ, he commanded 
them to be taken to the stadium, and to be put an end to 
by means of a mighty lion. And when the lion advanced 
to attack them he stood still before the saints, and bent his 
legs and worshipped them, and he laid his head also down on 
the ground. And afterwards he came out of the stadium 
and departed. And when the Emperor saw this great sight, 
and that the wild beast would not attack them, he fell into 

3 C 


doubt. And he commanded them to make a brazen bull, 
so that they might cast the saints into it and bum them. 
And the multitude gathered together to see the strife, and 
the spectacle of the saints ; and [the servants of the Emperor] 
seized them with the mechanical contrivances of the instru- 
ment for lifting them up into it. And the blessed Eustathius 
entreated the honourable people to allow them to pray, and he 
spread out his hands, he and his wife and his sons, and they 
prayed, saying, ' O Lord God of the Powers, Whom no man 
hath ever seen, but Whom now we see according to His wish, 
hearken Thou now unto us who cry unto Thee. Make Thou 
Foi. 31 a our prayer | to be perfect with one thought, namely, the 

*-••*' confession of Thy Name and Thy holy faith. Make Thou us 
worthy to be counted among the holy martyrs, even as were 
the Three Holy Children, whom Thou didst try by fire and 
they denied Thee not. In this manner do Thou receive us 
nnto Thyself, through this fire, as a sacrifice w' ell -pleasing unto 
Thee, and because we make ourselves to be also an offering by 
fire. And Lord, do Thou grant a favour and a gift unto our 
bodies, so that every one who shall commemorate us shall 
receive a gift in the kingdom of heaven, and also a time of 
rest upon earth. And if those who are in peril on the sea, or 
by waters of any kind, cry unto Thy Holy Name, do Thou 
deliver them from their danger. And if those who are 
[burdened] with manifold sins cast themselves down before 
Thee in Thy Name, do Thou forgive them their sins. And 
to every one who shall commemorate us on the day [called 
after] our name, be Thou, O Lord, a helper. Let the threat 
of the fire which is round about us become nnto us the dew 
Fol. 216 of refreshing, so that our bodies, O Lord, may gain J strength 

lig thereby.' 

And whilst they were saying these words and were praying 
they heard a voice from heaven, saying, ' Inasmuch as ye 
have been mighty athletes in this life, and ye have endured 
patiently manifold trials, fear ye not at this present, and 


come ye into this place in peace. Ye shall receiv^e an in- 
destructible crown, and ye shall enjoy yourselves with the 
g-ood thing's which have been prepared ^ov you for ever, in 
the place of the suffering's that ye have endured, and the 
trials which ye have borne patiently and which were only for 
a time.' And when the saints had heard these things they 
delivered themselves joyfully over to the soldiers, who cast 
them into the brazen instrument. And having been thrown 
in the flame of fire enveloped them, and they ascribed glory 
unto the Holy Trinity, unto Whom victory belongeth, and 
after a short time they delivered up their souls into the 
hands of God. And the fire did not touch (or, scorch) their 
bodies in the least degree, nor the hair of their heads. 

And after three days the wdcked Emperor Hadrian [ came Foi. 22 o 
to the place wherein the saints had finished [their fight], and *a^ 
he commanded that the brazen bull should bo opened, so that 
he might be able to see what had happened to the saints. 
And when it had been opened they found the bodies of the 
saints in a perfect state of preservation, and there were no 
marks of destruction whatever in them, and they seemed to 
be still alive. And when they had brought them out and 
laid tbem on the ground, great awe and wonder came upon 
every one who stood nigh unto them, and the bodies of the 
saints were brilliantly white like snow. And the polluted 
Hadrian looked upon them, and he was filled with wonder, 
and w^as afraid, and he went away. And the multitude who 
were standing there cried out, saying, ' Great art Thou, O God 
of the Christians ! Thou art indeed the only Great God, 
Jesus the Christ, and there is no other god besides Thee. 
For Thou didst not permit any harm to reach the bodies of 
[these] saints, nay, they have become brilliantly white and 
shining, and they send forth great light with gfory an(f 

And when the evening had come the Christians came and Fol. 22 b 
carried away the bodies of the martyred saints, j and they •*A'^ 


laid them in an honourable place secretly in the city of Rome. 
And after the persecution [of them had died away] they built 
over them a martyrium, and they celebrated festivals therein 
with hymns and doxologies, according to the custom of the 
Christians. And they commemorated the holy deaths of these 
oflorious martyrs on the twentieth day of the month of 
December, which is Thoth, according- to the lang-uag-e of the 
inhabitants of Eg-ypt. 

Such is the history of the life and contest of these blessed 
and holy martyrs, that is to say, Apa Eustathius, and Apa 
Agapius and Apa Theopistus, his sons, and Amma Theopiste, his 
wife. Here endeth the account of their strife. Now every 
one who shall be worthy to celebrate the holy commemoration 
[of these saints], and who shall invoke them, shall receive 
the good things of the kingdom which is in the heavens, 
through the grace and love for man of our Lord Jesus the 
Christ, to Whom be glory, and to His Good Father, and to 
the Holy Spirit, for ever and ever. Amen. 

At the bottom of the page is written — 
'Victor the deacon, the least [of men], the son of the 
blessed Mercurius, the deacon.' 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 6783) 


And it came to pass in the time of Apa Pambo, the elder 
of the church of Shiet, after he had protected (?) the body of 
the blessed woman Hellaria * (Hillaria), the daughter of the 
Emperor Zeno,^ that a vision was shew^n to him, [and a voice 
said unto him,] ' Rise up, and go thou into the district which 
is on the sea-coast, and thou shalt enquire for the anchorite, of 
whose sandals there is not in the whole world any one who 
is worthy to unloose the latchets.' And the blessed | Apa Fol. 23 b 
Pambo rose up and went into the desert in the strength JUtc 
of God which was with him, even as it was with the 
blecsed Antonius® at the time when he was on his journey 

^ Not the great Pambo, for he died about 390. 

' The chief church of the monks in tiio Scete Desert. See Wriglit, 
Catalogue of Syriac MSS., p. ii ; Qnatremere, l/twoires, i, p. 451 ; Anielinoau, 
Oeog., p. 433. 

' June-July. 

* See Crum, Catalogue of Coptic MSS., p. 364, note 6. 
« Emperor of the East, 474-91. 

* Antony the Great, who lived from 250 to 350. 


to go to (i. e. visited) the blessed man Apa Pauliis a 
second time. 

And the blessed elder Apa Pambo rose up and went into 
the desert, and he came to the cell of a monk, and he stood 
still and knocked at the door for a considerable space of time, 
and he cried out three times, accordino- to the rules of the 
monkish brethren^ saying-, ' Bless me ! ' And whilst I, Pambo, 
was standing at the door, the brother made answer to me 
inside, saying, ' Hail, Pambo, the elder of the church of Shiet, 
thou mighty ship that sailest over the desert that is without 
water. Behold, I have eagerly desired to see thee for a very 
long time! Behold, God hath fulfilled for me my wish this 
day ! Come in, O blessed man ! ' And Apa Pambo answered, 
Fol. 24 a saying, ' Hail thou, Apa Hierax, who hast | become a com- 

JU."^ panion of the angels of God by reason of thy purity.' And 
Apa Hierax opened the door, and brought in Apa Pambo, 
and they sat down together. And Apa Pambo said unto him, 
' My beloved brother Apa Hierax, behold, is it very many 
years since thou didst come to this place ? ' And Apa Hierax 
said unto Pambo, ' Behold, I have been in this place eighteen 
years, and I have never eaten any of the foods which are 
usually eaten in this world, but I have lived upon the fruit of 
trees.' Now there was a palm-tree growing outside that 
cell, and it produced twelve clusters, one cluster each month, 
and he lived upon the fruit thereof. And I, Pambo, said unto 
him, ' My beloved father, are there any brethren living beyond 
thee in the desert ? ' And Apa Hierax said, ' There are some ; 
bless me, and get thee gone to them, and receive a blessing 
at their hands.* 

And having departed from him into the mountain I came 

to a small cell of a monk, and I called into it according to 

the rule of the monkish brethren. And as I stood outside it, 

Fol. 24 b the brother made answer unto me from the inside, | saying, 

AiH ' Hail, Apa Pambo, the elder of the church of Shiet, thou 
mighty ship that sailest over the desert that is without 


water, behold, I have longed eagerly to see thee for many 
days. At last hath God fulfilled my wish for me this day ; 
come inside, and do not stand outside.' And I made answer 

to him, 'I am Pambo, O my beloved father Pamoun 

my lord ! ^ Hail, my beloved brother, unto whom belongeth 
the coat of many colours, which is like unto the coat of Joseph 
the rig-hteous man. And before God it is more precious than 
all the purple of the king-s of this world.' Believe me, O my 
brethren and fathers, I, Pambo, the least of all men, smelled 
the sweet odour of that brother for a mile before I came 
to the place where he was. And when we had saluted each 
other, we offered up prayer, and wo sat down. And I said 
unto him, ' My father, I know that thou must be cold in 
winter, and thou wilt not be burnt up with the heat in 
the summer, when wearing- a tunic of this kind.' And Apa 

Pamoun said nnto me, because this, 

most certainly, is its name, [ O my beloved brother ApaFol. 25(x 
Pambo. Believe me, O my beloved father, behold, it is -"-^ 
twenty years ago since I came to this place, and with this 
single garment I have found means to keep myself warm 
during the winter, and to moderate the heat of the atmosphere 
in summer time. And I confess unto thee that this tunic 
will suffice for me until the day of my death ; and, moi'cover, 
when I am dead it will be large enough for them to roll me 
up in it until the day of the Judgement of Truth.' And I said 
unto him, ' My beloved father, is there any brother living 
beyond thee in the desert ? ' And he said unto me, ' There is 
one brother the latchet of one of whose sandals all the whole 
world is not worthy to unloose. I myself went to him many 
times, wishing to visit him, and he used to answer me from the 
inside of his cell, saying, " Get thee gone ! In coming hither 
thou hast given thyself trouble [to no purpose]. No man of 
flesh shall see my face, except the elder of the church of 
Shiet." And now, O my father, perhaps it was ordained for 
^ n*JULnopK occurs again in 1. 19. 


thee to take me with thee, so that I may receive a blessing at 

Fol. 25 b his hands before I die.' | And I said unto him, ' Nay, it is not 

H ordained thus, and it is not for this purpose that I have come 

to this place. But I will remember thee if the Lord maketh 

straight my way so that I may meet that brother. And, 

my father, do thou remember me until I shall enjoy the 
blessing of that brother.' 

And when I had journeyed into the mountain about the 
distance of a mile — now I, Pambo, the least of men, swear 
unto thee by the awfal throne of God, and I do not lie in 
what I am going to say — the being who seized the pro- 
phet Habakkuk in ancient days, and carried him, and the 
food which was in his hands, and brought him to the pit 
of the lions [when] Habakkuk gave it (i. e. the food) to 
Daniel^ who was in the pit of the lions, this same being, 

1 say, seized me under the impulse of the Spirit, and brought 
me to the little habitation of that brother. And I knocked at 
the door, according to the rule of the monkish brethren, and 
I stood still at the door for a long time. And after these 

Fol. 26 a things the brother answered me from within, saying, ] ' Hail, 
nS. Apa Pambo, thou elder of the church of Shiet, thou mighty 
ship that sailest over the desert that is without water. 
Behold, for very many days I have eagerly desired to see 
thee. Behold, this day hath God fulfilled my desire. Come 
in, and stand not outside.' And when I was passing in 
through the door of the little habitation I looked, and I saw 
a mighty stone, which twelve men were trying to move, and 
they could only lift it with the greatest difficulty. And that 
brother advanced, and rolled the stone along, and fixed it 
at the door of the habitation ; and when I saw this I marvelled 
exceedingly. Then I remembered the patriarch Jacob, and 
how he, when he fled from the face of Esau his brother, went 
into Mesopotamia of Syria, and how when he had arrived 
at the place wherein were the sheep of Labau he went up to 
1 Bel and the Dragon, 33 ff. 


the well, and rolled away the stone ^ which was on the mouth 
thereof, [ without any man giving him assistance, and howFol. 26 6 
he watered the sheep of Laban and then sent them away to t\tt 
feed. And finally I understood that in everything^ that the 
saints perform it is God Who helpeth them. 

And I said unto him, ' O my holy father, shew me thy 
holy name, for God hath hidden this from me.' And he said, 
' Cyrus is my name. I am the brother of the Emperor Theo- 
dosius, and I was reared and fed at the same table as Arcadius 
and Honorius. And, indeed, many, many times hath Honorius 
said unto me, '^ Take me with thee into the desert, and I will 
become a monk " ; but I did not wish to take him with me, 
because he is a son of the Emperor. And when we saw 
that oppression (or, violence) had multiplied, and that the 
Emperors were committing' sin, and that the rulers were 
robbinc^ the poor, and that every one was turning out of the 
straight road, and making corrupt his path before God, I rose 
up, and I set out and I came to this desert, and I took up 
my abode therein because of the multitude of my sins. May 
God forgive me these ! ' | 

And I, Pambo, said unto him, ' My beloved father, where Fol. 27 a 
wilt thou find men in this desert place to comfort thee in thy ^^"^ 
sufferings?' And Apa Cyrus said unto me, 'Believe me, 

my beloved brother, Apa Pambo, mj God and my Lord 
Jesus Christ are Those Who visit me in this desert wherein 

1 live. For I have never seen a man who csime to me except 
a certain brother who was a monk, and who came hither 
wishing to see my face •, besides snch an one I have never 
seen any one. On the contrary, when any one came hither, 
whilst he remained outside I commanded him from inside 
this abodcj saying, " Get thee gone, thou hast troubled 
thyself [to no purpose] in coming to me." Most assuredly 
no man of flesh shall see my face except Apa Pambo, the 
elder of the church of Shiet. This matter hath, however, 

^ Gen. xxix. 3. 
3 D 


taken place through the dispensation of God, and now, behold, 
God hath fulfilled for me mj wish this day.' 

And I said unto him, 'My brother, is there any other 
brother beyond thee in the desert ? ' He said unto me, 
' There is nothing- beyond me except darkness and the 
punishments which sinners are enduring. Sit thou down 
Fol. 27 6in j this place, O my brother, in this hour, and thou shalt 
IfSk see mig-hty wonders.' And when the light of the Lord's Day 
had spread abroad, I lieard voices crying out, ' Thy love is 
accepted, O Christ ; Thou hast shewn mercy unto us.' And 
I said unto him, ' My beloved father, what shall we do in 
respect of these things ? The mountain is crumbling away 
under us.' And he said unto me, ' Be not afraid, O my son, 
that God will come down for the sake of pimishments. He 
hath commanded the angels who inflict punishments upon 
souls to give them a respite, for to-day is the Lord's Day, 
and [the day of] the Resurrection of the Lord.' And he also 
said unto me, ' Peradventure the Christ will come into this 
place to-day according to His wont, and I shall be able to 
kiss Him, mouth to mouth.' 

And whilst he was saying these things, behold, the Christ 
opened the door of the habitation, and He came in ; now the 
FoL^8 a door opened straightway of its own accord. And when j He 
"^ had come in, believe me, O my brethren and fathers, I, Pambo, 
the least of men, saw the Christ go up to that brother and 
kiss him, mouth to mouth, even as doth a brother who hath 
arrived from a strange region when he meeteth his friend. 
And as for me, Pambo, the least of men, I was not worthy 
that He should kiss me then, and He went forth from our 
midst and we did not know whither He had gone. And 
I thought that He was a brother monk. And I said unto 
Cyrus, ' My beloved father, didst not thou tell me just now 
that no being of flesh hath ever come to thee in this place 
except myself? If this be so shew me now who this brother 
monk was Who came in and kissed thee, I myself being 


unworthy that He should kiss me.' And he said unto me, 
' Didst thou not know who He was? ' And I said unto him, 
' No, my father, I did not. How should I know who He was ?' 
And he said unto me, ' This | was the Lord of the thing's that Fol. 28 
are in heaven, and of the things that are upon the earth. ^^^ 
This was the Son of Mary, the Holy Virgin. This was He 
Who filleth the desert, and every one who calleth upon Him.' 
And he also said unto me, 'A great prophet and Archimandrite 
hath died this day, that is to say, Apa Shenoute ^ the elder ; 
the whole world is punished this day, for he was a very g'reat 
teacher, and this day is the seventh of the month Epeph.' 
And he also said unto me, ' This is the man who did not lie 
down on his bed, nor slumber, nor sleep until he found the 
place of the Lord, the habitation of the God of Jacob, his 
Helper.^ Inasmuch as he fought splendidly he conquered the 
Devil in [this] world and hath departed to his Lord, and he 
shall be perfect in the kingdom which is in the heavens. 
May his blessing and his prayer be with us ! Amen.' 

And he also said unto me, * My beloved brother Pambo, 
I am sick this day. I beseech thee to do me the favour of 
praying for me until I journey over the road of fear and 
terror.' And I said unto him, ' My beloved father, art thou, 
even thou, afraid, notwithstanding all the multitude | of Fol. 29 1 
ascetic labours which thou hast performed in this world ? ' ^^ 
He said unto me, 'I have performed a few of the ascetic 
labours which God appointed for me, it is true, but how is 
it possible for us not to be afraid of the things w^hich have 
been indicated to us by very many witnesses, that is to say, 
the river of fire, and the appearance before the Judge ? And 
as for that river, every one is bound to pass over it, whether 
he be a righteous man or whether he be a sinner, and it 
is right that thou shouldst i)ray on my behalf until I journey 

1 He was born in 333 and died at midday early in July, 451, aged 
about 118 years. 

^ Compare Ps. cxxxii. 4, 5. 


over that terrible road.' And he spake unto me again, 
saying, ' If a man's life upon this earth were to consist of 
one day only, he would not be free from sin. And, moreover, 
all flesh shall be purged by the fire.' ^ 

And it came to pass that at the third hour of the eighth 
day of the month Epeph he became very ill indeed, and he 
said unto me, ' I salute thee in the Lord, O my beloved 
brother.' And thus saying he prayed, and he recited the 
prayer in the Gospel, and he opened his mouth, and yielded 
up his spirit, like one who lieth asleep. And I sat down, and 
I wept continuously over him. And as I was weeping over 
him, behold, the Christ opened the door of the cell, and He 

Fol. 29 b came in, and He stood up by the body j of the blessed Apa 
liH Cyrus, and He wept over him, and I wept over him. And 
I saw the tears of the Christ which fell upon the body of the 
blessed Apa Cyrus; and the Christ turned away and departed 
by the door of the abode. And when He had gone out I saw 
a multitude of Angels, and Archangels, and Apostles, and 
all the righteous, standing there. And one of them came 
towards me ; now he was lame, and he said unto me, ' Knowest 
thou who I am ? ' And I said unto him, ' Nay, my lord, 
I do not.' He said unto me, ' Hearken, [and] I will shew 
thee. I am Kepha, unto whom they gave the name of Peter. 
I am he whom the Christ called in the Gospel " Bar lona," 
that is to say, '• Son of the dove." ^ The blessed Apa Shenoute 
went to his rest yesterday. He (i.e. Christ) hath taken the soul 
of the blessed man Apa Cyrus, and [the soul of] Apa Shenoute, 
the Archimandrite, to the place of rest, even as it is written, 

Fol. 30 a '• There are many mansions in the house [ of My Father." ^ 
NO May their holy blessing be with us ! Amen.' 

And after these things, whilst I was pondering in my heart 

and trying to think what I should do with the body of 

the blessed man, and whether I should bury it, and where 

I should lay it, the Saviour came forth from the door of the 

J Compare 1 Cor. iii. 13. » Matt. xvi. 17. 3 John xiv. 2. 


cell, and closed the door behind Him. And the Saviour 
had His hand upon the door of the cell, and He was 
drag-g-ing- the body of the blessed man, and He became unto 
him a place of defence until the day of the Righteous Judge- 
ment. And the Saviour went up into heaven with His 
ang-els. And I walked and came forth to the brethren A])a 
Pamoun and A pa Hierax, and I told them of the things 
which I had seen, and they glorified God. And I remained 
with them for a few days. 

After these things I departed to my monastery in Shiet, 
and I wTote the life of the blessed man Apa Cyrus, and I 
placed it in the church of Shiet, for the profit and consolation 
of those who should hear it [read], and to the glory of the 
Holy Trinity, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, 
for ever and ever ! Amen. 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 6783) 



* The successor of Julianus ; he sat from 189 to 231-2. 
'^ Archbishop of Alexandria, who sat from 289 to 295. 
^ Compare Jer. xxi. 12. 



The occasion moveth. me to set in motion the organ of my 
halting- tong-ue, and my infirm mouth, | and it maketh me Fol. 31 a 
to say with the Psalmist David, the Sing-er of God, ' Thou ^^ 
visitest the earth, Thou makest it to produce food, Thou 
multipliest in g-reat abundance the riches [thereof]. The river 
of God is full of water. Thou preparest their food.'^ This 
is our preparation in truth. He hath visited the earth, 
He hath made it to produce food, He hath multiplied the 
riches [thereof] in great abundance. If material wine be 
the joy of men, the w^hich when they drink it to excess 
causeth them to become drunk, and there is arrogance therein, 
how very much more joy and gladness will those men have 
who have drunk of the Fountain of living water, the Christ ! 
If the earth rejoiceth when the water of heaven cometh upon 
it, how much more joy and gladness shall men [feel] at 
the moment when the waters of understanding fall upon the 
grass of the mind ! Now the waters which are manifest 
yield fruits which are manifest, and are of fleshly character ; 
and when the w^aters of the Spirit have descended upon the 
earth of men they yield fruits of the Spirit. Of what kind 
now are these fruits? Hearken and I will tell you; only 
ye must neither feel any doubt [about what I say], nor 
must ye murmur. | One church only hath closed [its door] : Fol. 31 & 
I speak of the synagogue of the Jews, but I do not call "%& 
this truly a spiritual church, because it hath shut its door 
against Him that rose from the dead, and hath taken His 
seat on the right hand of His Father. He became man at 
His command, and the things which have been opened unto 
us through His holy Blood, which He shed for us, are 
thousands of thousands, and tens of thousands of tens of 
thousands. Now the fruits to which I have already alluded 

1 Ps. Ixv. 9. 


are these : continence, purity, virg-inity, compassion, peace, 
hope, long'-siifForing', obedience,^ et cetera. These are the 
thing-s which the spiritual meadow produceth through the 
spiritual rain which falleth upon it. 

And, moreover, now is the time for me to say with the 
prophet and law-giver Moses, ' Let us ascribe gJory unto 
the Lord, for lie hath gotten glory.' ^ If those who lived 
in days of old marvelled when they saw their enemies dying- 
in the sea,^ why should I not marv^el when I behold Him that 

y(>]^a cJiefj for xis, \ and I'ose [from the dead], until He had humbled 
'^^^ pride ? Assuredly then I will set in motion the organ of 
my tongue, and I will declare a few glorious things con- 
cerning the saint in whose name we are gathered together, 
for he was a father who loved his children, and a shepherd 
who pastured his sheep wisely. He was clothed with the 
foundation of virtue, virginity, and holy matrimony. 

But perhaps some one will tell me that it is not possible for 
a man to become a virgin after he hath married a wife ; let 
that some one hearken, and I will give him an absolute 
proof that this is possible from Holy Scripture. I myself 
say, with our Saviour, that there exist some who have made 
themselves eunuchs for the sake oi the king-dom which is in 
the heavens.* Those who were born eunuchs from their 
mother's womb to those the name of eunuch certainly be- 
longeth, but as concerning- the man who hath made himself 
an eunuch, who is able to declare adequately his valour ? 
The acts of David,^ when he destroyed Goliath with h'la 
armour and weapons of war upon him, and when the people 
applauded him with sympathy, are wholly different from 
the valour of the man who hath made himself an eunuch. 

Foi. 32j)But now, when once David had destroyed him, | without 

^.■^ armour and without spear, Goliath was dead once and for 

all, even as every other person who dieth, and [he obtained] 

^ Compare Gal. y. 22. 2 i^^^i^ xxxu. 3. » Exod. xv. 1-12. 

♦ Matt. xix. 12. 5 1 Sam. xvii. 4 ff. 


the prize which belongeth to the victors. Even so is it in 
the case of a man if he has been horn an eunuch ; he striveth, 
hut languidly, and without the strength which is shewn by 
the man who striveth, being in possession of all his members. 
Now David destroyed the lion and the bear,^ once, or twice, 
and even three times, but Demetrius the Archbishop destroyed 
his lusts every day. He who fighteth with wild beasts is not 
as valiant as the man who fighteth against passion. When 
the w^ild beast devoureth a man the man is no longer forth- 
coming to fight with him again. On the other hand, the 
lust to which a man giveth place in himself never ceaseth to 
crush him all day and every day, and it increaseth in him 
until it destroyeth him. And the wise men who were 
continent knew that this is so, and it was because of this 
very thing that they fled into the desert. 

Let us, however, turn our discourse to this holy man 
Demetrius, and we will now make known unto you his 
virtues and his valour. Now this | holy man Demetrius Fol. -"S a 
was descended from a great and very old and famous family ^^ 
in the city of Rakote. And after Saint Julianus, the Arch- 
bishop of Rakotcj was dead,^ the throne of Rakote remained 
empty for many days, and there was no bishop, and no man 
sat on the archiepiscopal throne, because it was the period 
during which lawless and idol-worshipping Emperors reigned- 
A great persecution of the Church was in progress, and the 
people were like unto the sheep that are without a shepherd. 
However, by the Will of God, and by the votes of the whole 
congregation, they laid hold of a second Joseph, I mean Saint 
Demetrius, and they enthroned him on the throne of Saint 
Mark the Evangelist. 

But, perchance, thou who art listening to me wilt say, 
' Thou mayest compare this holy man to Joseph, but thou 
must not compare the wife of this holy and wise man to that 
worthless woman who bore ill will towards the holy man 

^ 1 Sam. xvii. 34-6. * He became Bishop of Alexandria in 179. 

3 E 


Fol. ,33 6 Joseph, I mean the wife of the Egyptian.' Most j certainly 
^S not, and far be it from me to do so. But forg-ire me, 
O Christ-loving congregation. If Joseph had lain with the 
Egyptian woman, it would have been a sin to him, for it 
would have been fornication that he was committing, and it 
was for this very reason that he kept his body pure in respect 
of God Who had created him. Now in the case of Saint 
Demetriu-!, even if he had Iain with his wife, it would not 
have been sin unto him, because they had been joined together 
by God. But, notwithstanding my answer, thou wdlt say 
unto me in any case, ' He was a bishop, and it was not 
seemly for him to take a wife.' Speak not in this wise, 
O brother, for the holy Canons of the Apostles speak thus : 
' If a head hath a wife who was married to liim before he 
became a bishop, he shall not put her away after he hath 
become a bishop, but let him remain with her.' And the 
holy Apostle used to say, ' Marriage is honourable in every- 
thing, and the marriage bed is pure, [but] the whoremonger 
and the adulterer shall God judge.' ^ Therefore this holy man 

Fol. 31 a Demetrius j hath triumphed, according to what we said. 
^■^ When, therefore, they had enthroned him upon the episcopal 

throne, ^ he loved to act in this way : 

He never upbraided a man. And he was in the habit of 
saying, ' My son, go and wii^hdraw thyself from whatever 
land of sin it is which thou art committing, and afterwards 
[come] and partake of the Holy Mysteries.' And when he 
had continued to act in this manner for a considerable time 
the whole city withdrew itself from sin to sucli an extent that 
hardly any sin was committed. If any man saw another 
committing a sin he would rebuke him, saying, ' Withdraw 
thyself from this act lest the Archbishop turn aside from 
thee, and the whole congregation will look at thee'; and 
that sinner would become afraid and would continue to be 

^ Heb. xiii. 4. 

^ The text is corrupt here ; several words are missing. 


so ; and for this reason veiy many ceased entirely to 
commit sin. 

Nevertheless, there be many a quarrelsome man who will 
say, ' Hath not this Demetrius his wife with him ? ' And he 
will also say these words: 'All the people were scandalized, 
and there was murmuring- because of him, because [until this 
man did so] no one had sat upon the archiepiscopal throne of 
Saint Mark | the Evanj^elist, who was no virgin.' However, Fol. m h 
there are some who understand the Scriptures who will say to 2;^ 
those who utter these words, 'Marriage is honom-able in every 
way, and the marriage bed is pure, and it is God Who insti- 
tuted marriage : what aileth you that ye murmur against 
the Archbishop ? ' But in spite of these words those [who 
murmur] do not wish to be persuaded, and they say, ' This 
man Demetrius w^ho hath seated himself on the archiepiscopal 
throne is the twelfth, and of them all only this man hath had 
a wife.* But it is God Himself, the Good, Who did not wish 
the [virtue of the] holy man to remain hidden, and He 
desired to make him manifest, and [to make him] to be 
glorified by the people, according to what He said in the 
Gospel, ' Men do not light a lamp and put it under a bushel, 
but they place it upon a candlestick, so that it may give 
light to all those who are in the house.' ^ 

And the matter was revealed to the Archbishop when he 
was lying asleep one night, for behold, the Angel of God 
appeared unto him, and he said unto him, ' Demetrius, 
Demetrius, seek not only thine own happiness, but that of 
thy neighbour. And remember what the Lord spake in 
the j Gospel, saying, " The good shepherd layeth dow^n bis Fol. 85a 
life for his sheep." ^ And the holy man Demetrius said unto '^.^ 
the Angel, ' What is it, O my Lord ? What is it that Thou 
wouldst command me to do ? If Thou wishest to send me 
forth to martyrdom, am I not ready to pour out my blood 
for the Name of my Lord Jesus the Christ?' The Angel 

1 Matt. V. 15 ; Luke viii. 16 ; xi. 33. ' John x. 1 1-16. 


said unto him, ' Hearken unto me, O Demetrius. The Christ 
became man because He loved us, and because of this He also 
redeemed His people. Now, therefore, is it a right thing- for 
thee to cause a scandal among the people over whom God 
hath set thee ? ' The Archbishop said unto the Angel, ' My 
Lord, shew me my sin, and I will withdraw myself from it.' 
The Angel said unto him, ' The mystery which is between 
thee and thy wife must be made manifest unto the whole con- 
gregation.' Demetrius said, ' I beseech thee, O my Lord, let 
me die before Thee, only let not this thing be, and do not let 
any man have knowledge thereof.' The Angel said unto him, 
'Thou knowest, O Demetrius, what is written, namely, "The 
disobedient shall end in destruction."^ Rise thou up then j 

F<il. 35 6 early in the morning-, and after thou hast administered the 

^ Sacrament gather together all the clergy, and all the business 

folk, and shew them the myster}^ which existeth between 

thee and thy wife.' And when the Angel had said these 

things unto him he disappeared from him. 

And when the morning had come, now it was the Day 
of Pentecost, the Archbishop made ready to celebrate the 
Catholic Synaxis. Now on that day he used to expound 
passages of the Scriptures to the congregation with his holy 
mouth, and after the people had received the Holy Mysteries 
he would complete the Liturgy. And the Archbishop com- 
manded the Archdeacon not to allow any member of the 
congregation to leave the church, but to gather them all 
together in the council chamber, saying, ' The Archbisr^hop 
biddeth me say : Let not one of you depart to his house, for 
I have somewhat to say unto thee.' And when they had all 
taken their seats in the council chamber the Archbishop 
commanded [his servant] to gather together a large quantity 

Fol. 36c(of wood, and he made them bring in fire and j set light 
O^ to the wood. And the congregation marvelled what this 
thing meant. Then the Papa said, ' Rise up, let us pray ' ; 
1 Compare Job xxi. 30; Ps.xxxvii. 38 ; 2 Thess. i. 8, 9. 


and when they had prayed they sat down. And the Papa 
said unto them, ' I invoke your love so that your servant, 
that is to say, my wife, may come forth, and enjoy your 
blessing".' And they marvelled, and said, ' Whatsoever our 
father commandeth, let it take place.' Then the Archbishop 
called one of his servants, and said unto him, ' Go and call 
the servant of these holy men, that is to say, my wife.' 

And when the holy woman heard [these words] she came 
into the midst of the brethren. Then the Archbishop rose 
up and looked round upon all present, and he stood up on 
the blazing- pieces of wood of the fire, and he spread out 
his tunic, and took some of the burning coals in his hands 
and threw them into it. And all the brethren who were 
sitting- in the council chamber marvelled at the larg-e quantity 
of fire which he put into his tunic, and why it did not catch 
fire. Then he told his wife to spread out her tunic and 
her I other g-arment, and the holy man transferred the coals Fol. 36 b 
of fire to her g-arment, and she remained standing there before ofe 
him in the midst of the fire, and neither she nor her apparel 
was burnt. And the Archbishop said a second time, ' Let us 
pray ' ; and the coals of fire were in his garment, and he was 
not burnt. 

Hearken ye now unto me. Ye marvel at me, O my 
brethren, because I say that when a man hath made himself 
an eunuch he is more glorious than the man who was an 
eunuch when he was born. It was because of this very thing 
that these saints were not burnt, for they had extinguished 
the flame of the fire of lust ; let us then not be troubled 
at the words. Let us return now and finish the narrative, 
which will glorify God. When they had prayed, and were 
seated, the clergy said unto the Archbishop, ' We entreat thee 
and the holy woman to explain unto us the meaning of this 
symbolic act which thou hast performed, for we are all 
wondering about the matter, and what it meaneth.' And 
the Archbishop said unto them, ' Hearken unto me, and I 


will shew you. For I have not done this thing- with the 
view of seeking- after the praise of men. I am sixty years 
of age this day, and the woman whom ye see is more than 
fifty-one. Her father died when she was a little girl, and j 

Fo]. ,37 a the brother of her father, who was my father, brought her to 
O^^ our house ; she was an only child, just as I myself am an 
only child, and we were brought up together in the same 
ho\ise. And when I was fifteen years of age my parents 
wished to betroth me to her, in the first place naturally 
because we were brethren of each other (i. e. cousins), and 
secondly because, according to the pride of this world, we did 
not wish any stranger to enter our family and take any part 
of our inheritance. And when we had celebrated our mar- 
riage, it was incumbent upon me, as it befitteth men, to go in 
unto her. And when we were lying together she said unto 
me, " My brother, a brother ought not to marry [his] sister " ; 
and I said unto her, " Assuredly not." And she said unto me, 
" Why then have they given us each to the other ? Am I not 
thy sister ? " And I said unto her, " If thou wilt hearken 
unto me, O my sister, we shall live in a world where they 
shall never separate us, the one from the other. But if I 
take thee to wife in this world, I shall be separated from thee 
by death, and thou wilt be separated from me. If we keep 
our bodies holy in purity we shall never leave each other 
in the Jerusalem which is in the heavens." And when she 
had heard these words from me we made a compact together 

¥o].37bto keep our bodies j unpolluted. And my parents did not 
O*^ know of [this] conversation, but they told the men who were 
in the bride-chamber to bring to them the tokens of the 
virginity of the bride, according to the custom which, as 
ye well know, men observe in this matter. And these men 
j>ersuaded our parents, saying, " They are mere childi-en still," 
and by reason of these words our parents ceased to make 
enquiries concerning our affairs. 

' And when our parents were dead we remained together, 


hoth being- orphans. Then as for these three children which 

we for ourselves, it was God Who ordained them .... 

<ach other. And the same covering- which clothed (or, 
covered) us both .... each other except at the time when the 
woman separateth from the man,^ And the Lord Who shall 
judge the living and the dead, and Who knoweth what is 
hidden in the heart, knoweth that I have never known this 
woman, and that she hath never known me. I am only 
the husband of us two in appearance, and as for the carnal in- 
tercourse of this world which taketh place on a bed I have no 
knowledge of it whatsoever. Moreover, when we used to lie 
tog-ether in bed, we used to see a creature | like unto anFol. 38 a 
eagle flying in the air, and he would come and sing- over the oe 
bed whereon we two were lying* ; and me he used to place 
under his right wing, and the woman under his left wing. 
In the daytime when it was light he would depart, and we 
used to see him going away. Do not think that 1 am seeking 
after the praise of men, for I am not, and it would not be 
my wish to tell you these things if it had not been that 
He Who wisheth to be profitable unto every man, namely, 
God, the Lover of man, hath commanded me to do so.' And 
when he had said these things they cast themselves down 
at his feet, saying, ' O our father, thou art the most noble 
of all created things ! ' And after these things he commanded 
his wife to depart to her own quarter, and having prayed 
he dismissed the other people, and each one departed to his 
house in peace. 

Now do not your hearts leap when ye hear of miracles of 
this kind ? And do ye not wonder at this holy man, who 
passed his whole life with his wife, and restrained himself j 
from union with her ? Where are the men now, who, Fol. fiS 6 
although they have their wives, practise fornication, and oc- 
who [at the same time] proclaim emphatically ' We are 
Christians?' Let them come hither now, and let them be 
^ The meaning of the passage nei ujOJuHf — Jx ngooiTT is not clear to me. 


ashamed when they see their father Demetrins_, the holy 
Archbishop, saying-, ' We know nothing of each other, except 
the face.' O thou who dost set the combat, thou fighter 
against passion. Saint Demetrius, O my father, did not thy 
heart leap within thee when thou didst gaze upon the 
exceedingly great beauty of thy wife ? Did not the tender 
softness of her body cause thine understanding to totter ? 
For thou wast, after all, only a youth. When thou didst 
talk with her and there was none present with thee, did 
not he who shooteth arrows of evil shoot arrows into 
thee ? He said, ' I am a man myself, and I am clothed 
with flesh like every other man.' But hearken, and I will 
shew thee [what Demetrius said], 'Whensoever my heart 
vised to stir me up to passion, I used to remember the vows 
which I swore to keep to the Christ, saying, " I will never 
break them, for if I do He will deny me before His Father 
Fol. 39a and His [ holy angels." Whensoever I remembered the softi- 
es ncss of her body, I used to remember how the flesh of men 
goeth to corruption in the tomb, and the foetid humour which 
it giveth forth. And, not permitting our mouth to utter any 
strange thing, we were afraid of the destruction caused by 
the fire and flame of Gehenna which exist in Amente, and 
[we remembered that] those who are therein wish to open 
their mouth to its fullest extent, and that they cannot 
open it.' 

And I make mention, O God-loving Council, of what 
I said in the opening paragraphs [of this discourse], namely, 
this pure man of this kind is far more excellent than he who 
slayeth a lion and a bear. And, moreover, one of the philo- 
sophers saith, ' He who destroyeth a lion is not a strong man, 
and he who destroyeth a panther is not a mighty man ; but 
he who killeth himself, and is guiltless of beguilement of 
women, is the strongest of all.' Now Joseph the patriarch 
lived in the house of the Egyptian, and the matter is 
manifest, namely, that that sinful woman was bad and that 


she associated herself witli him daily until she found an 
opportunity [to tempt] him. As for thee, O holy man, 
Demetrius, they contended against thee daily through thy 
understanding. If I wished to do so, I could prolong my 
discourse to you, and relate further to you concerning the 
virtues, and the miracles, and the mighty power of this holy 
man! I know, however, | that his honour is in the heavens FoLjJOi 
before Him Who became man, for our sakes, through Mary °** 
the Virgin. Verily thou didst effect thy escape, thou didst 
keep the faith, and now thou dost make supplication for us 
in the place wherein thou art. If I wished to multiply speech 
unto you, I could relate unto you the miracles which God set 
in operation by the hands of this holy man, Demetrius, the 
holy Archbishop, but I am well aware of my feebleness, and 
of the utter impotence of my halting and poor words. 

Let us however turn to another case (i. e. subject). We 
will now bring forward the case of a man who was arrayed in 
three virtues, namely, virginity, and the rank of the high 
priesthood, and the rank of the martyr. Now who was this 
saint ? It was Peter, the Archbishop of Rakote. In times past 
he had been a worshipper of idols, and had performed the 
duties of an office under the lawless Emperor Diocletian, who 
gave the order | to pull down the churches everywhere. And FoL^O a 
there was nothing which he did openly against the service ^^ 
of holiness in Rakote, because the Archbishop Peter, the holy 
man, did not regard the face of men, but he paid good heed to 
Him Who said, ' Fear not those who can kill your bodies, 
but who are not able to kill your souls.' ^ For this reason he 
was exceedingly courageous, and he used to say to the clergy, 
' Let not the suspicion of men separate you from the Christ.' ^ 

Now there was at that time a certain man in Antioch 

whose name was Zokrator, and this man was in no wise a 

companion of Apater, who went to Egypt and became 

a martyr. And this Zokrator was originally a Christian who 

1 Matt. X. 28. ' ^ Compare Kom. Tiii. 35-9. 

3 F 


had been baptized, but he had withdrawn himself [from the 
Christians] ; and he was a hypocrite, and he hated the 
Christians exceeding-ly. And he had a wife who was a 
Christian, and whose name was Marturia, and she had borne 
him two sons, the elder of whom was called Philopator, and 
the younger Eatropius. And when the boys had grown up, | 

Fol. 40band were of a suitable age for baptism, they wished to be 
^ baptized according to the ordinance of the Christians. And the 
wife spake unto her husband, saying, ' I beseech thee, O my 
brother, to come with me to the city of Rakote that we may 
have our children baptized, lest they die before they have 
received the baptism of God, for God will be wroth with 
us if we neglect the soxils of our children.' And Zokrator 
said unto his wife, ' Hold thy peace, my sister — now thou 
knowest that a persecution [of the Christians] is in progress 
at the present time — lest the Emperor hear of it, and destroy 
us.' And when he had said these words she was afraid to 
leave her children unbaptized. And when she knew that he 
would not be persuaded by her to do what she thought [to be 
right] she rose up, and she took her two children by their 
hands, and went forth on the sea^ and she prayed in this wise, 
saying, ' O Lord God, the Almighty, the Father of our Lord 
Jesus the Christ, if Thou art pleased to make straight my 
way, grant that I may find an opportunity [of crossing the 
sea].' And as she was praying she looked up and saw a ship 
about to set sail on the sea, and this woman cried out unto 
those who were on the ship, ' Whither sail ye ? ' And they 

Fol. 41 a said unto her, ' We are going to the city | of Rakote.' And 

^^ she said unto them, ' If ye will take me with you I will pay 

you your passage money ' ; and they said unto her^ ' We will 

take thee.' Thereupon they took her into the ship, and 

set sail. 

And when they had sailed away from the land a distance 
of about twenty stadia a mighty storm rose up against the 
ship, and it was so violent that every one who was sailing in 


the ship was terrified. And that God-loving" woman said, 
' God will not hearken nnto a sinful woman like myself, but 
that which hath entered into my heart I will do.' And she 
arose, and stood up, and prayed [with her face] towards the 
east, saying" thus : ' O God, Who knowest everything" before 
it takcth place, Who knowest the heart of every one, and 
Who knowest the wish of my heart in respect of Thee, I do 
not wish for a husband, nor for the apparel which belongeth 
to this world, nor for possessions, but for my own so\il and 
the souls of my children. Behold, we are about to die in the 
sea. For Thy Holy Name's sake, O my Lord Jesus the 
Christ, Thou Saviour of my soul and spirit, look down upon 
me and upon my two orphan children, and have mercy upon 
us.' And when she had said these things she took a | 
butcher's knife in her right hand, and she thrust it out, and Fol. 41 b 
made the Sign of the Cross over it, and she stuck it into her Hn 
right breast, and drew forth therefrom three drops of blood, 
and she made the Sign of the Cross with it on the foreheads 
of her two sons and [on] their breasts, in the Name of the 
Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. And she dipped 
them three times in the sea, in the Name of the Holy Trinity, 
saying, ' In the Name of the Holy Trinity, Father, and Son, 
and Holy Spirit.' After these things she made her children 
lie in her bosom, saying, ' I may die, but let me die with my 
sons.' And God, the Master of the Universe, when He had 
seen her faith, stilled the storm, and there was a great calm. 

And within three days they arrived at Rakote. And by 
the help of God they came into Rakote on the day of pre- 
paration, on the fourth day of the week, on the Passover, 
whereon they are wont to baptize children according to the 
tradition of the Egyptians. And the woman saw that the 
whole city | was draped in white, and she asked what the matter Fol. 43 a 
was. And they told her, saying, 'All the Christians who are nc« 
living in the city are going to baptize their children to-morrow.' 
And she answered, saying, ' In truth God hath made straight 


my way.' Then she made her way to a certain deacon, and 
said unto him, ' My father, I wish to meet the Archbishop.' 
And he said unto her, ' What is thy business with the Arch- 
bishop ? ' And she said unto him, ' I am a stranger, and I 
want to baptize my children.' And the deacon said unto her, 
' Hast thou any other business with the Archbishop besides 
this ? ' And she said unto him, ' No, I have not.' And 
the deacon said unto her, ' If this be really the only thing for 
which thou wishest to meet the Archbishop then tarry thou 
here. For behold, the children of this city are to be baptized to- 
morrow^ and your own children shall be baptized with them.' 

And when the evening had come, and the Archbishop had 
finished Divine Service, he commanded them to bring to him 
the little children, and to make them ready for baptism. And 
Foi. 42 h when he had baptized them they brought in | the children 
n-x of the wife of the man of Antioch ; and God, Who alone 
worketh wonders, hid the matter from the Archbishop. And 
when he had taken hold of the little children to baptize them 
the water in the font congealed and became stone ; and when 
the Archbishop saw this he marvelled exceedingly, and he 
commanded [the ministrant] to put the children on one side. 
Then he ordered [him] to bring in to him the children of the 
natives of Eakote, and when he had begun to baptize them 
the water which was in the font assumed the form which it 
had usually. And he commanded [him] straightway to bring 
in again the children of the wife of the man of Antioch, and 
when he had done so the water in the font became like stone, 
even as before. And he commanded [him] to put the little 
children aside once more. And he ordered [him] to bring in 
the children of the natives of Rakote, and when he had 
brought them in [and the Archbishop began] to baptize them 
the water in the font assumed the form which it usually had. 
Then the Archbishop commanded [him] to bring in to him 
the children of the wife of the man of Antioch a third time, 
and straightway the water in the font congealed and became 


like stone. Then Saint Peter the Archbishop commanded 
the Archdeacon to bring into his presence the wife of the 
man of Antioch. 

And when she had been set in ] his presence the Archbishop Fol. 43 a 
said unto her, 'Tell me, What hath happened to thee? What, "*^ 
peradventure, hast thou done ? Of what religion art thou 
a follower? What city dost thou come from?' And the 
mother of the little children answered and said unto the 
Archbishop, ' I am a Christian, and my parents were 
Christians, and I am a woman of Antioch.' And the Arch- 
bishop answered and said unto her, ' Tell me what it is that 
thou hast done, for behold, God will not accept children in 
lieu of repentance.' And the woman said unto him, 
' Hearken unto me, my Lord and Father, in [thy] charity, 
for thou knowest the sufferings which exist in the world 
at this time, and especially in Antioch. Now my children 
grew up, and [as] I could not find an opportunity to have 
them baptized I said unto their father_, " Rise up, and let us 
[depart] to the city of Rakote, to the feet of thy holiness, and 
let us have our children baptized"; but he did not wish to do 
this, and he put before me also the dangers w^hich he said 
would befall me. And I rose up, and took my two sons by 
the hand, and I came out on the sea, and I found a ship 
coming to Rakote, and I embarked thereon with my children. 
And when we had come into the | middle of the sea the ship Fol^S b 
was in such terrible danger through a mighty storm that it "^^ 
wellnigh foundered. And I seized my two children, so that 
I might east myself into the sea with them and die with 
them, but the thought came into my heart, and I took 
a butcher's knife in my hand, and I cut my right breast and 
drew out from it three drops of blood. And I made the Sign 
of the Cross on their foreheads and their breasts, saying, " In 
the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." 
And I dipped them in the sea in the Name of the Holy 
Trinity. And it must in any case have been for this reason, 


O my Lord Father, that the Lord effected the salvation of 
myself and my children. Besides this I know of no other 
thing- which I have done.' 

And the Archbishop said unto the woman, ' Be of good 
cheer, my daug-hter, for it is to the Lord of truth that thou 
hast done [this] good thing. And He to Whom thou didst 
come when thou didst pierce thy right breast, and didst put 
the blood on the foreheads of thy sons, was He Whose side 
was pierced by the spear on the Cross. He it was Who made 
Foi. 44 a the Sign of the Cross | on thy sons with His own hand, and 

n^^ at the time when thou didst baptize them at sea it was our 
Lord Who did baptize them with His own hand.' And 
straightway the Archbishop set the children back so that he 
might not baptize them, and he only prayed over the woman 
and her children. And he preached this stimulating discourse 
on that very day, shewing forth the love for man and the 
gracious goodness of God. And he gave to the little children 
something of the Holy Mysteries, and he kept them under 
his charge until they had completed the Holy Easter. And 
afterwards he sent the woman away to her city with her 
children, in peace. 

And it came to pass that when her husband saw that she 
had returned to him, he set off and went to the lawless 
Emperor Diocletian, the most wicked man on all the earth, 
and he said unto him, ' Thou knowest that my wife played 
the harlot in this town^ and I would not support her. 
When she saw that I would not support her she rose up 
and departed to Rakote, to the feet of that contemptible 
Fol. 44 h Peter. And she hath | played the whore there with the 

flH people with baptism, and she hath also taught the children 
mysteries which are unclean. And, behold, it is many days 
since she went away, and now she hath come back again. 
What now dost thou wish me to do, O my lord the king?' 
And the Emperor said unto him, ' Zokrator, who is it that 
doeth these things in Rakote ? ' And Zokrator said, ' It is 


Peter, whom men call " Archbishop "\ And when the 
Emperor heard [this] he was filled with indig-nation, for he 
had been wroth with the holy man Peter since the time 
when he read his discoui-se concerning- idols, the which [also] 
he preached. And he sent a tribune and soldiers into Rakote 
to cut off the head of Saint Peter, 

And the wife of Zokrator commanded [them] to bring- her 
and her two sons [before the Emperor]. And when they had 
brought her before him, he said unto her, ' O woman, why 
didst thou leave thy husband, and didst go and commit 
fornication with the Christians ? ' And the martyr answered 
one word only, ' The Christians do not commit fornication, 
neither do they worship idols ; now therefore, whatsoever 
thou wishest to do, that do. And I have no desire to hear 
mention made of them (i. e. Christians) | by thy mouth.' And Fol. 45 a 
the Emperor said unto her, ' Shew me what took place among TTO 
them ' ; bnt the woman made no answer to him whatsoever. 
Aud the Emperor was furious, and he commanded [his 
soldiers] to tie her hands and her feet behind her, and then to 
lift up her two children on her body, and to burn them 
together. And she turned her face towards the east, and 
yielded up her spirit (?). 

Now ye see, O my beloved, that God always hath a man 
who doeth what He wisheth at all times. He (i. e. the 
writer of the text) saith, ' She turned her face towards the 
east, and yielded up her spirit straightway,' because her holy 
heart was always looking towards the east. For the trees 
which were created in Paradise were in the east, and the 
Devil brought Adam out therefrom through envy, because 
when God Himself had made man [the angels] became 
jealous of him through the Devil ; but God shall take us 
back again [into Paradise] through His holy Blood which He 
hath poured out for our sakes. The true east is that which 
hath risen from the House of David. For a star shall rise 
in Jacob, that is to say, the star which the Magi saw in the 


Fol. 45 6east when they were bringing- unto the Christ their | gifts, 
^ which were indicated aforetime by the prophet. Let us 
then, we who are in the darkness and shadow of death, know 
the east ! 

I think now, O Christ-loving congregation, that what we 
have now said must suffice. Ye have shewn love according 
to the measure of discipleship, for we are all disciples of the 
(jreat, True Master, our Lord and Saviour, to Whom be 
glory, and to the Father with Him, and to the Holy Spirit, 
life-giving and consubstantial, now, and always, for ever. 


(Brit. Mus. MS. Oriental, No. 6783) 


SuPFERiNG compelleth me to speak, and un worthiness for 
undertaking" the task urg-eth me to hold my peace. Again 
the grief which is in my heart tortureth me to make me 
speak, and my sins lay on me the charge to keep silence. 
Now therefore, since I am fast held by both [desires], it is 
better to make myself to speak than to make myself to keep 
silence. I will speak so that I may obtain respite from the 
pain which is in my heart ; my soul causeth me tribulation, 
and my eyes shed tears. O who is there that will pour water 
into my head, and a fountain of tears j into mine eyes, so Fol. 4ti a 
that I may weep by day and by night for the wound which is ^^ 
in my soul, and which is caused by the fact that the word 
of instruction hath ceased to prevail in our time, and that 
inasmuch as we are in a state of ignorance our sins have 
multiplied? For pride permitteth us not to know the things 
which are upon us, so that we may cease to commit sin. 

The teaching and the words of wisdom of our fathers send 
forth light, even as doth the light-giver of the heavens, 
because their lives and conversation were filled with every 
kind of excellence, and this notwithstanding the fact that 
there were among them thorns and tares (I mean the 
Greeks and the heretics who lived in their times), and they 
were glorious, even like unto precious stones of great price. 
And again, because of their words of truth and their [noble] 
lives and conversation, their enemies, and those who hated 

3 G 


them, were jealous of them. For who in contemplating- their 
humility would not have pity upon them ? Or who in con- 
templating* them in their meekness and humility, and in 
their tranquillitvj would not be puzzled thereat ? Or who in 
contemplating- their detestation of riches doth not hate the 
world ? What plunderer, or what arrogant man is there, who, 

Fol. 46 5 in contemplating the holiness of their lives, will not | betake 
^^ himself to what is excellent ? Or what whoremonger is there, 
or what impure man, who, when he seeth them standing- in 
prayer, will not become good and pure ? What man of wrath 
is there, or what timid man, who, when he meeteth them, will 
not transfer [to himself] straig-htway their humility? They 
contended mightily in this world, and they [now] rejoice 
and are glad in the everlasting east, and God acquireth glory 
through them, and very many men are edified by them. 

And our teaching (or, direction) hath ceased to proceed on 
the paths which are straight and easy, and it walketh on the 
ways which cause affliction and pain. For no man at this 
time abandoneth his possessions for the sake of God, and no 
man arrangeth his life here for the sake of that which is for 
ever. There is no meek man now, neither is there any man 
who is humble. There is no man now who can bear to 
suffer ignominy and contempt. Neither is there any man who 
can endure being treated with derision. For we have all 
become men without any [right] feeling in us. We have 
all become men of wrath. We have become lazy and 
slothful. We have become envious. We have all of us 
become proud and arrogant. We all seek after fine and 
gorgeous apparel. We are boasters. We are lovers of vain 
glory. We are lovers of comfort. For he who cometh | 

i'olil a among the brethren, instead of letting them teach him, 

'^I'^ wisheth to give instruction to the others, and wisheth to 

impart knowledge before he hath acquired properly that 

knowledge for himself. He wisheth to expound the law 

before he hath learned the law thoroughly. He wisheth to 


pose as a philosojjher before he hath learned the letters. He 
wisheth to make them submit to him before he hath learned 
to rule himself. He wisheth to giv^e orders [to others] 
before he hath learned to command himself. He who hath 
attained to the full heig-ht of his stature g-iveth [his] orders 
with authority, but he who is still a child giveth vague orders 
and contradicteth himself. If a wealthy man cometh in 
among the brethren he demandeth to be treated with great 
honour, and if a poor man cometh in among the brethren 
he looketh for a life of ease, the which he hath never known. 
If he hath been a workman in the world he will minister to 
his body most carefully and diligently so that it may become 
refined ; and he will make his hands to become soft. 

O my beloved brethren, who will not weep when he seeth 
that our instruction doth not increase ? Those who have sub- 
dued the world continue to think of the things which belong 
to the world. And those who desire them most of all are 
those who say, ' We have subdued [ouv desires] for the things 
of earth,' and those who make most use of the things of the 
earth are they who say^ ' We are spiritually-minded.' They 
think upon the things of the flesh in the thoughts of [their] 
hearts. O brethren, do ye not know the matter whereto we 
are invited ? O brethren, do ye not know the honour whereto 
we have come ? We are invited to abstinence, ] and yet we Fol. 47 6 
seek after delicate foods. We have come in naked, and we '^J'^ 
devote our care to rich and dainty apparel. We have come 
in to suffer with our Lord, and we seek after a life easy in 
every respect. We have come to be in subjection, and we 
all refuse to submit. We are all of us deaf when we are 
invited to meekness, and humility, and prudence. And w^e all 
act savagely towards each other. We cry out, but we do not 
understand the things w^hich we are crying out. We listen, 
but the words do not enter into the ears of our heart. If 
a man cometh upon a dead man on the roadside his face 
changeth its colour, and his heart palpitateth. Let us see 


and let us hear the words of the apostles who died and of 
the prophets who were stoned^ and instead of weeping- and 
sig-hing- let us laugh and make merry, and let us hav^e no 
feeling" of sorrow at all in the matter. 

We hear every day concerning the Word of God, that they 
persecuted Him, and treated Him with contempt, and 
scourged Him, and hung Him upon a Cross, and crucified 
Him, and wounded Him, and put Him to death, and that 

Fol. 48 ft He died for our sins. And notwithstanding these things | we 
^\^ are in no wise afraid ; on the contrary, our hearts go astray, 
and we remain in a state of carelessness, and we laugh at our 
anxieties. [And yet] the sun could not endure the contempt 
shewn to its Lord, for it was filled with grief, and withdrew 
its light, and there was darkness, hut we ourselves do not 
wish to turn our hearts from the darkness to the light. 
The veil of His temple had committed no sin whatsoever, 
and yet it was rent down the middle thereof, but we our- 
selves do not wish to move our hearts, nor to weep for 
our sins. If the earth were to quake beneath us times 
without number, and tremble before the face of the Lord, 
still we should never be afraid, and we should continue 
to remain disobedient to the Lord. Similarly, if the earth 
were to open and to swallow up cities, and to bury them 
entirely because of the wrath of God, we should not be 
afraid. Similarly, if the sun were to hide itself times without 
number, and were to become dark at midday, and the dark- 
ness were to envelop us at noontide, still we should not be 
afraid, and our hearts would never feel troubled concerning it. 
And we should not be disturbed at the wars which break out 
with the Persians, and with the other barbarians, wherein 

Fol. 48 6 they slay men, and invade their territories, and lay waste j the 

■^^^ earth, and pour out blood in very large quantities. If we saw 

them [doing this] we should not be afraid, and flee to the feet 

of God with tears and repentance, and because of these things 

we should not turn aside from our evil ways. 


O brethren, let us repent, lest the wrath of God fall upon 
ns. O brethren, let us cast ourselves down on the ground, 
and let us weep, so that we may do away the wrath of (jod, 
and that He may forgive us, for we have provoked Him to 
wrath. O brethren, let us humble our souls with fasting and 
with sorrow, and with vigils by night, and let us walk in the 
truth, that He may shew compassion upon us, and may fill 
the earth with joy. Let us mourn, so that the Holy Spirit 
may comfort us and may make us lift ourselves up in gladness. 
Let us cast away from us our evil habits. Let us array 
ourselves in the virtues of goodness, especially we who have 
been made to be worthy of the conversation (or, citizenship) 
of the angels. Let us lay down for ourselves the measure 
and canon of g-oodness. Let us emulate the life of our 
fathers, and first of all let us continue in patient endurance. 
Let us not work hard to-day j so that we may relax our Fol. 49 « 
efforts to-morrow. Let us not walk to-day wishing for ^^^ 
a covering for the top of the foot, lest we come to-morrow 
to ask for a beautiful sandal to cover the sole thereof. Let 
us not put on our bodies to-day a shoulder-covering or a piece 
of sacking, or to-morrow we shall certainly ask for a fine 
shirt made of soft and dainty stuff. Walk not to-day with 
excessive prudence, or to-morrow thou wilt certainly walk to 
destruction. Walk not to-day blindly obedient, or to-morrow 
thou wilt certainly be disobedient, and thou wilt be troubled 
with obstinacy or contradictoriness. Walk not to-day humbly 
and in lowlymindedness, or to-morrow thou wilt walk con- 
ceitedly and arrogantly. Be not to-day in a state of weeping 
and mourning for thy sins, or to-morrow thou wilt certainly 
be over-confident, and thou wilt walk with over-boldness, 
and with the laughter which ariseth from folly. Do not sleep 
on the ground to-day, and to-morrovv' sleep in some bed which 
is high above the ground. 

I adjure you, O my brethren, to do none of these things, 
but make moderation your guide, and set a fixed measure to 


your patient endurance and to your perseverance, in order 
that ye may be able to fulfil your lives in the manner which 
is pleasing unto God, And then each one of you shall be 

Fol. 49 b of use I to his neighbour in every way, and ye shall be able to 

^^ mortify your bodies by your asceticism, and to help your 

fathers and your brethren according- to God. Hear what the 

Lord spake, saying, ' According to what ye wish that men 

should do unto you, even so do ye yourselves do.' ^ 

O my beloved one, do thou persevere in thy good work, 
and thou shalt be strong therein, and shalt not remove thyself 
from it. For our fathers made perfect their perfectness, and 
they persevered in one rule, and the work which they began 
they completed in patient endurance. There were some who 
passed forty or fifty years without changing the manner of 
their good life of continence. They ceased to make changes 
in what they ate and drank, they kept a firm hold on their 
tongue, they slept upon the ground, they walked in humility, 
and gentleness, and faith, and love, and singleness of heart. 
They loved their neighbours, which is the bond of spiritual 
perfection. After all these things there remained to them 

Fol 50 a nothing more upon the earth, j and they withdrew from the 
qe care (or, anxiety) of this life, and they devoted themselves 
most strenuously to prayer, and to vigils by night, with tears 
and groanings. Their bodies became unto them at need 
things of the greatest utility. They trampled upon pride, 
they suppressed wrath, gold and silver became strange things 
unto them, and through their sufferings and their tribulations 
they became purified from every evil thing. Therefore God 
took up His abode in them, and He received glory from them, 
and every one who became acquainted with them, and those 
who heard concerning them, were wont to praise them and to 
ascribe glory to God. 

Let us then emulate them, and let us forsake every evil 
thing [and] those things which God hateth, so that when we 
1 Matt. vii. 12. 


have made ourselves pure God may dwell in us, and deliver 
us from the Evil One. Consider now the following- matter 
carefully. If a man were to thrust thee into the mud, and 
wished to leave thee in the mire, wouldst thou not cling- 
to him? If now, thou who art a worm, art not able to 
endure this [mire], how is it possible for God, Who is spotless, 
and without blemish, and holy, to dwell within thee when 
thou art | immersed in the mire of filth and corruption? Fol. 50 ?< 
Let us then purify ourselves, O my beloved, so that God may P 
take up His abode in us, and let us make ourselves to be like 
unto Him. Disgrace not His Holy Name, which hath been 
proclaimed over us, for we are called ' Christians ' after the 
Name of Christ. Let us walk in truth, for those who love 
the Christ [among us] in them shall the Holy Spirit dwell. 
And in the place wherein the Christ dwelleth there is freedom. 
Let us be sober, for we know that He hath invited us to His 
wedding feast. Let us love Him as He hath loved us. Let 
us strive in everything so that we may be worthy of His 
bridal chamber. Let us not be careless about our apparel and 
allow it to become soiled, lest they bind us in fetters and cast 
us forth from the wedding chamber, and pass judgement 
upon us for two offences, namely, though we have come forth 
from the world, we still meditate on the things of the world, 
and though we flee from the things which appertain to the 
flesh, we yet seek after bodily ease and comfort. Do not 
these things, O my beloved, but remember that the day of 
the Lord cometh like a thief. 

Let us be afraid lest that day [ come upon us suddenly (or, FoI. 51 » 
unexpectedly), and we are found to be naked, and in a pd. 
miserable state. For it shall come suddenly, and we shall 
not know how to repent ; and it shall be even as he saith, 
' In the days of Noah they were eating, and drinking, and 
marrying wives, and living together, and they knew nothing 
until the flood came and destroyed them all.' ^ Let us then 
1 Matt. xxiv. 37 ; Luke xvii. 26. 


have fear within ourselves, O my beloved, and let us be pre- 
pared, lest it (i. e. the day of the Lord) come upon us, and we 
be unprepared, and there shall be no help for us. The day is 
drawing- nig-h, and the thing-s which are written shall be 
fulfilled, and they shall come to an end, and then there shall 
be nothing left except the works of Antichrist. For needs 
must that his wickedness be completed, when the Roman 
Empire shall have come to an end. 

Already, already, He Who shall come is coming-, and He 
shall not tarry. Let no man who wisheth to reig-n with 
the King-, the Christ, shew himself careless in respect of 
Him, for the time draweth nig-h, according to that which is 
written in the Apocalypse. Therefore let him that wisheth 
to escape the fire of Gehenna and the worm which sleepeth 
not struggle strenuously ; let him have fear in his heart, 
and let him keep vigil. Let him that wisheth to be consoled 
[in the next world] sorrow in this ; let him that wisheth for 
an exalted state in the kingdom which is in the heavens 
Fol. £1 b humble himself now, in this world. | Let him that wisheth to 
p6 rejoice with the angels weep now, in this world. Be sober, 
let your lamps burn brightly, put oil in your flasks. Let 
your apparel be splendid. Watch. Sleep not at the wrong- 
time (or, even for a moment). Enter into the chamber of 
the Bridegroom, which is full of joy and gladness for ever. 
For the city of the King, the true Bridegroom, which is full 
of every kind of good thing, is the Jerusalem of heaven ; it 
is full of light, there is no darkness therein, and therein is the 
fountain which is filled with the water of life. Whosoever 
wisheth to dwell therein with the King, the Christ, let him 
make haste to prepare himself. For the time is becoming 
less, the day is declining, and there is nothing whereby he 
can know what shall happen unto him. Let us not sleep, 
lest He shut the door in our faces, and say, ' I know you not,' 
and there come upon us a black cloud, and earthquake, and 
thunders, and thunderbolts (?), and lightnings, and tribula- 


tions on every side of us, and we shall have no place whither 
to make our escape. 

O my brethren, let us repent, and let us not be judged [in] 
the Judgement of God. Hearken unto the Collector of 
Proverbs who spake, saying, 'When j tribulation cometh Fol. 52 a 
upon you, and would return, it shall happen that ye shall P^ 
call upon me, but I will not hearken unto you. For I called 
unto you, and ye would not hearken unto me, and I sent 
abroad my words, but ye paid no attention to them.' ^ Let 
us then hearken unto the Lord. Let us recognize that we are 
sojourners.'^ Let us use our earnest endeavours to enter into 
our own city. And, O brethren, we are spiritual merchants. 
Let us acquire for ourselves the precious Stone, the Pearl,^ the 
Christ Jesus. Woe be unto the man who shall not acquire it 
for himself, for such a man, in my opinion, handeth himself 
over to destruction. O brethren, is it possible that ye do not 
know that we are branches of the True Vine,* the Christ, and 
that the Father of the Christ is the Husbandman ? Take 
heed then, O brethren, lest any one of you remain without 
fruit. But know ye that it is the Father Who cultivateth 
the vine, and those branches which yield fruit He doth 
cleanse, so that the vine may bring forth still more fruit. 
Those branches which yield not fruit He striketh off from the 
vine, so that He may burn them in the fire. 

Let us then look | to ourselves, O brethren, lest we become Fol. 52!) 
careless, and we produce no fruit, and we become cut off from P*^ 
the vine, and we become strangers to the Christ, and are cast 
into Gehenna wherein is the fire which is unquenchable. 
And, O my brethren, we arc the good seed which the Lord 
of the earth, the Christ, east into His field. Let us know 
then, and let ns understand, that the harvest is drawing 
nigh, and that the reapers are ready for the harvest for which 
they wait by the command of God. Let us look to it then 

1 Prov. i. 24-30. ^ 1 Pet. i. 17 ; ii. 11. 

^ Matt. xiii. 46. * John xv. 1. 

3 H 


that we do not allow tares to fall among- us, for [if we do] 
they will tie us in bundles for the fire. Is it possible that ye 
do not know, O brethren, that we are bound to sail over 
the sea which is full of terror ? Therefore I am afraid lest 
a g-ale of wind spring- up suddenly, and we be seized thereby, 
and buffeted thereby, and we be irresistibly driven onwards 
on its wings and borne to the Valley of Judg-ement, when 
we shall be unable to find an apology. And whilst we are 
weeping there over our careless indifference we shall see 
others who are glad, and who are exulting and rejoicing. As 
for us they will drag us away down to Amente, and to 
tribulations, and sufferings, and sorrow of heart, and bitter 

Fol. 53 a sighings, ( because of our careless indifference and our supine- 
p€ ness, inasmuch as we had not prepared ourselves before these 
troubles overtook us. 

Let us then be not careless, O brethren, for the Judgement 
of God is an awful thing. Let us not permit the passion of 
the flesh to make us strang-ers to the city of the Christ, and 
to cast us away from the chamber of the Brideg-room, lest 
we fall down into the place of weeping and the gnashing- of 
teeth. On the contrary, let us be sober,, O brethren, and let us 
know that we have taken upon ourselves the garb of monkhood. 
Let us not permit ourselves to fall under the passions of the 
flesb, and allow them to have dominion over us. The amuse- 
ments of dissipation, and idle pleasures, and effeminate games 
and pastimes are manifest among us because we are destitute 
of the glory of God. Similarly, mad lusts and desires for the 
vain and foolish things of this life are manifest among us 
because we seek after the things which are polluted. The love 
of money and pride are manifest among us because we do not 
love God. Envy and jealousy indicate that the love of God is 
not in us. The flesh, which, is tender and delicate by reason of 
frequent bathings and anointings^ appeareth in us because we 

Foi. 53 b love passions, and because we are the slaves | of polluted 
pc things. Our mouth is open, and we are never silent, and 


[we utter] what words we please; whether they are g-ood 
or bad we pour them out without sparing-. We never pay 
attention to what is written, ^In the multiplicity of words 
thou canst not escape from sin.' ^ Whilst we are in this 
condition all is vain, and the garb of the monk cannot 
benefit us ; on the contrary, so long as our hearts are fixed 
upon these works in this way, only the emptiness of our 
foolish pleasures will follow us. 

O monk, put not thy confidence in thy garb, but know 
that thou art a stranger to the things of heaven, and that 
thy soul appeareth in a naked condition. But perad venture 
there will be some one who will say, ' The passions of the body 
are natural, and the man who becometh a servant unto them 
is without blame.' Watch carefully, O brother, that thou 
dost not bring an accusation against thyself Thou resemblest 
that which was created by the Good God, and the unnatural 
things [exist] because of thy wishes and thine acts of care- 
lessness ; for all the beings whom God hath created are 
exceedingly good. He hath adorned their natural persons 
with beauty, and He hath given unto man suitable needs, 
and good powers and faculties for labour. Now, according- 
to nature, a man | feeleth an hung-ered, and when he eateth in FoI. 5i 
moderation he is blameless ; but if he eateth with gluttonous p'^ 
immoderation he becometh liable to blame. And yet hunger 
is a natural thing ! Similarly, when a man feeleth thirsty, 
he is blameless, so long as he drinketh in moderation ; but if 
he taketh to drinking and swilling- at all times men will 
blame him. Now thirst is a natural thing, but to be swilling 
always is unnatural. And if a man slcepeth sufficient to 
satisfy his natural want he is blameless ; but if he sleepeth 
overmuch there is no credit therein, for he doeth great injury 
to his ow^n body. He giveth himself into the power of the 
passion for sleep, and he delivereth himself over to phantasies 
through careless indifference. If the custom of sleeping 

1 Prov. X. 19. 


overmuch become firmly rooted in him, it will become the 
master of his natural faculty of sleep. For nature and custom 
(or, habit) are preachers of two distinct kinds ; nature mani- 
festeth itself as a servant, but custom manifesteth itself as an 
act of deliberate choice, and man standeth between them. 

Fol. 54 h The act of deliberate choice is its own master, | and it is like 
PH unto a husbandman who planteth evil habits in the natural 
body, as well as the virtues which are excellent, and who 
planteth what is evil according- as it pleaseth him. Thus 
also is it in the case of hunger, and in the case of thirst like- 
wise. In the matter of thirst [there is] swilling-. In the 
matter of sleep [there is] great destruction [of the body] 
if the sleep be too heavy. Moreover, in the sight of the eyes 
[there is] the evil thought, and in truth there is also the 
habit of theft. And he planteth the virtues which are 
excellent in a similar manner. Thus in the case of thirst 
there is patient endurance. In the case of sleep there is the 
nightly vigil. In the case of theft there is the practice of 
honesty. In the case of the sight of the eyes there is temper- 
ance. Thus the act of deliberate choice is like unto a 

For this act of deliberate choice, by the turning of the 
eyes, either stablisheth evil habits or planteth the virtues, 
which are excellent, according as he willeth, and it can 
overcome nature. For nature is like unto a parcel of ground 
which is cultivated, and the husbandman thereof is the act 
of deliberate choice. And Holy Scripture teacheth us and 
instructeth us what are the evil habits which deserve to be 
pulled up by their roots, and what are the excellent virtues 

Fol. 55 a which it is meet to plant, and to cultivate, j so that they may 
P^ prosper. For the husbandman who knoweth not the power 
of the Scriptures is himself powerless, and he is also a 
simpleton, because the law-giving of the Scriptures giveth 
strength and understanding. It bestoweth the virtues of 
excellence from its own branches according to rule, it giveth 


unto him good faith to plant in his unbelieving' [soil], and 
hope when he is in a state of want of confidence (or, in- 
credulity), and love when in a state of hatred, and under- 
standing w^hen in a state of ignorance, and diligence when in 
a state of carelessness, [and] honour and glory. He Who 
suffered planted immortality and Godhead in His manhood. 
And if our husbandman, that is to say, the act of deliberate 
choice, casteth behind him his Master who teacheth him, 
that is to say, the Holy Scriptures, he will find himself led 
astray, and he will come into evil thoughts which will gather 
round about him evil habits, and he will plant them in his 
nature, which was not intended to receive them. And these 
are they : Unbelief, Despair about thyself, Hatred, Envy, 
Love of vainglory, [ the Lust of the belly, Luxuriousness, Fol. 55 b 
Contradictoriness, Strife, and the things w^hich are like unto P'' 
these. For these things shall come upon him because he 
hath forsaken the Law-giver. 

And [when] he repenteth he must blame himself, and 
make haste and cast himself down before the Law-giver, and 
say, shedding tears as he doeth so, ' I have sinned, for I have 
cast thee behind me.' Then straightway the Law-giver will 
receive him gladly, in His abundant love for nian, and He 
will give unto him a good understanding, and strength to 
enable him to work the field of nature once again. He shall 
remove the evil habits therefrom, and wall give unto him 
the virtues which are chosen and excellent to plant in the 
place of the evil things, and He wall give unto him crowns 
and honours in abundance. He shall sufier hunger according 
to nature, but shall endure it with patience ; he shall feel 
desire, bu.t shall be able to resist it (?) ; sleep shall oppress 
him heavily, but he shall contend against it during the 
night of vigil ; he will sing unwillingly, but he will open 
his mouth and bless God with a vigorous voice. They shall 
give him a crown for this, and at the same time pay 
him honours ; a crown because he strove earnestly and van- 


Fo!. 56 a. quished nature, and | honours because he acquired the virtues 
pi*>- of excellence. 

Now let us ascribe g"lory to God because of the love which 
He hath shewn to man, and let us bless Him, and let us make 
manifest to all His goodness, and let us cast ourselves down 
and worship His g'racious compassion. For what father would 
ever shew forth such compassion as this ? Or, what father is 
there who loveth his son in the way wherein the Lord loveth 
us, who are His servants ? He hath gTaciousI j bestowed upon 
us multitudes of gifts, He hath ruled us in majesty, He hath 
forgiven us in mercy, and He hath healed the wounds of our 
souls compassionately, and yet we, who are unpardonable, have 
wholly disregarded Him. He hath shewn long-suffering 
towards us, and hath not cast us behind Him, for He wisheth 
to save every one, and to make them cease from their sins, so 
that they may inherit His kingdom. For He hath in His 
goodness healed all the sicknesses which have afflicted us. 
The lazy and inert man He hath made eager and zealous, and 

Fol. 56 6 He hath made him | to learn a few^ hymns and psalms. The 
pjg sinner He hath urged to repent, and He hath forgiven him, 
and given him joy of heart in virtue by means of weeping 
and humility. The w^eak man He hearkeneth unto very 
swiftly in order that his courage may not fail him, and upon 
those who endure patiently He graciously bestoweth the gift 
of the Spirit, and He giveth honour to them all as the wages 
of their sufl'erings. It is quite possible for Him to draw us 
to Him [on] wings, but He doth not wish to make our act of 
deliberate choice to become unfruitful. O what a Good God 
is this God ! O what a Lover of man is this God ! O how 
indescribable is this God! And yet we treat Him with con- 
tempt and are careless in seeking after Him, our Lord, Who 
created us^, and loved us, and gave Himself for us, and are 
sluggish in invoking Him ! He hath redeemed us. He hath 
helped us, He hath illumined the eyes of our understanding, 
He hath set prudence in our hearts, He hath made us to taste 


the delight of His love, which is sweet at all times. Blessed 
is the man who shall be filled with His love, and over whom 
no other wish of the heart hath dominion. | 

Hearken now unto me, O my brethren, my beloved. What Fol. 57 a 
wise man is there who would not love such a God as this ? P*'^ 
Who is there who would not worship Him, and acknowledge 
Him ? I beseech and I entreat you that ye be not careless in 
ascribing blessing to this merciful God. If we are careless 
and indifferent, O [my] God-loving [brethren], what apology 
therefor shall we make in the Day of Judgement, or what 
shall we say ? Shall we say that we did not hear, or that we 
did not know, or that we had never been informed [about 
Him] ? Woe ! Woe ! Twofold and manifold shall be the 
woe that shall come upon us. For He saith, ' Voices are 
heard in the Valley of Judgement.' ^ And what voices are 
these, O my brethren, except weeping and gnashing of teeth ? 
What thing is there which our Lord did not do for us when 
He was in the bosom of His Father ? Did not He Who was 
in the height that is indescribable humble Himself, and come 
down to us? Did not He Who was invisible make Himself 
visible for our sakes? Did not the Immortal Word take 
flesh and taste death for us ? Was not He Who payeth 
honour to every one treated with contempt ? Was not He 
smitten on His face for our sakes, that He might make us 
free ? O how full of terror is this miracle ! A hand made of 
mud, a hand of clay, a hand of dust and ashes, which was 
fashioned | out of the earth, dared to thrust itself into the Fol. 57 // 
Face of Christ, Who fashioned the heavens and the earth, and pi"^ 
He endured it with humility ! And j^et we, wretched and 
miserable creatures that we are, and made of dust and ashes, 
cannot bear even speech from each other. This God Who 
was spotless, did not He taste death, and was He not buried in 
the tomb for our sakes so that He might raise us up ? 

Did not He break the fetters of the Enemy, and bind him, 
^ Compare Matt. xiii. 49, 50. 


and deliver him over into our hands for us to make a mock 
of him, and g-ive us the power to trample upon him ? When 
we cried out unto Him, on what day did He not hearken 
unto us ? And if we hesitated a little He was willing- to 
increase our wag-es. Hearken, O beloved brother, I speak 
to thee. O monk, tell me wherefore didst thou set thyself 
apart from the world, if thou seekest again for the pleasant 
things of the world ? Thou wilt neither answer me nor wilt 
thou be sober. Dost thou not know that thou art invited to 
Foi. 58 a tribulations, and afflictions, and | hunger, and thirst, and cold, 
P*^ and nakedness ? Thou art invited, O beloved, to prayings, 
and nights of vigil, and weepings, and sighings. And yet, 

brother, thou goest on amid jestings, and lewdness, and 
laughter, and thou sparest not thy mouth and thine eyes, 
and thou lookest not into thy heart. 

Remember, therefore, that thou hast been invited to a 
heavenly inheritance, and yet thou behavest like a madman 
through thy stupidity, and thinkest about the things which 
belong to earth ! But what wilt thou say in the Day of 
Judgement? Will not the Righteous Judge say unto thee, 
' Did I not suffer for thy sake ? I suffered hunger for thee, 

1 was thirsty, and they made Me drink vinegar. I was naked 
on the Cross. I g"ave My soul for thee.' ^ Were not these 
words written for thee, O brother ? Or dost thou not know 
fhat all creation shall stand before the throne of the Christ, and 
that they all shall be judged on account of everything* which 
they have forg-otten, both g-ood and bad ? They shall set us 

Fol. 58 !. in the midst of | thousands of thousands, and tens of thousands 
P**^ of angels and archangels, and all the saints shall stand round 
about Him. In that hour thou shalt not be able to lie. 
Watch carefully, then, O monk, and make not thy judgement 
to be double upon thee, and thyself to be ashamed of thy 
evil actions. But I exhort thee to rise up out of sleep, and 
to cast thy forgetfulness behind thee, and to prepare thyself 
1 Compare Matt. iv. 2; xxvii. 34. 


before the Judg-ement of God [comefch]. Know thoa tliat it 
hath drawn nig-h, that the day hath turned, and that the 
hour is at hand. Know too that thou didst see our brethren 
with us yesterday, and that to-day they are not, for their 
Lord required them, and they departed. Consider yesterday 
and to-day, how they have passed away like a pretty flower 
or like a swift runner ; even so are our days, and yet we do 
not know it. Blessed is the man who shall make himself 
ready, for he shall receive the life which is for ever ! 

Hearken unto me, O beloved one. Hitherto thou hast 
been carelessly indifferent, hitherto thou hast occupied thyself 
with the cares of thing-s material, althoug-h this world is only 
like unto a place wherein to sojourn. Now, however, take 
good heed, and j decide what it is that thou wilt send to Fol. 59 a 
heaven before thee. I exhort thee not to depart in a con- P^S 
dition of emptiness, but to send a g'ift on before thee. Send 
on a prayer full of tears, send on alms and oblations [obtained 
by] the labours of thy hands, send on nights of vigil [filled] 
with psalms and hymns, send on belief and truth to the God 
Who hath loved thee. If thou hast sent on before thee 
things like unto these then be of good cheer, for thou shalt 
depart into a place of everlasting rest. If, however, thou 
hast not sent on before thee any one of the things which 

I have enumerated, and if Do not irritate 

thy brother, and do not treat him arrogantly. And why dost 
thou take thought beyond measure concerning apparel, and 
raiment, and food ? O brother, thou takest oaths, thou 
utterest lies^ and thou shewest thyself hard and grasping 
in thy buying and selling ; shall not He Who feedeth the 
birds and the beasts feed thee by His forethought and by 
the fruit of thy hands? Do not act in this manner, O monk, 
but take heed that thou mayest become an heir of God ; and, 
if thou wert, wouldst thou then take care for the material 
things of this world ? j Thou sayest, in accordance with thy Fol. 59 b 
garb, 'I have died to the world,' and then thou lettest thy piH 

3 I 


mind dwell upon the thing-s of the world ! Why dost thou 
deceive thyself alone ? Why dost thou make thyself a slave 
unto thyself? The season for repentance hath been set before